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The Job Demands-Resources model. 

The Job Demands-Resources model. 

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The present study uses the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) to examine how job characteristics and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) contribute to explaining variance in objective team performance. A central assumption in the model is that working characteristics evoke two psychologically different processes. In the first proc...

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Context 1
... 1993). Therefore, we formulated the following hypothesis (see also Figure 1). ...
Context 2
... is that cynicism is the most important consequence of lacking job resources (cf. Bakker & Demerouti, 2007;Demerouti et al., 2001), which, in turn, has a negative association with job performance (see Figure 1). Hypothesis 2: Cynicism fully mediates the relationship between job resources and objective (financial) performance. ...
Context 3
... model in Figure 1 was tested in two steps with structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses using AMOS 6.0 ( Arbuckle, 2005). Maximum likelihood estimation methods and the covariance matrix of the above-mentioned scales were used. ...

Citations

... Ref. [25] conducted an analysis of engagement and burnout as a continuum representing the extremes of workers' emotional states. They are categorical in pointing out that both variables influence people's functioning and therefore their performance and organizational results. ...
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Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, teaching was considered one of the most stressful occupations, one that could provoke burnout in workers. Continuing to provide educational services despite the pandemic and the new methodologies was a challenge for teachers that demonstrated their engagement in their work. This research, from the model of healthy and resilient organizations (HERO), aimed to assess the perception of healthy organizational practices (HOP) of teachers of an educational institution during the years 2020 and 2021 and the impact they have on their levels of engagement and burnout. Through the application of three instruments, 154 responses were obtained. The data were analyzed through correlations and mean comparisons. The main results show that in 2020, the correlations between HOP with engagement and burnout were positive and negative, respectively, as expected. In 2021, the perception of HOP decreased, as did teacher engagement, while burnout increased. In conclusion, the findings suggest that HOP can become a sustainable human resource management tool that promotes teachers’ mental health, even in challenging times.
... It can impact everyone, from busy employees and homemakers to stressed-out career-driven professionals and celebrities. Bakker et al. (2008) concluded at the organisational level, burnout and stress are associated with negative organisational outcomes such as lack of concentration, poor timekeeping, poor productivity, difficulty in comprehending new procedures, lack of cooperation, irritability, aggressiveness, resentment and increased tendency to make mistake. ...
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When it comes to managing their workforce, one of the most difficult difficulties that organizations encounter is burnout among employees. This study sought to examine the level and factors contributing to burnout among employees in Johor state health department, Malaysia and to determine the association between burnout and sociodemographic. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 employees from Johor State health department. 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was developed to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The questionnaire elicited information regarding socio-demographic and work characteristics. Descriptive analysis was undertaken and parametric test was conducted to establish the relationship of burnout and sociodemographic. The data indicated on the MBI, majority of the respondents have moderate degree of emotional exhaustion (55.8%), High degree of depersonalization (55.8%) and low degree of personal accomplishment (62.2%). One way- ANOVA demonstrates there is association in emotional exhaustion between type of profession, depersonalization between type of profession and service period, and personal accomplishment between service period. (p value <0.01). The findings show that research design and techniques are sufficient for the upcoming prospective analyses of aetiology and effects of burnout and of the influence of workplace intervention.
... Finally, performance measurement, which was initially believed to indicate burnout effects, was added to the original JD-R model. Bakker, Van Emmerik, & Van Riet (2008) found that cynicism predicts team sales success, whereas Bakker et al. (2004) found that cynicism and weariness were strongly linked to colleague-rated extra-role and in-role performance, respectively. Schaufeli & Bakker (2004) published an updated version of the JD-R model three years after its initial release (Figure 6). ...
... The job demand resources model has been used to predict job burnout, organizational commitment, work enjoyment, connectedness and work engagement Bakker, Hakanen, Demerouti, & Xanthopoulou, 2007;Bakker et al., 2008;Bakker, van Veldhoven, & Xanthopoulou, 2010;Hakanen, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2006;Lewig, Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Dollard, & Metzer, 2007). Furthermore, JD-R model has been used to predict consequences of 20 these experiences, including sickness absenteeism and job performance (Bakker, Demerouti, De Boer, & Schaufeli, 2003;Bakker et al., 2004Bakker et al., , 2008Clausen, Nielsen, Carneiro, & Borg, 2012;Schaufeli, Bakker, & Van Rhenen, 2009). ...
