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The German limits on VOC emissions

The German limits on VOC emissions

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Article
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The health and safety of people in indoor environments are influenced not only by climate and biological agents (bacteria, virus) but also by the potential presence of air pollutants. Pollutants can come from many sources, such as cigarette smoke, fireplaces, preparation of foods, traffic, etc. Even furniture and building materials used in construc...

Citations

... On the other hand, almost fifty thousand liters of other gases (argon, carbon-dioxide i.e.) are dangerously presented into human body each year with impressive effects on the health issues regarding to the composition. Particularly in doors; offices, houses, hospitals, schools, and so on people mostly spend their time and a particular attention have been paid to the air quality of indoors (Bulian & Fragassa, 2016). ...
... The 8-h average VOC concentrations per day in indoor environments can be used for risk assessments. The lowest concentration of interest (LCI) approach is still the most reliable strategy for calculating reference values referring to the potential health effects of individual compounds emitted from raw materials and finished products [48]. ...
... In the USA, the American National Standard Institute limits (ANSI/BIFMA-M7.1) VOC levels using a reward system for furniture [48]. By testing to the ISO/IEC 28360 standard, manufacturers can minimize odor complaints and achieve consumer acceptability, demonstrate compliance with industry requirements, bring products to market that support healthier indoor environments, and use the results as a baseline testing for regulatory risk assessment [65]. ...
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the main source influencing the overall air quality of an environment. It is a well-known fact that coated furniture units, in the form of paints and varnishes, emit VOCs, reducing the air quality and resulting in significant health problems. Exposure time to such compounds is also an important parameter regarding their possible health effects. Such issues also have a greater influence when the exposure period is extended. The main objective of this study was to review some of the important factors for the emission of VOCs from coated furniture, from the perspective of material characteristics, as well as health concerns. Some methods for controlling VOC emissions to improve indoor air quality, from the point of view recent regulations and suggestions, are also presented in this work.
... Among various pollutants in indoor, VOCs are well-known for toxic and harmful effects as carcinogen or mutagen (Wolkoff, 2018). There are various sources of VOCs with different types and nature (e.g., adhesives, carpet, paints, printers, cleaning products, deodorizers, linoleum, textiles, wall covering, furniture, window shades, flooring adhesives, house hold cleaning products, personal care products, and dry-cleaned clothing) that have been studied extensively (Lucattini et al., 2018;Bulian and Fragassa, 2016;Can et al., 2015;Dinh et al., 2015;Barrese et al., 2014;Lim et al., 2014;Liu et al., 2013;Kabir and Kim, 2011;Bernstein et al., 2008;Kwon and Jo, 2007;Mendell et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2006;Yu and Crump, 2003;Igielska et al., 2002;Räisänen et al., 2001). The types and nature of VOCs emitted from different indoor sources are given in Table 1. ...
Article
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Indoor air quality has received wide spread attention due to the recognition of the presence of diverse toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their harmful impacts on human health. This review discusses the chemicals in indoor air and their sources and associated chemical (primary/secondary) reactions. The merits and demerits of commercially available adsorbents and synthetically prepared carbon/non-carbon-based adsorbents for indoor air sampling are discussed. Also, important parameters (like breakthrough volume, specific adsorption capacity, reaction mechanism, and desorption efficiency) are evaluated. The recent advancements in analytical techniques and insight into the complexity involved in air sampling are emphasized. The application of commercially available adsorbents and synthetically prepared carbon/non-carbon-based adsorbents for indoor air sample collection are discussed.
... But safety prescriptions should be obeyed each time when harvesting operations are performed [7]. At the same time on-site activity takes place in very different conditions compared to traditional operations, as in the case of sawmills or woodworking factories, where numerous measures can be adopted to reduce all risks (as vibration, noise, VOC, 'projectiles') for workers [8][9] and environment [10] . ...
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In the recent time forest harvesting is mainly related to the use of chainsaws. They are acceptably light, safe, cheap and multifunctional. At the same time, chainsaws can cause personal illnesses considering their vibrations and noise. This article deals with conditions and assessment evaluation of effects on workers caused by vibrations and noise in the case of professional chainsaws in operation. Mechanical vibrations and noise are mainly related to the back-and-forth movement of the piston, and to a lesser extent, to the cutting chain. The experiment revealed, in general, that design parameters have a minimal influence on chainsaw vibration and noise emissions. Specifically, the statistical analysis for frequency weighted vibration showed no difference between types of guide bars, types of saw chains and wood plant in terms of noise and vibration on handles.
