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The Correlation Between Environmental Concern and Wealth in the 59 Countries from the ISSP, WVS, and EVS

The Correlation Between Environmental Concern and Wealth in the 59 Countries from the ISSP, WVS, and EVS

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Objectives This study examines the effect of countries’ wealth on individuals’ willingness to pay for environmental protection. Former studies using the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) report a positive effect, while studies using the World Values Survey (WVS) or the European Values Study (EVS) find the opposite. In this article, we ex...

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Context 1
... correlation of the weighted willingness to pay with countries' wealth (purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita) for all 59 countries from the ISSP, WVS, and EVS 4 results in a statistically significant value of r = 0.46. This correlation is depicted in Figure 3. 5 The data sets for the 60 countries do not only contain information about environmental concern but also data on the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. ...
Context 2
... the individual level (level 1), previous studies (e.g., Franzen and Meyer, 2010) 2 Theoretically, an undefined division of zero can occur. However, the lowest value of acquiescence observed in the data is 0.02. 3 The average of the willingness to pay from the ISSP and the WVS is 0.53. 4 Luxembourg is an outlier with respect to GDP and is therefore not included in Figure 3. 5 A different measurement of acquiescence and a different weighting procedure is used in Franzen and Vogl (2011). ...
Context 3
... that respondents' income, education, and age should affect environmental concern. The wealth effect discussed above should not only affect environmental concern at the macro level of countries as demonstrated in Figure 3, but it should also explain the interindividual differences found within countries. In the analyses that follow, we calculate individuals' household equivalent income by dividing the households' income by the square root of the number of individuals living in one household. ...
Context 4
... more importantly, the effect of GDP per capita is statistically significant when we control for acquiescence. Thus, the multivariate analysis mirrors the bivariate correlation results between GDP and the willingness to pay as shown in Figure 3. ...
Context 5
... argument might indeed apply to some very poor countries such as Uganda, which had a PPP of $690 per capita in 2000. However, our sample of countries does not consist of either very poor or very rich countries, and the correlation reported in Figure 3 holds cross-nationally for the entire wealth range. ...

