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The Macleamy Curve (2004)  

The Macleamy Curve (2004)  

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In recent years, new technologies have emerged that promise to deliver efficiency, cost savings, and productivity increases to the commercial construction industry; building information modeling (BIM), and integrated project delivery (IPD) are such technologies. The literature is overwhelmingly positive with respect to the potential of BIM and/or I...

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... process, shifting design decisions to earlier times in the process and redefining the industry accepted definitions. Pre- design becomes Conceptualization, Schematic Design becomes Criteria Design, Design Development becomes Detailed Design, and Construction Documents become Implementation Documents (AIA, 2007). The Macleamy Curve (refer to Fig. 4) visually represents this shift in timing and altered classification of design phases. The single most important change with IPD is the forward shift of work volume to earlier stages of design. Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management, 2012, 2(1), ...

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... Especially in the design phase, where more frequent changes are made, aspects of cybersecurity become very important. One tool that makes the IPD process more robust and efficient is BIM (Ilozor & Kelly, 2012). ...
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... As a result, all parties should agree to multi-agreements to determine the appropriate compensation percentage for the project. The integration of BIM with IPD, according to [15], can improve overall outcomes of the design and construction processes because it is linked to numerous characteristics, such as cost/profit, schedule, safety, productivity, and relationships. Qiqi L. [16] offered extensive models for material, equipment, and labor cash outflows using 5D BIM capabilities; however, the delivery strategy features were not examined. ...
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The Integrated Project Delivery method (IPD) is a contractual framework that features enhanced collaboration, risk and reward sharing under a single contract among the major project parties. This delivery method is gaining popularity in the US and other parts of the world, due to its proven results in efficient risk and cost sharing. Despite that, no significant investigations have been made to address the adaptability of the Middle East construction sector to the IPD delivery system. The objective of this research is to investigate the level of preparedness Middle Eastern markets have for adoption of the IPD delivery system. First, a thorough literature review was carried out to identify common barriers and enablers of applying IPD in construction. Second, a survey was carried out to assess and rank such barriers and enablers as they specifically apply to the Middle East construction sector. Third, through structured interviews with contract experts, strategies and guidelines were devised to be used by Middle East owners, consultants, and contractors who have the intention to implement the IPD delivery method in their projects. Finally, a thorough comparison was made between two major Middle Eastern countries, Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), in terms of IPD application. The findings reveal that the main barriers to implementing IPD stem from cultural resistance to the new system and lack of knowledge about it. The subsequent strategies outlined by the research are expected to help the construction industry in the Middle East gain more depth of knowledge about the benefits and application of IPD.
... In terms of the third category, contract, the multi or poly-party characteristics were selected due to some authors (e.g., Fischer et al., 2017;AIA California Council, 2014;Ashcraft, 2010) declarations that as the parties are bound together by a single agreement the processes are tailored to support the team environment as well as the compensations are tied to the project, not individual success. In terms of the fourth category, BIM, the characteristics single 3D virtual model and built-in estimating features were selected due to some authors (e.g., Azhar et al., 2014;Ilozor and Kelly, 2011;Ashcraft, 2008) opinions that the software can join all areas and systems into a single virtual model, allowing all project members to develop an accurate and efficient project through collaboration. ...
... Table I demonstrate an instant of the barriers acknowledged in the journals reviewed. Low computer skills among some of the professionals in the construction industry (Ozorhon and Karahan, 2016;Chen et al., 2015;Ilozor and Kelly, 2012;Ray and Firdaus, 2020;Olanrewaju et al., 2020;Jin et al., 2017;Azhar et al., 2012;Al-Ashmori et al., 2020;McAuley et al., 2012;Chan et al., 2019;Eastman et al., 2011;McAdam, 2010;Rezgui et al., 2011;Karakurt, 2019;Puolitaival and Forsythe, 2016;Arrotela et al., 2021;Durdyev et al., 2021;Saka & Chan, 2020;Succar, 2009;Singh et al., 2011;Siebelink et al., 2021;Babatunde et al., 2020;Kekana et al., 2014;WU et al., 2021;Tan et al., 2019;Nisbet and Dinesen, 2010;Yongliang et al., 2020;Mendez, 2006;Ahmed, 2018;Azhar, 2011;Lesniak et al., 2021;McAdam, 2010;Azhar et al., 2012;Migilinskas et 41 2 Inefficient BIM education on collaboration among the professionals 3 ...
