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The LEMUR IIB robot with microspine grippers during an inverted free-climbing experiment on vesicular basalt rock.

The LEMUR IIB robot with microspine grippers during an inverted free-climbing experiment on vesicular basalt rock.

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A rock-climbing robot is presented that can free climb on vertical, overhanging, and inverted rock faces. This type of system has applications to extreme terrain on Mars or for sustained mobility on microgravity bodies. The robot grips the rock using hierarchical arrays of microspines. Microspines are compliant mechanisms made of sharp hooks and fl...

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... rock-climbing robot described here (see Figure 1) uti- lizes a unique technology, namely microspines ( Asbeck et al., 2006b), which enable gravity-independent mobility on rocky surfaces including cliff faces, lava tubes (includ- ing the ceiling), and in microgravity environments such as the surfaces of near Earth asteroids. Microspines were in- vented at Stanford University in 2004), and through the last nine years of development they have Direct correspondence to: Aaron Parness, Aaron.Parness@ jpl.nasa.gov ...
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... characterize the performance of the microspine grippers across a range of operating conditions, a single gripper was Figure 12. Sequence showing four steps and a body shift movement during a vertical free-climbing experiment using. ...
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... pulleys on the test bed can be positioned so that the force on the gripper is applied normal to, 45 • to, and tangent to the material's surface, allowing the omnidirectional behav- ior of the system to be characterized. The horseshoe pivot system shown in Figure 13 was designed to apply the loads where the ankle meets the housing. This system pivots on ball bearings, allowing it to move in all directions with low friction. ...
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... tested were bonded pumice, loose lava rocks (<5 cm diameter), pea gravel (<1 cm diameter), sand, bishop tuff, saddleback basalt, vesicular basalt, and volcanic breccia. They are shown in Figure 14. ...
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... first experiment recorded and compared the forces measured by the load cell with the calculated forces from Figure 16. Data from the three sensing solutions during the gripping event: load cell ground truth, string pot system, and Hall effect sensor pair. ...
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... pair of sensors [(1) the linear encoder and string po- tentiometer combination, and (2) the linear encoder and Hall effect sensor combination] as a carriage was displaced through its angular and linear ranges. Figure 16 shows these forces along with the errors between the ground truth load cell data and each of the sensor combinations. These re- sults show that the force measured by the load cell and the force calculated from the position sensor data correspond strongly. ...
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... instru- ment is self-contained, redirecting the load path back into the rock, with the forces being reacted by the microspine gripper. It can be seen drilling into a piece of vesicular basalt in an inverted configuration in Figure 17, and in a horizontally gravity off-loaded configuration in Figure 18. A simplified free-body diagram of the gripper and drill system is shown in Figure 19 to illustrate the relationship between the gripping carriages and the preload that is ap- plied to the drill bit, also known as the weight-on-bit. ...
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... instru- ment is self-contained, redirecting the load path back into the rock, with the forces being reacted by the microspine gripper. It can be seen drilling into a piece of vesicular basalt in an inverted configuration in Figure 17, and in a horizontally gravity off-loaded configuration in Figure 18. A simplified free-body diagram of the gripper and drill system is shown in Figure 19 to illustrate the relationship between the gripping carriages and the preload that is ap- plied to the drill bit, also known as the weight-on-bit. ...
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... can be seen drilling into a piece of vesicular basalt in an inverted configuration in Figure 17, and in a horizontally gravity off-loaded configuration in Figure 18. A simplified free-body diagram of the gripper and drill system is shown in Figure 19 to illustrate the relationship between the gripping carriages and the preload that is ap- plied to the drill bit, also known as the weight-on-bit. The weight-on-bit is directly proportional to the strength of at- tachment between the microspines and the rock. ...
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... plate is built with three ball screw nuts that ride on three ball screws (Heli-Tek Corp.). The ball screws are connected at their ends to spur gears via Fair-Loc Hubs and the gears are meshed Figure 17. The Microspine drill coring into a piece of vesicular basalt in an inverted configuration on Earth. ...
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... screws were chosen over standard ACME threaded lead screws due to their low friction. Radial and thrust bear- Figure 18. Horizontal drilling test with the microspine drill performed in a gravity offloaded configuration. ...
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... number of teeth on the sun gear is irrelevant because it acts as an idler. A rotary percussive drill was chosen instead of a rotary drill for efficiency and speed on hard rock ( Zacny et al., 2008), mimicking the decision to fly a rotary percussive Figure 19. Two-dimensional free-body diagram of the microspine gripper and drill system. ...
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... versions of the drill were fabricated. The first, shown in Figures 17 and 18, is currently teleoperated, but designed to be integrated with the LEMUR IIB robot. The second version of the drill, shown in Figure 21, is designed as a hand tool for an astronaut to be used at near-Earth aster- oids where there is insufficient gravity to react the forces and torques of drilling. ...
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... first, shown in Figures 17 and 18, is currently teleoperated, but designed to be integrated with the LEMUR IIB robot. The second version of the drill, shown in Figure 21, is designed as a hand tool for an astronaut to be used at near-Earth aster- oids where there is insufficient gravity to react the forces and torques of drilling. Two handles were mounted to the drill and large toggle switches were used to close loops to the various DC motors so that the drill could be operated by an astronaut wearing pressurized gloves, which significantly restrict dexterity. ...
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... inverted drill tests, such as those in Figure 17, a test stand built from aluminum extrusion suspended a piece of rock in the air, leaving the bottom face of the rock exposed. Figure 20. ...
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... teleoperated drill was used in this case, and the drilling sequence was performed. For horizontal drill tests, such as those seen in Figure 18, a large rock was chosen with a verti- cal face and the drill sequence was carried out. During these tests, a piece of fishing line was used to react the moment created by the center of mass of the drill being offset from Figure 21. ...
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... horizontal drill tests, such as those seen in Figure 18, a large rock was chosen with a verti- cal face and the drill sequence was carried out. During these tests, a piece of fishing line was used to react the moment created by the center of mass of the drill being offset from Figure 21. The handheld microspine drill is an instrument capable of anchoring to and coring into consolidated rock re- gardless of the magnitude or orientation of a gravitational field (1 g or less). ...
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... this test, rocks with masses ranging from 2.5-7 kg were lifted using the drill's microspine gripper, and then the drill sequence was carried out. Figure 21 shows this test configuration. ...