... On the contrary, the emission of other volatile organic compounds is the process tending to decrease and terminate during time, as they are not produced inside the materials. Such emissions are mainly due to coatings applied to the surfaces of walls, floorings, doors, furniture and so on (Bulian and Fragassa, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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The health and safety of furniture makers are influenced not only by climate and biological agents like bacteria, virus but also by the potential presence of air pollutants through emission from wood coatings and this hazards subsequent lead to health problems. This study was therefore carried out to assess health problems among the users of wood coating in selected wood workshop in Ibadan metropolis. A cross-sectional survey, which employed questionnaire and on-site observation, was used. Samples of 83 respondents were purposively selected among the user of wood coatings comprising mixtures of active furniture makers and carpenters in Ibadan metropolis.Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequency and chi square. The most predominant age group was 30-39 years (38.6 %) which were mostly young male (97.7 %) and 86.7 % of the respondents were married. While 41 % of the respondent had worked more than a decade and had stayed more than 6 hour (84.3 %) per day in their workplace. Most (75.9 %) of the respondents were aware of the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)with occasionally usage (46.98). Eye goggle (27.94 %) was the most frequently used followed by nose cover (27.45 %) and workshop apron (23.52 %). The reasons for non usage attributed to the dislike of PPE by the respondents (30.12 %) and inconveniencing (33.73 %)that PPE imposed on the users. However, 32.53 % had ever developed any health condition while 37.35 % perceived deterioration in their health status and 33.73 % of the respondent developed any respiratory symptoms while working. Therefore, the most frequently reported respiratory symptoms were cough (24.09 %), wheeze (22.89 %), shortness of breath (16.86 %), chest pain (15.66 %), and chest tightness (12.05 %).Exposure to wood coatings has significant effect on respiratory symptoms among users of wood coatings indicating that workplace was not safety compliant.
... Moreover, additional savings could be realized using an integrated approach for the full cost optimization of the process as a whole, instead of moving toward single steps of reduction for additive manufacturing and, separately, vacuum casting. Finally, the benefits provided by these new techniques toward a modern manufacturing also has to be considered in terms of eco-sustainability, evident when compared with conventional methods [43]. The properties we obtained for the end-products show that this method is adequate when the objective is to obtain materials with homogeneous microstructures, porosity, and good mechanical strength. ...
Article
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Glass Foams Produced from Glass and Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguarinensis) Waste In this study, compositions containing green glass bottles and desiccated and crushed yerba mate (Ilex paraguarinensis) of different mass fractions (10-30%) were prepared to obtain glass foams for thermal insulation purposes. These compositions were uniaxially pressed (at 40 MPa), and the compact powders were fired at 850°C and 900°C for 60 min in order to investigate the effect of yerba mate and temperature on the formation of pores and the thermal and mechanical properties of the processed glass foams. The results indicated that the glass foams displayed porosities ranging from 65.3-88.3%, compressive strengths ranging from 15-1.5 MPa, and thermal conductivities ranging from 0.6-0.04 W·m-1 ·K-1. Cumulatively, these glass foams are candidate thermal insulators that have advantageous properties for various industrial applications.
... The first additive is composed of an aqueous dispersion of a red shifted 2-hydroxyphenyl-striazine, while the second is a dispersion of an aminoether-substituted tetramethyl piperidine derivative. A general overview of emissions related to wood products is available in [13]. Each coating material was exposed to artificial weathering in accordance with the European standard EN 927-6 in a proper device, both as coated wood samples and free films ( Figure 1). ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of weathering on wood coatings for exterior use. By means of analytical techniques as DSC, DMA, tensile test, UV/Vis and FTIR-ATR spectroscopies, it is possible to identify and measure the degree of damage, and so the chemical, physical and mechanical changes caused by degradation phenomena. The results can improve the predictive capability on coatings' performance (glass transition, elasticity, light transmission) and help the assessment of the protective ability of light-stabilizing additives, in order to satisfy the requirements of coating producers and users. © Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade. All rights reserved.
... Finally, the benefits provided by these new techniques toward a modern manufacturing has to be also considered in term of eco-sustainability, evident when compared with conventional methods ( [17]). ...
Article
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This paper presents the possibility of integration of modern techniques of additive manufacturing and vacuum casting in the rapid manufacturing of complex parts. The prototype of safety glasses was directly developed from a CAD model, which is used as a main model for making moulds in a vacuum casting process. The development stages, which include additive production of glasses and the process of vacuum casting with the definition of material components, preheating temperature, the forming of silicone mould, the casting process, hardening and other parameters are presented in this paper. It is proved that by using this technique it is possible to produce complex functional parts quickly, with high precision, accuracy and surface quality, while significantly reducing costs of development and production compared to other similar technologies.
Thesis
Dans le contexte des transitions énergétique et environnementale, la réduction de la demande énergétique des bâtiments est devenue un des objectifs majeurs pour la société. Une des solutions possibles pour atteindre cet objectif est l’utilisation de matériaux bio-sourcés dans la rénovation énergétique de l’habitat et dans les constructions neuves répondant aux normes BBC. Or, compte tenu que les isolants bio-sources sont hygroscopiques, il est important de veiller à ce que l’humidité ne s’accumule pas au sein de ce type de matériaux car cela peut favoriser le développement fongique et impacter la qualité de l’air intérieur. Ce travail de thèse a eu pour objectif d’une part d’étudier la potentialité de différents matériaux d’isolation (matériaux bio-sourcés / matériaux conventionnels) et d’autre part d’évaluer les émissions en COV de ces matériaux en absence et présence de moisissures. Les résultats ont mis en évidence une variabilité des réponses des matériaux bio-sourcés face à la croissance fongique selon la méthode employée. De plus, ils ont révélé que les isolants bio-sourcés de l’étude sont peu émissifs en ce qui concerne les composés organiques volatils (COV) réglementaires et que d’autres COV sont majoritairement émis par ces matériaux. De même, une influence d’une l’HR élevée sur les émissions en COV des matériaux natifs a été observée. Enfin, 15 COV potentiellement microbiens (COVm) ont été identifiés comme pouvant être associés à la croissance d’Aspergillus niger.