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... One expectation is that champions of the environmental movement come from more affluent classes than the movement's detractors. There is consistent evidence for this relationship (Franzen and Meyer, 2010;Vogl, 2013a, 2013b;Gelissen, 2007;Kemmelmeier et al., 2002, but see Jones and Dunlap 1992;Sarigöllü 2009). Another expectation is that that urbanites are more pro-environmental compared to those who live in rural areas. ...
... Those who do not need to worry about their material needs can worry about the environment (Van Liere and Dunlap 1980:183). There is quite consistent evidence for the relationship between income and environmental attitudes (Franzen and Meyer, 2010;Vogl, 2013a, 2013b;Gelissen, 2007;Kemmelmeier et al., 2002). One may, however, note that 6 Rural Sociology, Vol. ...
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... Neighborhoods with low envi ron men tal qual ity are thus more likely to offer low-cost hous ing oppor tu ni ties (Bayer et al. 2009;Currie et al. 2015;Farber 1998). At the same time, house holds are will ing to pay more for envi ron men tal goods as their income increases (Franzen and Vogl, 2013;Liebe et al. 2010). It fol lows that high-income house holds have an increased like li hood of mov ing out of low-qual ity neigh bor hoods (selec tive out-migra tion) because they are will ing and able to pay for higher hous ing prices. ...
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... As illustrated in Fig. 2, the standardized path coefficient of environmental concern (β = 0.23, P < 0.01) is statistically significant for the farmers' environmental attitude in a positive direction, which supported the hypothesis H2. This finding is consistent with results of Huddart-Kennedy et al. (2009), Franzen andVogl (2013), Zhou (2013), Dorsch (2014), Pampel (2014), Armstrong and Stedman (2019). They believed that concern about environmental threat caused changing individuals' attitude towards environmental conservation and more willingness to pay for environmental protection. ...
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... Such factors include social class, age, gender, responsibility for dependants, religious faith and victimization. Their hypothesized predictions primarily rest on economic theory, which emphasizes the value of and demand for a product and supply of resources or raw material for the production to induce the production and budget constraint to impede the production (Franzen et al. 2013;Manza et al. 2005). Herein, the demand indicates the value of the product. ...
... (Sternberg et al. 2011). Essentially, the theory is capable for predicting support for and willingness to pay for various public policies and practices and personal action, such as those related to welfare and environmental protection (Franzen et al. 2013;Leavell et al. 2013;Manza et al. 2005;Poortinga et al. 2014;Van Zomeren 2009). Social class, indicated by family income, homeownership and employment, is likely to predict the public crime cost reflected by willingness to pay against crime positively. ...
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... These two latent variables have been used both individually and in combination to operationalize environmental concern (Mayerl and Best, 2019). The latent variable WTS is frequently used to measure the extent to which people are willing to sacrifice something in their daily life (money, goods, time, comfort) to save the environment, and has been examined by several authors (e.g., Ivanova and Tranter, 2008;Fairbrother, 2013;Franzen and Vogl, 2013;Pampel, 2014;Sara and Nurit, 2014;Shao et al., 2018). The relation with cultural, sociological, economic, or political factors has been studied quite extensively (e.g., Marquart-Pyatt, 2012b;Franzen and Vogl, 2013;Pampel, 2014;Bozonnet, 2016;McCright et al., 2016;Shao et al., 2018). ...
... The latent variable WTS is frequently used to measure the extent to which people are willing to sacrifice something in their daily life (money, goods, time, comfort) to save the environment, and has been examined by several authors (e.g., Ivanova and Tranter, 2008;Fairbrother, 2013;Franzen and Vogl, 2013;Pampel, 2014;Sara and Nurit, 2014;Shao et al., 2018). The relation with cultural, sociological, economic, or political factors has been studied quite extensively (e.g., Marquart-Pyatt, 2012b;Franzen and Vogl, 2013;Pampel, 2014;Bozonnet, 2016;McCright et al., 2016;Shao et al., 2018). ...
... When we repeated this analysis we came to the same conclusion, for the results of this analysis, see Appendix A in Arts et al. (2021). For simplicity reasons, we only focus on the latent variable WTS, just like Ivanova andTranter (2008), Fairbrother (2013), Franzen and Vogl (2013), Pampel (2014), Sara and Nurit (2014), and Shao et al. (2018). To further analyze this scale, we first ensured that we used the exact same data from the ISSP 2010 environment module and we followed the identical procedure as in the original study to handle missingness (i.e., listwise deletioncorrespondence with author, November 26 2019), resulting in the same sample (n = 24,583). ...
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Nationwide opinions and international attitudes toward climate and environmental change are receiving increasing attention in both scientific and political communities. An often used way to measure these attitudes is by large-scale social surveys. However, the assumption for a valid country comparison, measurement invariance, is often not met, especially when a large number of countries are being compared. This makes a ranking of countries by the mean of a latent variable potentially unstable, and may lead to untrustworthy conclusions. Recently, more liberal approaches to assessing measurement invariance have been proposed, such as the alignment method in combination with Bayesian approximate measurement invariance. However, the effect of prior variances on the assessment procedure and substantive conclusions is often not well understood. In this article, we tested for measurement invariance of the latent variable “willingness to sacrifice for the environment” using Maximum Likelihood Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Bayesian approximate measurement invariance, both with and without alignment optimization. For the Bayesian models, we used multiple priors to assess the impact on the rank order stability of countries. The results are visualized in such a way that the effect of different prior variances and models on group means and rankings becomes clear. We show that even when models appear to be a good fit to the data, there might still be an unwanted impact on the rank ordering of countries. From the results, we can conclude that people in Switzerland and South Korea are most motivated to sacrifice for the environment, while people in Latvia are less motivated to sacrifice for the environment.
... We also control for the level of democratic development using the Polity score 9 (Marshall and Jaggers 2012) in the year of the contest. This helps account for geographic variation in respondents' propensity to give acquiescent responses to survey questions (see, e.g., Franzen and Vogl 2013 Note: Point estimates represent the predicted probability of reported turnout, as predicted with multilevel logistic regression models shown in Table A1. The covariates are held at their observed values for each case in the estimation sample. ...
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A key challenge in survey research is social desirability bias: respondents feel pressured to report acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Building on established �findings, we argue that threat-inducing violent events are a heretofore unaccounted for driver of social desirability bias. We probe this argument by investigating whether fatal terror attacks lead respondents to overreport past electoral participation, a well-known and measurable result of social desirability bias. Using a cross-national analysis and natural and survey experiments, we show that fatal terror attacks generate turnout overreporting. This highlights that threat-inducing violent events induce social desirability; that researchers need to account for the timing of survey fieldwork vis-�a-vis such events; and that some of the previously reported post-violent conflict increases in political participation may be more apparent than real.