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Citations

... (ii) Many of them produce noise even when stationary [17,18]; ...
... In recent years, researchers have attempted to mimic biological adhesive organs to construct artificial attachment devices, as well as to research the design and manufacturing technology of climbing robots. A significant variety of bioinspired adhesives [20,21], suckers [12,22], and microspines [18,23] is conceived and manufactured to improve robot attachment performance. Many bioinspired climbing robots and manipulators have impressive abilities [24][25][26][27]. ...
... To enable climbing movements, spine mechanisms can be used in the feet of hexapod robots, such as RiSE V2 in Fig. 15(a) [18], quadruped robots, such as claw inspired robot (CLIBO) in Fig. 15(b) [143], and biped robots, such as BOB 2.0 in Fig. 15(c) [144]. Spinybot II, developed by Stanford University, is the first legged climbing robot that can walk on outside construction surfaces (e.g., brick, cement, and stone) using microspines. ...
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... Boston Dynamics developed the RISE robot [1][2][3] in 2006, which can move on walls, rocks, and horizontal surfaces; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed the Silver Fox IIB [4] in 2013, which can move on vertical, overhanging, and reversed rock surfaces; the University of Science and Technology of China developed a tracked pair of gripping foot robots in 2015, which can move on rough avoided, ceiling motion; Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications developed a barb-and-claw grasping wall-climbing robot in 2017, which can move on rough wall surfaces, and all the above mentioned robots use claw-spike grasping attachment, which provides experience in completing sampling tasks. ...
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... In the limited number of studies that have proposed locomotion strategies for pole-like structures, a series of discrete modules [25] or grippers [36] were among popular methods to enable efective gait patterns. Grippers in particular have proven robust on not only irregular tree trunks [36] but even on an overhanging wall [50]. However, they require rigid mechanical units for actuation. ...
... Xie et al. [20] proposed a three-row opposed gripping mechanism made of bioinspired spiny toes with high load capability on an inverted rough surface. Parness et al. designed LEMUR [21][22][23], a climbing robot that can crawl on rocky cliffs, enabling extreme terrain mobility in space, with hierarchical arrays of microspines in a radial configuration. In nature, when an insect crawls horizontally or diagonally on a vertical rough surface, its claws cooperate with the barbs on the tarsal knuckles to achieve gripping, which allows it to crawl steadily on a vertical or even inverted rough surface. ...
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... The most commonly used adhesion methods at present are by using magnets [1]- [14] or negative pressure [15]- [24]. Other new methods, such as dry adhesion [25]- [31], micro-spines [32]- [35], and electrostatic [36] and [37], have also been developed. Each adhesion method has different types of adhesion. ...
... Dry adhesion has adhesive footpads [25] and [26], track [27][28][29], and wheel-leg-type [30] and [31]. Micro-spines feature wheel [32] and claw-types [33][34][35]. Electrostatic type mainly adopts the track-type [36] and [37] to ensure reliable contact with the wall. ...
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... The sharp hooks can provide stable gripping on the unknown surface. A similar concept used by NASA developed a gravity-independent rock-climbing robot using compliant hooks gripper for sample acquisition and moving on obstacles [4]. The rolling word stands for a rolling feature and rolls his body along the arm during rolling like a monkey, as shown in Fig. 1 (left-middle), which allows soft landing. ...
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A bio-inspired novel CAT-leap parkour rolling mechanism (CPRM) is designed and developed for mobile robots. It was inspired by cat-leap jumping and monkey rolling motion. It enhanced the mobility of the mobile robot. Using CPRM, the robot can climb and cross unknown obstacles as well as perform locomotion. This mechanism protects the robot from unexpected impact forces on the robot during climbing and landing. It also can cross obstacles having double robot height. We developed a CPRM with a six-wheeled triangle-shaped mobile robot having two cat-leap arms for parkour rolling motion, allows a soft landing. We would like to share our experience working with CPRM mechanism and design from the inception to the realization, which includes design and iterations, prototype development, feasibility, functioning steps, advantages, and future applications.
... Xie et al. designed a three-row opposed gripping mechanism with high load capability on the rough inverted surface, in which three spiny toes were placed in radial configuration [19] . Parness et al. proposed an opposed gripper with hundreds of hooks in a radial configuration, and the gripper could generate tangential force and adhesion by pulling hooks across the rock towards the center of the gripper [20] . And the gripper was employed in a four-limbed robot, LEMUR 3, to climb on rocky cliffs, enabling extreme terrain mobility in space [21] . ...
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