... Misunderstanding of BIM concept (Thomassen, 2011;Saka & Chan, 2020;Succar, 2009;Singh et al., 2011;Siebelink et al., 2021;Babatunde et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2015;Ilozor and Kelly, 2012;Ray and Firdaus, 2020;Olanrewaju et al., 2020;Jin et al., 2017;Azhar et al., 2012;Al-Ashmori et al., 2020;McAuley et al., 2012;Chan et al., 2019;Eastman et al., 2011;McAdam, 2010;Rezgui et al., 2011;Karakurt, 2019;Puolitaival and Forsythe, 2016;Arrotela et al., 2021;Durdyev et al., 2021;Kekana et al., 2014;WU et al., 2021;Tan et al., 2019;Migilinskas et al., 2013;Barak et al., 2009;Hwang and Liu, 2010;McGraw-Hill, 2010;Bouhmoud and Loudyi, 2020;Arayici, 2015;Succar and Kassem 2015;Alsaeedi et al., 2020;Nisbet and Dinesen, 2010;Yongliang et al., 2020;Mendez, 2006;Ahmed, 2018;Azhar, 2011;Lesniak et al., 2021;McAdam, 2010;Azhar et al., 2012). ...
... Unsatisfactory government regulation Puolitaival and Forsythe, 2016;Arrotela et al., 2021;Babatunde et al., 2020;Kekana et al., 2014;Tan et al., 2019;Arrotela et al., 2021;Saka & Chan, 2020;Singh et al., 2011;Siebelink et al., 2021;Tan et al., 2019;Thomassen, 2011;Al-Ashmori et al., 2020;McAuley et al., 2012;Eastman et al., 2011;Yongliang et al., 2020;Mendez, 2006;Migilinskas et al., 2013;Barak et al., 2009;Bouhmoud and Arayici, 2015;Succar and Kassem 2015;Alsaeedi et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2015;Ilozor and Kelly, 2012;Ray;Jin et al., 2017). ...
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Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology is gradually gaining more popularity among construction professionals due to its benefits throughout the lifecycle of a construction project. Despite its potential benefits, previous studies have indicated that BIM application comes with its share of various challenges limiting its successful adoption. Consequently, this paper reviews extensively and classifies the barriers encountered during BIM tools on construction projects. A state-of-the-art review and analysis of literature on barriers to BIM application was conducted. Selected journal articles, documents, and conference proceedings from different databases on the subject matter were examined and thoroughly analysed. After that, boundaries were drawn between barriers of BIM implementation concerning regions that are advanced with BIM adoption against those that have not yet started. Fifty-seven (57) barriers accustomed to BIM implementation were identified, out of which thirty-three (33) factors were peculiar to regions where BIM application was not yet fully adopted. The identified barriers were grouped under six (6) subdivisions: professional workforce conditions, construction management conditions, Technological factors, environmental influence, financial issues, and legal matters. This paper contributes to the body of literature on BIM application, barrier, and classification. This paper further draws boundaries between BIM implementation challenges concerning advanced regions with BIM adoption and those that have not started. Possible solutions to mitigate the BIM application barriers were highlighted as an additional contribution to knowledge.
... IPD basically agglomerates interdisciplinary team of design and construction professionals to realize a project whereby they share consequent risks and benefits (Ilozor & Kelly, 2012;Sacks, 2018). ...
... Integrating Team; Early Involvement of project participants: One way of achieving the alignment of project team with client's goal in IPD is through early involvement of participants (Ilozor & Kelly, 2012;AIA, 2012). It benefits projects by allowing team to design what will be built instead of designing for premeditated interest increasing accuracy in estimating. ...