... The job demand resources model has been used to predict job burnout, organizational commitment, work enjoyment, connectedness and work engagement Bakker, Hakanen, Demerouti, & Xanthopoulou, 2007;Bakker et al., 2008;Bakker, van Veldhoven, & Xanthopoulou, 2010;Hakanen, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2006;Lewig, Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Dollard, & Metzer, 2007). Furthermore, JD-R model has been used to predict consequences of 20 these experiences, including sickness absenteeism and job performance (Bakker, Demerouti, De Boer, & Schaufeli, 2003;Bakker et al., 2004Bakker et al., , 2008Clausen, Nielsen, Carneiro, & Borg, 2012;Schaufeli, Bakker, & Van Rhenen, 2009). ...
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Making the logic behind the theory clear and understandable to the users is the most difficult part of theory construction study in applied disciplines. Even though different approaches of theory building argue for diverse theory building research methodologies, theory development is essentially general. This study supports JD-R as a theory by outlining methodologies often employed in theory construction on past research. JD-R model consists of conservation of resources theory, two-factor theory of Herzberg, job characteristics model, job demand-control model and effort-reward imbalance model. According to this model, job resources will minimize the undesirable impact of job demands on exhaustion. The early model was expanded to incorporate performance measurements. Cynicism predicts performance, whereas cynicism associated to colleague rated extra role and exhaustion related to in role performance. Then the revised model attempted to describe both a negative (burnout) and a positive psychological state (work engagement). Later, personal Resources and Job Crafting have been integrated with this model for the application to predict job burnout, organizational commitment, work enjoyment, connectedness, and work engagement. The JD-R model has developed into a theory because of numerous investigations, original ideas, and meta-analyses that have been conducted on it by following the steps of conceptualization, operationalization, implementation, confirmation or denial, and ongoing refining and improvement. Personal Demand and Leadership style can be attached in JD-R theory in future.
... In this process, the balance between their work and life was disrupted, and their psychological health and well-being were adversely affected (Giorgi et al., 2020). This view is also consistent with the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti et al., 2001;Bakker et al., 2008;Schaufeli and Taris, 2014;Schaufeli, 2017). According to the JD-R model, insufficient job resources (supervisor support, autonomy, coaching, harmony, coaching, . ...
... team cohesion, and colleague support) cause burnout, a decrease in positive psychological resources, and consequently a decrease in performance (Bakker et al., 2008). Therefore, it is not surprising in terms of theoretical expectations that a challenging process such as the COVID-19 pandemic turns the relationship between two positive variables, such as WE and JS, into neutral or negative. ...
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Background: Studies conducted in the health sector have determined a positive relationship between job satisfaction and work engagement. However, this paper reveals that this relationship turns into a negative or non-significant relationship during the Covid-19 pandemic. We explore the reasons for inconsistency in research findings in this critical period through a meta-analysis. Methods: This study was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and PICO framework. Online databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and additional records from other databases were searched without any time limitation, and all studies published in English that reported the correlation between work engagement and job satisfaction were included in the analysis. In total, 36 individual correlation coefficients were synthesized. R statistical language was used to analyze the data. Result: A total of 36 studies with a sample size of 16,087 were synthesized. The overall effect size was found as r = 0.57 (95% CI [0.50−0.64]). While the moderating effect of national culture was not statistically significant, presence of Covid-19 as the significant moderator explained 37.08% of effect size heterogeneity. Such that the presence of Covid-19 has transformed the positive relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction into a negative but statistically nonsignificant relationship. Conclusion: This study empirically challenges the existing assumptions about the positive link between work engagement and job satisfaction. The results of the research can be a guide for managers and policymakers. Specifically, based on these results, different mechanisms can be put in place to support work engagement and, in turn, job satisfaction in the Covid-19 process.
... Conversely, the motivational pathway assumes that job resources carry motivational potential to enhance engagement and other positive organisational outcomes such as performance (Bakker, Van Emmerik, & Van Riet, 2008) and commitment (Parzefall & Hakanen, 2010) via intrinsic motivation which encourages growth, learning and development or extrinsic motivation by being functional in achieving work goals . Job resources therefore fulfil basic psychological needs such as the need for autonomy, relatedness and competence Ryan & Deci, 2000). ...
