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The Figure SEM micrographs 5. The SEM of treated micrographs samples; of a) treated Sample.A samples; before dyeing, a) Sample.A b) Sample.A before after dyeing, dyeing; b) c) Sample.B Sample.A before after dyeing, dyeing; d) c) Sample.B after dyeing; e) Sample.C Sample.B before before dyeing, dyeing, f) Sample.C d) Sample.B after dyeing. after dyeing; e) Sample.C before dyeing, f) Sample.C after dyeing. 

The Figure SEM micrographs 5. The SEM of treated micrographs samples; of a) treated Sample.A samples; before dyeing, a) Sample.A b) Sample.A before after dyeing, dyeing; b) c) Sample.B Sample.A before after dyeing, dyeing; d) c) Sample.B after dyeing; e) Sample.C Sample.B before before dyeing, dyeing, f) Sample.C d) Sample.B after dyeing. after dyeing; e) Sample.C before dyeing, f) Sample.C after dyeing. 

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This study evaluates the wrinkle behaviour and wrinkle resistant properties of cotton fabrics dyed by Direct Blue 2B in the presence and absence of nano-TiO2 particles. A finishing process on samples was performed before dyeing by means of 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) and sodium hypophosphite (SHP) using a pad dry cure method. Such exp...

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... is a crystal structure analysis method using the atomic arrays within the crystals as a three-dimensional grating to diffract a monochromatic beam of X-rays. The angles at which the beam is diffracted are used to calculate the inter-planer atomic spacing (d-spacing) giving information about how the atoms are arranged within the crystalline compounds. X-ray diffraction is also used to measure the nature of polymer and extent of crystalline present in the sample. The results of XRD analysis are illustrated in Figure 4. It should be possible to determine accurately the percentage of crystallinity by comparing the intensity of diffracted X-ray. Intensity of the diffracted is shown in Figure 4. Peaks around 2 thetas of 14.7, 16.6 and 22.8 are associated with cellulose crystallite. As seen, by treating with BTCA/SHP, the crystallinity of the samples is decreased when comparing with untreated sample (F). However by adding TiO 2 nano-particles, the crystallinity of the sample is increased and some new peaks around 2 thetas of 25.3, 36.8, 37.84, 48.0, 53.9, 55.1 and 63 are attributed to Ti that appeared on the surface of Ti-loaded cotton samples. These peaks are more pronounced for TiO 2 treated sample in absence of BTCA. In case of D and E samples, it is observed that the intensity of peak around 2-theta of 22.8 has shown a decrease and the crystallinity of the samples is reduced. Generally, it can be concluded that the crystallinity might be increased by dyeing the samples. The result of XRD complies with the results achieved by water absorption time. As it was mentioned before, direct dyeing causes increasing the water absorption time. It can be attributed to the crystallinity of the samples. By increasing the percentage of crystallinity, the penetration of water droplet through the surface of cotton fabrics becomes more complicated. In case of D and E, adding the TiO 2 nano-particles increases the absorption time of water. This causes water repellent property on the surface due to blocking some of the hydrogen bonds of cellulosic chains. Therefore absorption time may become longer. In this case decreasing the crystallinity does not play a vital role. SEM micrographs (Figure 5) of sample A (BTCA+SHP), sample B (TiO 2 2%), and sample C (BTCA + SHP >>> TiO 2 ) show interesting results. In sample A (Figure 5a and 5b), finishing agents fairly covered the surface of the samples even before dyeing. By the way, after dyeing, dyestuffs had better chances to react with treatment already laid on the surface. In other samples (Mainly in B) finished just by nano-particles, in some regions, particles have not been evenly distributed. There was no finishing process on these samples, just that they were treated by nano-particles. It can be inferred that finishing agents such as BTCA and SHP play an important role to hold particles in much more effective ways. According to the results reported in Table 2, not even satisfactory wrinkle resistant property was observed from samples which were finished only by nano-particles. This is in tight correlation with the results listed in Table 3. For samples finished only by nano-particles, wettability and dyeability illustrated less progressive trend. Therefore, finishing by agents before treating the samples by nano-particles enables samples to show higher wrinkle resistant property, moreover considerably better wettability and dyeability. Although there are seen some agglomeration of the particles on the surface in samples such as C finished by TiO 2 nano-particles (Figure 5c-d), after treating by finishing agents and nano-particles, surfaces present different coverage which is in compliance with the conclusion made earlier. The aim of this study was to investigate the wrinkle resistant property of cotton treated by BTCA, SHP in both presence and absence of nano-TiO 2 , before and after dyeing. Wettability of both untreated and cross-linked samples was evaluated using water drop test. The results show that adding nano-TiO 2 raised the water absorption time. In addition, direct dyeing causes more increment in water absorption time. It could be concluded that the direct dye could not only be applied for cross-linked cotton dyeing with satisfactory dyeing properties but could also provide the cotton with excellent anti-wrinkle properties. The durability and fastness of dyed cross-linked samples were reported satisfactory and better as compared with untreated dyed sample. Authors would like to express their gratitude from Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch for its financial support to run and complete this research ...

