The CDH (context -development -high level) hierarchy of design knowledge

The CDH (context -development -high level) hierarchy of design knowledge

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Hierarchies of knowledge represent a popular formalism for conceptualizing beliefs, justifications, and truth statements. To capitalize on the opportunity for formulating effective maps of design knowledge, this article introduces the hierarchical context–design development–high-level (CDH) model that stratifies different bodies of design-specific...

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Context 1
... on the considerations in the previous section, we introduce a hierarchical model of design knowledge (Figure 1), which organizes the aforementioned BDKs into an overarching structure. We hereby name it CDH hierarchy, based on the initial letters of its three main levels: context, design state, and high-level design knowledge. ...
Context 2
... middle level contains knowledge about design states, which from a knowledge-centric viewpoint of design can be understood as embodied knowledge (Cross, 2001;Stolterman and Wiberg, 2010), the thinking embodied in an artifact (Frayling, 1993), or objects that contain knowledge of what the product should be (Cross, 1999). As shown in Figure 1, we classify design development knowledge into the following three sub-levels commonly encountered in the literature and practice (see e.g. Pahl and Beitz, 2007): ...
Context 3
... include theories associated with architectural and urban design ( Mahy et al., 1987) and interaction design (Carroll, 2003), and those at the intersection of architecture and psychology (Gibson, 1976). In addition to the bodies of high-level design knowledge listed above (as shown in Figure 1), other BDKs might presumably be added to the topmost tier of the CDH model in the future. For example, relatively low-level "design recommendations" (Mariage et al., 2005) may be considered as a sub-type of design guidelines. ...
Context 4
... reiterate, however, that higher-level design knowledge can be best developed, refined, and validated with the designer having successfully completed multiple design projects beforehand, namely when the designer or design researcher has accumulated substantial personal experience in developing design states, as well as in researching associated design contexts. This implies yet another temporal dimension to the static CDH model shown in Figure 1, and which we intend to address in future work. ...

Citations

... The IDEA audit is developed with a scalable and flexible approach to allow for a widespread use in different settings [18] and is structured according to hierarchical levels [62] with 3 major subjects, 8 topics, 26 themes, 59 sub-themes and 106 statements (Image 3). ...
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... Due to the limitations of data collection for this paper, we cannot explicitly draw the sequence or process of the creation of the method through post-hoc recall of our interview participants. Instead, we have chosen to focus on the constraints that the MD used or considered, the precedent materials they built upon or consumed (Gray, 2020), the primary generators they cultivated (Darke, 1979), the design knowledge they used or relied upon (Kolari c et al., 2020;Goodman, Stolterman, & Wakkary, 2011), and the desiderata that guided their intentions for the method (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012). These concepts are described in additional detail in Section 4. ...
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... The notion of "design knowledge" has been extensively researched in the design and HCI literature, broadly defining what constitutes design knowledge (e.g., patterns of reflection [43], ontologies [145]), levels of instigation of design knowledge in design activity [76,99], and different types of design knowledge [104,105]. For the purpose of this paper, we explore "methods" as a particular form of design knowledge that enables "the creation of design states" [99] that support and advance a designer's capability [105]. We draw on the definition given by Stolterman and colleagues [136] of design methods as "tools, techniques, and approaches that support design activity in [a] way that is appreciated by practicing interaction designers," and Gray's [81] definition that describes design methods as "tool[s] that allow designers to support thinking, reflecting and acting upon design activities." ...
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... However, recent design scholarship in human-computer interaction (HCI) and related disciplines has engaged more deeply with the epistemological dimensions of design knowledge, with specific proposals to more deeply investigate situational design knowledge (Rasmussen et al., 2019), identify how design knowledge is expressed and structured in online conversations among designers (Gray & Kou, 2019, articulate different forms of "intermediate-level knowledge" FIGURE 1. Google Images search of "type specimen books, " revealing forms of visually-focused precedent common in other design fields. that exist between theory and concrete artifacts (Höök et al., 2015;Höök & Löwgren, 2012;Löwgren, 2013), and potential hierarchies of design knowledge (Kolarić et al., 2020). ...
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