... However this doesn't mean IPD will shield the industry fully from collusive practices. As much as project team and its member is the center piece of IPD (Ilozor & Kelly, 2012), they used to be and will continue to be the center piece of corruption. It would only be possible to entertain partnering and collaborative benefits of IPD only with a change in culture and mindset (Thomsen et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
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This PhD thesis sets out to investigate the potentials of Building Information Modeling (BIM) to mitigate risks of corruption in the Ethiopian public construction sector. The wide-ranging capabilities and promises of BIM have led to the strong perception among researchers and practitioners that it is an indispensable technology. Consequently, it has become the frequent subject of science and research. Meanwhile, many countries, especially the developed ones, have committed themselves to applying the technology extensively. Increasing productivity is the most common and frequently cited reason for that. However, both technology developers and adopters are oblivious to the potentials of BIM in addressing critical challenges in the construction sector, such as corruption. This particularly would be significant in developing countries like Ethiopia, where its problems and effects are acute. Studies reveal that bribery and corruption have long pervaded the construction industry worldwide. The complex and fragmented nature of the sector provides an environment for corruption. The Ethiopian construction sector is not immune from this epidemic reality. In fact, it is regarded as one of the most vulnerable sectors owing to varying socio-economic and political factors. Since 2015, Ethiopia has started adopting BIM, yet without clear goals and strategies. As a result, the potential of BIM for combating concrete problems of the sector remains untapped. To this end, this dissertation does pioneering work by showing how collaboration and coordination features of the technology contribute to minimizing the opportunities for corruption. Tracing loopholes, otherwise, would remain complex and ineffective in the traditional documentation processes. Proceeding from this anticipation, this thesis brings up two primary questions: what are areas and risks of corruption in case of the Ethiopian public construction projects; and how could BIM be leveraged to mitigate these risks? To tackle these and other secondary questions, the research employs a mixed-method approach. The selected main research strategies are Survey, Grounded Theory (GT) and Archival Study. First, the author disseminates an online questionnaire among Ethiopian construction engineering professionals to pinpoint areas of vulnerability to corruption. 155 responses are compiled and scrutinized quantitatively. Then, a semi-structured in-depth interview is conducted with 20 senior professionals, primarily to comprehend opportunities for and risks of corruption in those identified highly vulnerable project stages and decision points. At the same time, open interviews (consultations) are held with 14 informants to be aware of state of the construction documentation, BIM and loopholes for corruption in the country. Consequently, these qualitative data are analyzed utilizing the principles of GT, heat/risk mapping and Social Network Analysis (SNA). The risk mapping assists the researcher in the course of prioritizing corruption risks; whilst through SNA, methodically, it is feasible to identify key actors/stakeholders in the corruption venture. Based on the generated research data, the author constructs a [substantive] grounded theory around the elements of corruption in the Ethiopian public construction sector. This theory, later, guides the subsequent strategic proposition of BIM. Finally, 85 public construction related cases are also analyzed systematically to substantiate and confirm previous findings. By ways of these multiple research endeavors that is based, first and foremost, on the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data analysis, the author conveys a number of key findings. First, estimations, tender document preparation and evaluation, construction material as well as quality control and additional work orders are found to be the most vulnerable stages in the design, tendering and construction phases respectively. Second, middle management personnel of contractors and clients, aided by brokers, play most critical roles in corrupt transactions within the prevalent corruption network. Third, grand corruption persists in the sector, attributed to the fact that top management and higher officials entertain their overriding power, supported by the lack of project audits and accountability. Contrarily, individuals at operation level utilize intentional and unintentional 'errors’ as an opportunity for corruption. In light of these findings, two conceptual BIM-based risk mitigation strategies are prescribed: active and passive automation of project audits; and the monitoring of project information throughout projects’ value chain. These propositions are made in reliance on BIM’s present dimensional capabilities and the promises of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). Moreover, BIM’s synchronous potentials with other technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and Radio Frequency technologies are topics which received a treatment. All these arguments form the basis for the main thesis of this dissertation, that BIM is able to mitigate corruption risks in the Ethiopian public construction sector. The discourse on the skepticisms about BIM that would stem from the complex nature of corruption and strategic as well as technological limitations of BIM is also illuminated and complemented by this work. Thus, the thesis uncovers possible research gaps and lays the foundation for further studies.