Citations

... Traditionally, resin finishes are applied on fabric surfaces to prevent creases. However, some recent studies have reported that NPs like SiO 2 and TiO 2 are also capable of restricting crease generation as with the traditional resin finishes (Haque, 2019;Hezavehi et al., 2015;Tripathi et al., 2019). Moreover, when such kinds of nano-based advanced technologies are applied on textiles, a softness is generated in addition to retaining the fabric strength. ...
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Protective textiles have been the primary choice in protecting humans from hazardous substances. Conventional protective textiles are shifting towards a smart and sustainable alliance. Nanomaterials are emerging materials that can be incorporated into traditional fabrics for the development of advanced smart and sustainable protective textiles due to their enhanced mechanical/chemical properties, high catalytic and disinfection efficiency, flame retardance and photoprotection capabilities. Recent literature shows that the addition of various nanomaterial-based fillers, including nanoparticles and electrospun nanofibres, can significantly promote multifunctionality. Therefore, this chapter highlights the potential and challenges faced by nanomaterial-based protective textiles in building a smart and sustainable protective textiles society for the future.
... The use of nanoparticles like SiO 2 and TiO 2 can overcome some of the limitations of standard crease resistant finishes (Tripathi et al., 2019). The wrinkle behaviour and wrinkle resistance capability of cotton textiles dyed with Direct Blue 2B in the exclusion and inclusion of TiO 2 nanoparticles were studied by Hezavehi et al. (2015). The outcomes of this research indicated that direct dyeing improved the wrinkle resistance of textiles in presence of nanoparticles. ...
Chapter
Nanotechnology is still the most growing research domain due to its numerous applications in a wide range of spheres. In the last decade, innumerable nanomaterials have been developed but among those, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are the most focused due to their advanced applications. The textile industry has also grabbed this favour to develop new functionality and enhanced performance rather than conventional textiles. The applications of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles impart some sparking properties in textiles like microbial protection, ultraviolet protection, self-cleaning, controlled moisture absorption capacity, odour proof, antistatic, wrinkle resistance and many others, which turn an ordinary textile into medical as well as health care textile products. The focal point of this chapter will be to reveal an overview of nanomaterials especially metal and metal oxide nanoparticles preparation, characterizations and their prominent role in the medical and health care textile sector. This chapter will also deal with the future challenges of the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on consumer's health as well as the environment.
... Among the many polycarboxylic acids, 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) is regarded as the most effective cross-linking agent [11]. However, the excessively high cost of the BTCA has prevented its application [12]. The citric acid (CA) is a cheap and environment-friendly finishing agent for the cotton fabric [13]. ...
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Cotton fabrics were dyed with the madder and compounds of citric acid (CA) and dicarboxylic acids [tartaric acid (TTA), malic acid (MLA), succinic acid (SUA)] as cross-linking agents and sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as the catalyst. The molecular structures and crystal structures of the dyed cotton fabrics were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the polycarboxylic acids esterified with the hydroxyl groups in the dye and cellulose, respectively, and the reaction mainly occurred in the amorphous region of the cotton fabric. Compared with the direct dyed cotton fabric, the surface color depth (K/S) values of the CA, CA+TTA, CA+MLA, CA+SUA cross-linked dyed cotton fabrics increased by approximately 160%, 190%, 240%, 270%, respectively. The CA+SUA cross-linked dyed cotton fabric achieved the biggest K/S value due to the elimination of the negative effect by α-hydroxyl in TTA and MLA on esterification reaction, and the cross-linked dyed cotton fabrics had great levelness property. The washing and rubbing fastness of the cross-linked cotton fabrics were above four levels. The light resistance stability and the antibacterial property of the cross-linked dyed cotton fabrics was obviously improved. The sum of warp and weft wrinkle recovery angle (WRA) of the CA+SUA cross-linked dyed cotton fabric was 55° higher than that of raw cotton fabric, and its average UV transmittance for UVA was less than 5% and its UPF value was 50+, showing a great anti-wrinkle and anti-ultraviolet properties.
... In recent decades, surface functionalization has been proven particularly effective in realizing unique textiles with desired properties such as self-cleaning, antibacterial, antifungal, fl ame retardancy, ultraviolet blocking and superhydrophobic [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In view of the close relationship with our daily life, the self-cleaning and antibacterial textiles are especially attractive. ...
