... Enki / Ea is one of the most often represented gods in the glyptic art of the Akkadian period. He is pictured with two streams flowing out from his shoulders, sitting inside his cosmic territory Abzo surrounded by waves of water and accompanied by fish swimming in water [5]. The seated water god on seal 6 is EA, the Akkadian equivalent of the Sumerian Enki. ...
... 294 Urn. 49; Espak 2006, 42-45. 295 Heimpel 1981 Ur-Nanše A: 35-36. ...
In this book, Nissim Amzallag offers new perspectives on the birth of ancient Israel by combining recent archaeological discoveries with a new approach to ancient Yahwism. He investigates the renewal of the copper industry in the Early Iron Age Levant and its influence on the rise of new nations, and also explores the recently identified metallurgical context of ancient Yahwism in the Bible. By merging these two branches of evidence, Amzallag proposes that the roots of YHWH are found in a powerful deity who sponsored the emancipation movement that freed Israel from the Amorite/Egyptian hegemony. Amzallag identifies the early Israelite religion as an attempt to transform the esoteric traditions of Levantine metalworkers into the public worship of YHWH. These unusual origins provide insight into many of the unique aspects of Israelite theology that ultimately spurred the evolution towards monotheism. His volume also casts new light on the mysterious smelting-god, the figure around which many Bronze Age religions revolved.
During the heyday of the solar-myth paradigm it was a norm to interpret every single mythic character and his or her actions in terms of either the annual or diurnal solar movement. With the paradigm’s inevitable demise, the body of evidence that was central to its approach was relegated to a more peripheral position by the adherents of succeeding paradigms that successively dominated the field. This has left a significant number of references to solar phenomena in ancient text on the margins of scholarly interest, including those that appear in the central texts of both Mesopotamian and Greek traditions. This paper focuses on a re-evaluation of the presence of solar resonances in a section of the Epic of Gilgameš that contains clear and explicit references to the sun and its course. At the same time, following in the footsteps of many earlier scholars, it offers a parallel analysis of a section of Odysseus’ itinerary of a similar character. This re-evaluation has shown that the respective sections of the heroes’ itineraries are partly structured on an analogy with solar movement, but that the dominant use of solar references in these texts is more haphazard and reflects more circumscribed intentions of the texts’ authors.
The causes of the disappearance of Late Chalcolithic society (Ghassulian) in the early fourth millennium bc remain obscure. This study identifies the collapse as the consequence of a change in the approach to metallurgy from cosmological fundament (Late Chalcolithic) to a practical craft (EB1). This endogenous transition accounts for the cultural recession characterizing the transitional period (EB1A) and the discontinuity in ritual practices. The new practical approach in metallurgy is firstly observed in the southern margin of the Ghassulian culture, which produced copper for distribution in the Nile valley rather than the southern Levant. Nevertheless, the Ghassulian cultural markers visible in the newly emerging areas of copper working (southern coastal plain, Nile valley) denote the survival of the old cosmological traditions among metalworkers of the EB1 culture. Their religious expression unveils the extension of the Ghassulian beliefs attached to metallurgy and their metamorphosis into the esoteric fundaments of the Bronze Age religions.
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With the establishment of the city states after the transition to the Ancient Mesopotamian settlements, a ruling class was formed as king or priest or king-priest. The most important class in the city settlement was the clergy or religious institutions. The solution to the negative conditions experienced in the Mesopotamian societies has also brought to mind the solution of the clergy-administrative class. This class had a say in society, and it was written or verbal that the reason for these bad conditions was that they angered the gods and punished them with negative consequences. The solution against evil or negative situations was realized by absolute obedience and sacrifice rituals. This ruling class had a say in society, and it was written or verbal that the reason for these bad conditions was that they angered the gods and punished them with negative consequences. The solution to evil or unfavorable situations was carried out with absolute obedience and sacrifice rituals. From this point of view, the rituals of gods have been performed in order to obtain their love and mercy by keeping the hearts of the gods, to ensure the end of the diseases of death, curse and epidemics, and to gain abundance in the activities of agriculture and animal husbandry. The tablets of many civilizations that lived in the Ancient Near East and the many historical documents obtained have had negative effects on people, whether they are gods or malignant demons. The main reason for this is that people do not have the technology that meets the conditions of the day and that they are insufficient in the treatment against diseases. They therefore believed that they were punished by gods or demons. In this study, some examples of adverse conditions people faced in ancient Mesopotamia were given and examples were given with the myths of the evil creatures. Fears and horrific events were carried out by angry gods or demons in ancient Mesopotamian societies.