The Afterimage Test: The figure illustrates the nature of an afterimage with a person initially staring out into the sunset. Upon looking away from the sunset at any angle with eyes closed or in a dark space, a faded and perhaps blurry original image of the sunset is visible on the back of the eyelids or in the current dark visual scene. As the head is rotated, the afterimage follows. We suggest that this afterimage is a remnant of the external space defaulted into the internal space with filling in by higher cortical areas and the retina [28].

The Afterimage Test: The figure illustrates the nature of an afterimage with a person initially staring out into the sunset. Upon looking away from the sunset at any angle with eyes closed or in a dark space, a faded and perhaps blurry original image of the sunset is visible on the back of the eyelids or in the current dark visual scene. As the head is rotated, the afterimage follows. We suggest that this afterimage is a remnant of the external space defaulted into the internal space with filling in by higher cortical areas and the retina [28].

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Consciousness is the unified, structured, subjective experience that we all share. The Default Space Theory has been proposed as a unified theory of consciousness that includes the brain and body in describing the infrastructure of consciousness. We have presented the theory in journals with a variety of academic specialties; however, the model is...

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... Figure 1). This simple observation indicates that we have an internal 3D visual space, which we have proposed is maintained by default activity of retinogeni- culo-cortical oscillations [19]. ...

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... 4 Phantom limb phenomenon is very common and experienced among 60%-85% of post-amputation patients as per different studies. 5 Whereas some other researchers report the incidence to be at least 85% among amputees, affecting the amputees earlier in the post-op phase and continuing as a chronic issue, leaving long term effects. 6 Phantom limb pain can appear immediately or after several years of amputation. ...
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Objective: To quantify the frequency of phantom limb pain, limb sensation and stump pain among amputees aging 20-75 years. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was done. A population of 75 amputees were selected using non-probability convenient sampling and after setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Standard questionnaires; Groningen Questionnaire Problems after Arm Amputation (GQPAA) and Groningen Questionnaire Problems after Leg Amputation (GQPLA), were filled by interviewing the patients. All the patients were approached in the hospitals. Data was collected from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi. The duration of study was 6 months from June 2021 to December 2021. Results: After compiling 1177 all the results from the questionnaires, it was unveiled that among 75 amputees, mean age was 43.12±11.43 years. Out of these amputees, 53.3% were upper limb amputees and 46.7% were lower limb amputees. the frequency of phantom sensation was 62.7%, 57.3% reported phantom limb pain and 84% experienced stump pain. Conclusion: The study concluded that most prevalent among the population was stump pain, which was followed by phantom limb sensations and the least prevalent of these three was phantom limb pain among the population.
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The presence and usage of codes is probably the most distinguishable and unique feature of living systems. All living entities use coded interactions at any level of their organization. There are no coded interactions in chemistry, physics, or geology. Yet, there are few if any definitions of life that take into account codes in the general life sciences. This shows, that although code biology and the field of biosemiotics are quite long-established disciplines, their implications for research and education still have an enormous potential to transform other disciplines. The presentation will address teaching principles and new research directions of code biology. Representation by means of cellular codes generates the cellular self - ”celf” - that is the basic building block of embodied wholeness. This wholeness or completeness is a setpoint realized and measured via cellular calculation and feedback loops. The author considers the celf as an equation and not a mathematical function. This working hypothesis has groundbreaking biological and medical implications ranging from cancer therapy to phantom pain treatment. Network analyses in biology have inherent weaknesses because they are based on one-to-one interactions between the analyzed molecules. Cellular information flow is facilitated by codes. Every code is composed of three parts: object, sign, and interpreter. This means, relations between two molecules are not necessarily based on direct chemical or physical interaction but on the mediation through an adapter, the sign. A new network topology and ontology is proposed by the author. Cellular components are assigned the roles object, sign, and interpreter according to Charles Sanders Peirce. This introduces a fundamentally different topology to networks compared to current approaches and opens new opportunities for the interpretation of cellular networks. Today there is no simple and objective measure of complexity or even a satisfactory definition for the application of this term in the life sciences. Complexity of organisms or networks can be quantified objectively through the analysis of codes versus cellular building blocks. This measure allows comparisons of complexity between different entities, species, or cellular subsystems across biological realms. Also, quantification or estimation of complexity using codes can provide a measure of modifiability in synthetic biology: the more codes per parts, i.e. high code density, the higher the off-target rate will be during cellular engineering and molecular intervention. The definition of life must be revisited taking into account coded interactions. For example, a strict physical border or membrane is not necessary for the definition of life. A living entity is comprised of a set of codes ruling the interaction of its parts. Any interaction that is not compatible with this set of codes is not part of the system. This has also implications on the search for life in the universe. Finger- and footprints left by extraterrestrial life on other planets could be found through identification of codes and episemiotic signs in future space exploration.