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This study discusses the effect of corona pretreatment and subsequent loading of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on self-cleaning and antibacterial properties of cellulosic fabric. The corona-pretreated cellulosic fabrics were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray mapping techniques revealed that layers of the titania deposited on cellulose fibers were more uniform than the sample without pre-corona treatment. The self-cleaning property of treated fabrics was evaluated through discoloring dye stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that self-cleaning and antibacterial properties of the corona-pretreated fabrics were superior compared to the sample treated with TiO 2 alone. Moreover, using corona pretreatment leads to samples with good washing fastness.
... However, very little has been reported on the textile technology to produce the dyed and TiO 2 -modified textile fabrics in a single-step process. 44,45 The aim of this study is to develop a hydrothermal dyeing process to modify and dye PA fabric using titanium sulfate or tetrabutyl titanate precursor in conjunction with C.I. Reactive Blue 19 dye under hydrothermal conditions. The representative anthraquinone-based Reactive Blue 19 dye is utilized as a model compound because it is more resistant to biodegradation owing to its fused aromatic structure compared to an azo-based one. ...
Article
In this article, the approach of dyeing polyamide (PA) fabric by using C.I. Reactive Blue 19 dye and simultaneously modifying it with titanium dioxide precursor under hydrothermal conditions is developed. The anthraquinone-based Reactive Blue 19 dye, which is more resistant to biodegradation owing to its fused aromatic structure compared to an azo-based one, is utilized as a model compound in this research to demonstrate the photodegradation effect of TiO2 on reactive dyes. It is shown that a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles is homogeneously coated on fiber surfaces and their particle sizes are smaller than those remaining in the residual dyeing liquors. The crystallinity and optical properties of the resultant PA fabrics are changed due to this hydrothermal dyeing process. In comparison with the dyed-only PA fabrics, the PA fabrics dyed and simultaneously modified with anatase TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit better color fastness against artificial light (xenon) while maintain similar grades of color fastness against washing with soap, wet scrubbing, dry cleaning as well as dry/wet rubbing. While changes in tensile strength, elongation and water absorbency of the resultant PA fabrics were not found, the addition of tetrabutyl titanate in the dyeing liquor is proved to facilitate the reaction of reactive dye with PA fabric and the resultant PA fabric shade. More interestingly, it is noticed that the residual dyeing liquor can be photodegraded after 50 mins of either UV or visible light irradiation, and the dyeing wastewater can thus be released in an eco-friendly manner to the environment.
... In the cross-linking theory, the finishing agents form covalent bonds with fiber molecules, and join the adjacent molecular chains within the fibers. This gives the recoverability improvement of the deformed fibers and increases the crease resistance [186]. ...
... Nano materials play a vital role as a co-catalyst in anti-wrinkle finishing to promote the cross-linking between the fabric structure and the crosslinking agent. In fact, the presence of nano materials can enhance creaseresistant properties [186]. Different types of nano materials employed in the anti-wrinkle finishing process are represented in Figure 1 ...
... In fact, TiO 2 nanoparticles restrict the molecular movement of cellulose chains, and leading to the enhancement of crease resistance of the samples. However, it seems that adding TiO 2 in the absence of BTCA causes better wrinkle-resistant property, but is not considerable [186]. Also, Karthik et al. performed the non-formaldehyde wrinkle-resistant finishing of cotton fabrics using citric acid as a cross-linking agent and SHP as a catalyst together with nano-TiO 2 as a co-catalyst compound. ...
Chapter
The unique properties of nanomaterials have real commercial potential for the textile industry. In recent years, fine materials that are produced using nanotechnology have been used in the textile production process. Production of functional textiles is the main purpose of using nanomaterials or nanocomponents on natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk and synthetic fibers such as polyester, nylon, and acrylic, as they possess various properties such as light resistance, antimicrobial, self-cleaning, fire retardant, etc. Different kinds of nanostructures are used in textiles. For example, carbon and copper nanoparticles or polymeric nanostructures such as polypyrrol and polyaniline as electro conductive agents; aluminum, zinc oxides, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for increasing durability of fibers; antimicrobial agents such as silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide (TiO2); moisture absorbent agents such as TiO2; selfcleaning nanostructures such as CNT, TiO2, and fluoroacrylates; UV protection agents as TiO2 and ZnO; nano porous structures such as silicon dioxide or carbon black in order to improve dye ability of fibers; and many advanced properties such as heat conducting or insulating or electromagnetic shielding via introducing CNT or vanadium dioxide and indium tin oxide to fibers, respectively. In this chapter, the development of using nanostructures to improve the properties of textiles is discussed. For this reason, nanostructures used in finishing processes are presented, separately.
