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The LoRaWAN network topology.

The LoRaWAN network topology.

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Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWANs) are emerging as appealing solutions for several Internet of Things (IoT) applications, such as healthcare, smart cities and Industry 4.0, thanks to their ease of deployment, low energy consumption and large coverage range. LoRaWAN is one of the most successful LPWAN standards, as it supports robust long-distanc...

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... LoRaWAN network typically works over a star-of-stars topology, as shown in Figure 1, in which the end-nodes communicate with the network server through gateways. The message exchange between the end-nodes and the gateway takes place on a single LoRa hop. ...

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