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The IUCN Red List Categories at the regional scale.

The IUCN Red List Categories at the regional scale.

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The European Red List is a review of the status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This publication is a summary of the conservation status of...

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... conservation status of plants, animals and fungi is one of the most widely used indicators for assessing the condition of ecosystems and their biodiversity. At the global scale, the primary source of information on the extinction risk of plants and animals is (Figure 2). ...
Context 2
... there was not enough information to assign a Red List Category to 93 species (hence considered as Data Deficient), the information collected was sufficient to identify the major knowledge gaps for bryophytes in Europe (Figure 12). ...


... Nomenclature and synonyms follow Hodgetts et al. (2020). Conservation status in Europe and the abbreviation VU for vulnerable taxon pursues Hodgetts et al. (2019). ...
... The genus Platyhypnum is also a new record for Turkish and SW Asian bryoflora. P. molle is being treated as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List (Hodgetts et al. 2019). It is a Mediterranean, alpine-arctic, and circumpolar taxon. ...
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Based on extensive bryophyte surveys across the different parts of the Anzer valley in Rize province from northeastern Turkey, a liverwort Jungermannia eucordifolia and a moss species Platyhypnum molle are reported as new to Turkey and southwestern Asia. Short descriptions, illustrations, new localities, ecological data and comparisons with morphologically similar species are provided for each of the reported species.
... The bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) are the closest living relatives of early land plants and comprise ~13 000 species, with ~9000 liverworts and 250 hornworts among them, distributed in nearly all terrestrial habitats. They contribute to critical ecological functions, including water storage, nutrient flows, interaction with other organisms, soil-building, and carbon storage (Deane-Coe and Stanton, 2017;Hodgetts et al., 2019). Bryophyte phylogenetic relationships are essential for an understanding of the evolution of land plant-specific traits. ...
An important step for plant diversification was the transition from freshwater to terrestrial habitats. The bryophytes and all vascular plants share a common ancestor that was probably the first to adapt to life on land. A polysaccharide-rich cell wall was necessary to cope with newly faced environmental conditions. Therefore, some pre-requisites for terrestrial life have to be shared in the lineages of modern bryophytes and vascular plants. This review focuses on hornwort and liverwort cell walls and aims to provide an overview on shared and divergent polysaccharide features between these two groups of bryophytes and vascular plants. Analytical, immunocytochemical and bioinformatic data were analysed. The major classes of polysaccharides, cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins, seem to be present but have structurally diversified during evolution. Some polysaccharide groups show structural characteristics, which separate hornworts from the other bryophytes or are poorly studied in detail to give absolute statements. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein backbones are found in horn- and liverworts and show differences in e.g. the occurrence of GPI-anchored arabinogalactan-proteins while glycosylation is nearly unstudied. Overall, the data appeal to researchers in the field to gain more knowledge on cell wall structures in order to understand the changes with regard to bryophyte evolution.
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The production forests of southern Sweden are mainly dominated by either Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) or Norway spruce (Picea abies). Public concerns are now being raised regarding a decrease in the area on which Scots pine is being regenerated, and an increased reliance on Norway spruce production stands. The main reasons for a shift in regenerated tree species include concerns regarding higher ungulate browsing pressure on Scots pine regeneration, together with the expectation that Norway spruce provides more favourable management and profits. The aim of this thesis was to examine the potential consequences of a tree species shift from different perspectives, but with a primary focus on implications for biodiversity. To do so the diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and birds were contrasted in three age classes (30, 55, 80 years of age) of Scots pine and Norway spruce production stands in southern Sweden. Although there was an overlap from many of the common species, the community composition of species groups varied between the stand categories contrasted. (I) The cover of understory vascular plants was higher in all stand age classes of the Scots pine stands, compared to Norway spruce. The semi-light conditions, created by Scots pine’s less dense canopy, seems favourable to at least some keystone species, including, for example, the ericaceous shrub Vaccinium myrtillus. The denser canopy of Norway spruce limited vascular plant cover and species richness. (II) The darker and more humid Norway spruce stands were instead more favourable to a higher diversity of bryophyte species than was found in Scots pine stands. Scots pine associated forest floor species included a higher species richness and cover of terricolous lichens and bryophytes associated with dryer and lighter environment. (III) Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests support overlapping but still distinct bird communities, of which 80- year spruce stands had the highest average bird species richness, and largest total number of species recorded. These stands were associated with more broadleaves and higher stand complexity, i.e. vertical zonation, tree size variation and availability of dead wood. Study (IV) reviewed the biodiversity and ecosystem services consequences of a shift in tree species. Few benefits can be expected (e.g. reduced stand-level browsing damage), and these benefits will likely come at the expense of a range of negative outcomes for biodiversity, production, aesthetic and recreational values, as well as increased stand vulnerability to storm, frost, and drought damage, and potentially higher risks of pest and pathogen outbreak. Overall the findings of this thesis should clarify for forest owners, forest managers, and policymakers the many potentially adverse biodiversity and ecosystem service implications that could be expected if sites traditionally regenerated with Scots pine production stands are instead converted to Norway spruce.