... It is hard to find any direct critics of IPD and its benefits. Ilozor and Kelly (2012) found existing literature overwhelmingly positive and suggested future studies to include a certain lack of skepticism. ...
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Purpose The traditional construction delivery method is challenged by low trust and collaboration issues, resulting in increased project costs. The integrated project delivery (IPD) method is developed, through a contractual agreement, to overcome these challenges by creating a common set of terms, expectations and project goals. Design/methodology/approach A singular construction case was followed during a four-month period. Data collection consisted of contract documents and a series of semi-structured interviews with representatives from the owner, design-group and contractors. Findings The IPD contract was found to have a number of positive effects; it improved project behavior (e.g. trust, collaboration and communication), increased ownership among project participants and improved buildability of the design, leading to fewer surprises and interruptions in the construction phase. The study also revealed a number of challenges including contractual and legal challenges and involving too many participants in the early phases. Moreover, co-location was identified as a particular important supporting element, to build relations and improve collaboration. Originality/value This research identified lessons learned from the application, as well as initial barriers and persistent barriers for implementing IPD. To improve IPD application the top three lessons were as follows: 1) the contractual documents should be adapted and signed at an early stage as this increases financial transparency, 2) cost estimates should be carried as an iterative process and project main concept be freezed at an early stage to increase understanding and minimize risks, 3) only the most important project developers should be involved in the early phases, to avoid going into detailed design issues before the main concept is completed.
... BIM has been recognized by both the education sector and at the industry level as a technologically enhanced approach, which facilitates productivity and quality enhancements, yet its adoption has been in silos (Rogers et al., 2015). The adoption of BIM has been effected by both the technical and the nontechnical issues, for example, the technical issues effecting BIM adoption are related to software interoperability and computable digital data, and the nontechnical issues pertain to the organizations strategy, its workflows, resistance toward change, contractual and legal issues and delivery requirements of the project (AIA, 2007;Becerik-Gerber and Kensek, 2010;Ilozor and Kelly, 2012;Kent and Becerik-Gerber, 2010). Thorough planning is required if BIM is to be implemented successfully at the project level. ...
... Due to a unique project-based nature of the architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, it is necessary to identify the crucial project success factors. Some of these factors are related to the project ECAM stakeholders, processes, tools and the business model (Hartmann et al., 2008;Ilozor and Kelly, 2012;Kent and Becerik-Gerber, 2010;Tsai et al., 2010). The main driving forces of organizational effectiveness are corporate strategies, structure, culture, capabilities/ resources, business environment and macroenvironment (Dikmen et al., 2005). ...
Purpose As a pillar of integrated digital delivery (IDD), building information modeling demonstrates the tremendous potential to enhance productivity for the architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industry worldwide. However, the implementation of digital solutions presents numerous challenges related to its adoption and implementation. Distinguishing a comprehensive set of critical factors can facilitate the construction professionals to execute their strategies in a properly planned manner, thus augmenting the possibilities of successfully implementing BIM in their organization. This study aims to identify critical success factors (CSFs) for BIM adoption and implementation in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted structured empirical questionnaire survey. Relevant data were collected from the various stakeholders in Singapore AEC industry through an online survey questionnaire. Furthermore, data analysis was done using SPSS Statistics software in order to identify the key factors (KFs) based on which the CSFs were derived for BIM adoption and implementation during the construction phase. Findings From a set of 45 influencing factors, 35 KFs were derived after performing ranking analysis, from which a set of 26 CSFs were finally obtained based on the factor analysis methodology. Originality/value This study has identified the CSFs of BIM adoption in Singapore, as well as in the builders' perspective on how to enhance the digitalization in construction projects.
... However, not all bidding strategies are on the side of the contractor; a large number of such strategies aim to protect the owners [12]. Consequently, there is an essential need to employ a strategy that considers the project presentation and facilitates the communication between stakeholders as a primary goal [13,14]. Tender selection criteria for construction projects in Saudi Arabia depend largely on cost, with the contractor providing a minimum cost, unless it is below 70% of the owner's cost estimate. ...