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Background Organisations frequently rely on international business travel when operating in internationalized business environments. Yet, the effectiveness of this mechanism relies on their international business travellers (IBTs) being physically and psychologically well enough to productively perform across different working environments. The salience of this issue has led to increased interest in explaining IBTs’ work-related outcomes and their antecedents. Data and methods This paper tests key assumptions of the job-demands resources theory (JD-R) in the context of international business travel. Based on a sample of 134 IBTs from different national backgrounds, the study analyses the role of prominent job demands and resources for IBTs’ exhaustion and engagement. The study also looks at the presumed moderating role of recovery experiences. Results Support for the JD-R theory when applied to the context of international business travel remains mixed. Results suggest workload as an important predictor of exhaustion. Organisational support predicts engagement. Other typical resources including autonomy and supervisory support do not show a significant relation to work-related outcomes. Apart from recovery relaxation, which significantly weakened the impact of job demands on exhaustion, none of the moderating effects (via coping, buffering or other recovery experiences) are confirmed. Conclusions The findings reflect the unique complexities of international business travel. For professionals working with or as IBTs, this study only suggests workload and support as reliable levers to influence work-related outcomes. For a better understanding of further job demands, resources and moderators within the IBT context, additional JD-R related research and theoretical development is proposed.
... First, it has long been recognized as a key driver for desirable performance (Parke et al., 2018;Sonnentag et al., 2021). Second, research has highlighted the crucial role leaders play in eliciting subordinates' work engagement (e.g., Bakker et al., 2008b;Busse and Regenberg, 2019;Wang and Hsieh, 2013). Schaufeli and Bakker (2004) conceptualize work engagement as a multidimensional concept which includes vigor (i.e., high levels of work-related energy and resilience), dedication (i.e., feelings of significance, enthusiasm, and inspiration), and absorption (i.e., high involvement in and concentration on work). ...
Article
The effect of leadership on individuals in multinational teams remains underexplored. Based on self-concept theory, our study investigates how subordinates' work engagement is influenced by their perception of leader cultural gap bridging (CGB) behaviors that seek to facilitate intercultural collaboration in multinational teams. We draw on a quantitative, two-wave, individual-level study with 280 employees working in multinational teams. Our results reveal that subordinates' perception of leaders' CGB behaviors enhance their work engagement through its effect on their team identification. The positive indirect effect is contingent on the level of relationship conflict in the multinational teams.
... However, there is evidence that the dimensions correlate with each other only marginally to moderately and can thus be viewed as being independent of each other (Bakker et al., 2002;Maslach et al., 1996;Yin et al., 2019). Moreover, the three burnout dimensions have been shown to be differentially associated with external criteria, such as job performance (Bakker et al., 2008;Swider & Zimmerman, 2010). ...
... It is important to note that Kim et al. (2019) examined burnout as a one-dimensional construct. However, due to only marginal to moderate associations between the burnout dimensions (Bakker et al., 2002;Maslach et al., 1996;Yin et al., 2019) as well as differential associations with external criteria (Bakker et al., 2008;Swider & Zimmerman, 2010), the three dimensions of burnout should be investigated separately. Differential effects-as were shown in the aforementioned cross-profession meta-analyses of Alarcon et al. (2009) and Swider and Zimmerman (2010)-have yet to be investigated for teachers. ...
Article
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Teachers’ burnout has severe consequences for themselves and their students. The identification of factors related to burnout can provide valuable information about the relevance of interindividual differences. Beyond work-related factors, burnout is assumed to be affected by individuals’ personality traits, and several empirical studies already exist that have investigated this association in teachers. However, a comprehensive meta-analytical examination is missing so far. The current meta-analysis, including 18 primary studies with 19 samples (total N = 4,724), aimed to examine the relation between burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) and the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) in teachers. In addition, moderating effects of teachers’ professional level were investigated. In line with our expectations, neuroticism was positively related to all three burnout dimensions, with medium-sized effects found for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and a small effect size found for reduced personal accomplishment. The other significant associations between personality traits and burnout dimensions were negative. Apart from a nonsignificant association between emotional exhaustion and openness, all associations were rated as small to medium. The moderator analyses did not show any support for moderating effects of teachers’ professional level concerning the associations between burnout dimensions and personality traits.
... According to the job demands-resources model, the health impairment processes mentioned above can negatively impact job performance (Bakker et al., 2017). Employees who suffer from health impairment at work are more likely to make mistakes, which negatively influences performance (Bakker et al., 2008). Therefore, we propose the hypothesis as follows: ...
... Therefore, when individuals receive sufficient informational support, they are more capable of dealing with difficulties or problems arising from work. According to the job demands-resources model, this type of job resource motivates individuals to be more dedicated to work, which is vital for job performance (Bakker et al., 2008). Prior studies have also found that better information access enhances job performance (e.g. ...