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Cotton fabric dyed with natural madder dye exhibits poor dyeing properties. Although mordant improves the dyeing property of cotton fabric, it changes the madder dye colour tonality (the hue angle). In this study, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) was used as a crosslinking agent to dye cotton fabrics with natural madder dye and improve the surface colour depth (K/S) and colour fastness. The molecular structure, crystal structure and surface morphology of crosslinked dyed cotton were analysed using Fourier Transform–infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed that crosslinked dyed cotton fabric had two different ether bonds, and that crosslinked dyeing mainly occurred in the amorphous area. Compared with direct dyed cotton fabric, the hue angle (h°) of crosslinked dyed cotton fabric did not undergo an obvious change, K/S increased by 5, and the rubbing fastness, washing fastness and light fastness increased by 2-3 levels, indicating that the dyeing property of cotton fabric with natural madder dye could be improved by using EGDE as a crosslinking agent. Compared with raw cotton fabric, the bending length of crosslinked dyed cotton fabric was reduced by 2.28 cm, the wrinkle recovery angle increased by 80.7° and the ultraviolet protection factor value was more than 40, indicating that crosslinked dyed cotton fabric had great softness, wrinkle resistance and excellent ultraviolet resistance. In addition, the water contact angle of the cotton fabric only changed slightly after crosslinking dyeing, and the crosslinked dyed cotton fabric still had good hydrophilicity. Therefore, EGDE was a viable crosslinking agent for cotton fabric with madder dye.
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Itaconic acid is an organic acid with a wide range of applications in the fields of polymer chemistry, pharmacy, agriculture, textile industry, etc. A bio-synthetic process of itaconic acid production in this study was carried out with Aspergillus terreus K17 having empty palm oil fruit bunches as a feedstock. Bio-synthesis of itaconic acid was compared with commercial maleic acid, itaconic acid and 1, 2, 3, 4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as anti-crease agents with sodium hypophosphate (SHP) as an esterification catalyst for cotton fabric finishing. The results showed that mechanical properties of cotton fabrics treated with bio-synthesized itaconic acid were better than those treated with the commercial ones whereas their whiteness index was lower. The best conditions for crease recovery were obtained from 8% w/v itaconic acid with 8% w/v SHP applied on cotton fabrics with a technique of 2-dip-2-nip, dried at 85 °C for 3 min and cured at 180 °C for 2 min. Even though the anti-crease properties of cotton fabrics treated with bio-synthesized itaconic acid were still lower than those treated with commercial maleic acid and BTCA, the finished cotton fibers retain the mechanical properties of cotton fabric. This study would be beneficial in producing itaconic acid as an eco-friendly anti-crease agent for cotton fabrics from waste empty palm oil fruit bunches by a bio-synthesis process.
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Crosslinking cellulose imparts good wrinkle resistance but severely impairs mechanical properties of cotton fabrics. Herein, we report the investigation of the properties of cotton fabrics treated with dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU), butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), and maleic acid (MA) in presence of an amino functional silicon softener via etherification, esterification, and esterification/ addition crosslinking. Additionally, their specific effects on weight gain and wrinkle resistance, mechanical properties of treated fabrics and yarns pulled out from corresponding samples were thoroughly analyzed. The results indicated that esterification crosslinking by both MA and BTCA showed higher weight gain and tensile strength retention than etherification crosslinking by DMDHEU (3.72 %). Only one equivalence point (pKa’=6.45) for titration curve of the intermediate after completion of MA esterifcation in absence of crosslinks on fabrics provided evidence to support the first step of crosslinking/addition mechanism for MA. The bonding of addition intermediate of MA/cotton demonstrated higher weight gain compared to that by DMDHEU under the same level of wrinkle resistance. The crosslinking between cellulose significantly reduced mechanical properties of durable press (DP) finished samples independent of molecular structures and reactivity of finishing agents. The WRA (the highest of 289°) and tearing strength (tearing retention of 160 %) were improved temporarily in the presence of softeners, and decreased to the same level of control after 10 home laundering cycles, therefore use of softeners in DP finishing proved to be a potential semi-durable method (5 laundering cycles normally).
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At present, nanotechnology is a priority in research in several nations due to its massive capability and financial impact. However, due to the uncertainties and abnormalities in shape, size, and chemical compositions, the existence of certain nanomaterials may lead to dangerous effects on the human health and environment. The present review includes the different advanced applications of nanomaterials in textiles industries, as well as their associated environmental and health risks. The four main textile industry fields using nanomaterials, nanofinishing, nanocoatings, nanofibers, and nanocomposites, are analyzed. Different functional textiles with nanomaterials are also briefly reviewed. Most textile materials are in direct and prolonged contact with our skin. Hence, the influence of carcinogenic and toxic substances that are available in textiles must be comprehensively examined. Proper recognition of the conceivable benefits and accidental hazards of nanomaterials to our surroundings is significant for pursuing its development in the forthcoming years. The conclusions of the current paper are anticipated to increase awareness on the possible influence of nanomaterial-containing textile wastes and the significance of better regulations in regards to the ultimate disposal of these wastes.