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The procurement process is one of the most important phases in any project life cycle, particularly when it comes to selecting the right contractor for the job. Awarding the contract to the best bid proposal is a critical step to ensure the greatest value. BIM has been recognized as not only a geometric modelling of buildings, but also, it facilitates the different stages in management of construction projects. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of using Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the tendering process from the contractor’s perspective, based on a probability model able to predict winning probability, regardless of relative weight. The main objective of this research is to measure the likelihood of winning a tender in the case of implementing BIM strategy, compared with contractors who do not use BIM. The research uses a literature review, surveys, and interviews with experts to develop a model that predicts the probability of winning a contract; this is determined by measuring the BIM impact on each selection criterion in a multicriteria selection process using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to develop a probability-based model. The results of the survey and the interview show that BIM strategy has a variant influence on the score the contractor could have on each of them raising the probability of winning the tender. The main result of this paper is the property-based model, which is able to predict BIM winning probability regardless of relative weight, which can be applied in any country. Nonetheless, the Saudi case study shows that utilizing BIM when proposing could increase the winning probability by up to 9.42% in the case of Quality-Based Selection (QBS), and to 5.5% in the case of Cost-Based Selection (CBS).
... BIM is the key to IPD and an important tool for the success of IPD projects (Ilozor and Kelly, 2012). These two complementary concepts will facilitate information management throughout the project and reduce the loss of information between phase transitions. ...
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Purpose Integrated project delivery (IPD) and building information modeling (BIM) has begun to be used in real estate development projects over the past decade to improve collaboration, communication and efficiency. However, the use of BIM and IPD in projects does not always imply that the information is well used and managed. This study aims to explain how information management should be carried out in BIM and IPD projects, what activities should be managed by the information manager and which stakeholder should play this role and why? Design/methodology/approach This study provides a framework on the subject by conducting a comprehensive systematic review in the field of real estate development, BIM, IPD and information management. In this context, the Web of Science and Scopus databases have been systematically reviewed, n = 45 out of a total of n = 1,356 articles and additionally, the BIM documents and standards prepared by public institutions and organizations and industry reports have been examined in detail. Findings The framework for information management roles was established by reviewing the literature. According to this framework, information management activities of information managers are listed in the table that covers all phases of real estate development. The owner should undertake this role as it is the entity that oversees the built asset from planning to the management of that facility. Originality/value In terms of acquiring information management roles, there is no research on BIM and IPD projects and who will take over this role. This study desired to close this gap in the literature.
... Based on the current IPD+BIM implementation experience, lessons learned from best practice examples can be extracted from (AIA, 2012;Cheng, 2015). In addition, evidence of success in achieving sustainable projects (Kamari at al., 2017b) within a high performing and collaborative environments is essential, but that does not currently exist to a great extent within the literature (Ilozor and Kelly, 2012;Nawi et al., 2014), especially for Heritage buildings. Counsell and Taylor (2017) report that IPD is particularly helpful as a benchmark against which to analyse the goal of Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) as an integrated heritage building's delivery to conserving the cultural sustainability of built heritage during their lifetime used management mechanism that incorporates all stakeholders. ...
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Full-text available
Renovation of heritage buildings plays an important role in enhancing the built environment on integrating sustainable development aspects, considering both environmental, economic, cultural, and social contexts. A central, fundamental challenge within this field is handling enormous complexity through the adaptation of more sophisticated technologies and project management models to improve the quality of renovation projects and increase their sustainability and final performance. In the light of this, this research paper aims to review and summarize a successful example of implementing Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) strategies and tools, supported by Building Information Modelling (BIM) technologies for the renovation of a heritage building, the Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian Art Museum, located in Washington, USA. The project goals, in particular, are set to reducing waste as well as energy consumption of the building, and the IPD philosophy (IPDish) and BIM are used to enable the collaboration and optimize efficiency in all project phases. The research study in this paper adopts a qualitative approach through an analysis of the relevant literature as well as data collection from the case study. As such, it explores the potential advantages of the IPDish+BIM application to managing the renovation project and to enhancing its sustainability aspects.