Article
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Purpose Organizations use enterprise social media (ESM) platforms to operate, function, and develop. However, the effectiveness of the use of ESM is inconclusive. This study aims to explore the mechanism and boundary conditions of the relationship between employee ESM use and job performance. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a 2-wave survey design, with a final sample of 481 employees from a large automobile company. Findings The results indicate that ESM use is beneficial and detrimental to job performance. On the one hand, ESM use is positively related to work overload, decreasing job performance. On the other hand, ESM use is positively associated with informational support, increasing job performance. A mediation test revealed that both work overload and informational support mediate the relationship between ESM use and job performance. Furthermore, job autonomy weakens the positive relationship between ESM use and work overload, but strengthens the positive relationship between ESM use and informational support. Originality/value This study provides a more balanced view of how ESM use influences job performance by demonstrating the opposing mediating roles of work overload and informational support. Further, this study fills a research gap by considering job characteristics when examining the boundary conditions of ESM use. Third, this study validates the generalization of the job demands-resources model in social media research.
... The JD-R conceives stress or work tension as the result of the organizational and job demands (e.g., emotional demands, work overload, interpersonal conflict, etc.) that the workers have to cope with and the resources (e.g., supervisor's and colleagues' support, opportunities for skill utilization, autonomy, etc.) that are available to workers to face their job requirements and work challenges. As a result, the JD-R posits that working characteristics can elicit two different psychological processes: (1) the demanding aspects of work can lead to constant psychological overtaxing and eventually to exhaustion; and (2) a lack of job resources prevents the achievement of objectives, hence the experiences of failure and frustration [15]. The JD-R model thus encompasses a wide range of factors that can affect, either negatively (demands) or positively (resources), a worker's well-being. ...
Article
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Existing measures of the impact of job characteristics on workers’ well-being do not directly assess the extent to which such characteristics (e.g., opportunity to learn new skills) are perceived as positive or negative. We developed a measure, the Work Annoyance Scale (WAS), of the level of annoyance that workers feel about certain aspects of the job and evaluated its psychometric properties. Using archival data from two cohorts (n = 2226 and 655) of workers that had undergone an annual medical examination for occupational hazard, we show the usefulness of the network psychometric approach to scale validation and its similarities and differences from a traditional factor analytic approach. The results revealed a two-dimensional structure (working conditions and cognitive demands) that was replicable across cohorts and bootstrapped samples. The two dimensions had adequate structural consistency and discriminant validity with respect to other questionnaires commonly used in organizational assessment, and showed a consistent pattern of association with relevant background variables. Despite the need for more extensive tests of its content and construct validity in light of the organizational changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic and of an evaluation of the generalizability of the results to cultural contexts different from the Italian one, the WAS appears as a psychometrically sound tool for assessment and research in organizational contexts.
... In this context, numerous theoretical models have been developed to explain professionals' psychological well-being/malaise about their work environment. An example is the Job Demand-Resources model (JD-R) by Bakker et al. (2008), which theorizes how the requests made by the organisation (job demands), such as workloads, staffing levels and organisational constraints, can be a source of workrelated stress, creating situations in which workers experience strain (Schaufeli & Taris, 2014), a poorer state of health (Magnusson Hanson et al., 2018), risk of emotional exhaustion (Wong & Laschinger, 2015), burnout (Metlaine et al., 2017), psychosomatic disorders (Junne et al., 2018) and job dissatisfaction (McHugh et al., 2011;Senek et al., 2020). By contrast, when these stressors are controlled, managed and where possible reduced, workers are more motivated and perform better Xanthopoulou et al., 2007). ...
Article
Aim: The aim of this study to describe a research protocol for evaluating the relationship between nursing leadership, organisational well-being and nurse and patient outcomes. Background: The head nurses' leadership style influences the organisational context. When an organisation promotes nurses' well-being, they perform better performances and are more satisfied and engaged with their job. This reduces stress levels, burnout and absenteeism and improves physical and psychological health. Methods: A multicentre study will be conducted. A self-report questionnaire will be administered to head nurses and nurses they coordinate. Study findings will include nurse-sensitive outcomes (e.g., pressure injuries, infections and mortality). Descriptive and correlational analyses will be conducted, and a structural equation model will be tested. Results: Results might verify that a correctly judged leadership style of the head nurse will enhance the organisational context experienced by nurses and improve nursing sensitive outcomes. Conclusion: This study will demonstrate the organisational role of middle managers and the direct repercussions on their staff and patients, understanding the relationship between organisational, process and outcomes variables. Implications for nursing management: If the results confirmed the hypothesis, health care managers would cultivate and stimulate the head nurses' leadership style, thus increasing nurses' organisational well-being and achieving better patient outcomes. No Patient or Public Contribution.