Temporal regulation of human circadian rhythms in body temperature, endocrines and habitual sleep–wake state. Abbreviations are core body temperature (CBT) and blood concentration of melatonin (Mel), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (Corti). (A) In the normal relation among physiological timings and social time, people can maintain their sleepiness according to the bed-time (habitual sleep). (B) In external desynchronizations, physiological (internal) timings and the social 24-h clock are dissociated, that cause delayed sleep onset and lengthened sleepiness in daytimes. (C) Further desynchronizations in internal clocks make people on the slide, because the temporal relationships among sleep-related physiology and the habitual sleep–wake period in organisms are not kept constant.

Temporal regulation of human circadian rhythms in body temperature, endocrines and habitual sleep–wake state. Abbreviations are core body temperature (CBT) and blood concentration of melatonin (Mel), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (Corti). (A) In the normal relation among physiological timings and social time, people can maintain their sleepiness according to the bed-time (habitual sleep). (B) In external desynchronizations, physiological (internal) timings and the social 24-h clock are dissociated, that cause delayed sleep onset and lengthened sleepiness in daytimes. (C) Further desynchronizations in internal clocks make people on the slide, because the temporal relationships among sleep-related physiology and the habitual sleep–wake period in organisms are not kept constant.

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Considerable attention has been paid to individuals showing social maladjustment as well as withdrawal from social situations and activity, a state referred to as “Hikikomori” in Japanese. Recently, social maladjustment and Hikikomori states have also been noted to be highly prevalent among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs),...

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... With emergence consumer devices such as Microsoft R Kinect TM re-purposed for sports science, the cost of technology has become less of an issue [14]. Recently interesting developments in wearable compressive garment-based sensor platforms [286] and novel sensors/actuators developed for extended reality (XR) [383, 854] and soft robots applications [738] are enabling the design of future non-invasive and cost-eective continuous performance monitoring solutions for strength training.The development in sensor technology and its ease of use might rene the denitions of the test-ing (done infrequently) vs monitoring (done often) variables used by some S&C coaches[667].Some of the measures such as blood sampling and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) currently seen as testing measures might become monitoring measures with the introduction of low-SWE for the (real-time) quantication of musculotendon stiness [419, 467], cartoon of smart insoles for quantifying center-of-pressure (CoP) and the tripod loading , force plates for measuring ground reaction forces [245], EMG for measuring activation [257] (myoelectric activity more exactly[841]), sweat-based biochemical sensing for detecting metabolic and neuromuscular fatigue from ammonia and lactate levels[697], core body temperature for circadian phase[788] and muscle temperature measurements for training preparedness, subjective rating of eort through RPE logging (https://www.reactivetrainingsystems.com/), cognitive load from electrical (EEG) ...
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In strength training, personalised strength training (autoregulation) approaches have been used to individualise exercise programs with monitoring an for dynamic adjustment based on their responses to training. While this transition from tradition-based training to evidence-based training framework has been an improvement in training practices, we argue that the future of strength training will also incorporate deep learning models powered by data. We refer to this data-driven framework as precision strength training inspired by the similar modeling frameworks used in precision medicine. In contrast to current personalised training in which the acquired athlete data is often subject to human expert decision-making, we are anticipating the rise of human-in-the-loop systems with an augmented coach who will be doing decisions collaboratively with the machine. Similar to other precision frameworks, such as precision health, we envision such a future to take decades to be realised and we focus here on practical short-term targets on a way to long-term realisation. In this chapter, we will review the measurement technology needed for continuous data acquisition from an individual during training/physical activity, how to acquire these datasets for the development of such systems and, how a proof-of-concept system could be developed for powerlifting training with applicability to general strength and conditioning (S&C) and physical rehabilitation purposes. Additionally, we will evaluate how the user experience (UX) of the system feedback and visualisation could be designed.
... The protracted confinement in a bedroom would not be conducive to the usual domestic cycle of adequate and regular sleep, causing poor sleep quality [1,6]. A recent review has discussed the similarities between hikikomori status and pervasive developmental disorders, which suggested the associations of physical problems such as headaches, neck, back and muscle pains, and gastrointestinal problems with the irregular sleep-wake rhythms of hikikomori [7]. Indeed, from the bio-psychosocial point of view, as supported by empirical evidences, the harmful impacts of social withdrawal and sedentary lifestyle on both physical and mental health have long been established. ...
... Numerous studies [9][10][11] have reported that the existence of psychiatric co-morbidity was common within 1-2 years following the onset of a hikikomori life, and that the problem often became worse during the time that the individual leads such a life. In Japan, the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in hikikomori was almost double of the non-hikikomori population, whereas the risk of mood disorders was six-times higher among hikikomori [7]. Although the etiology remains largely unknown, many researchers believed that this is a personalized phenomenon and culturally driven. ...
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Background: A prospective cohort study was conducted to follow-up on 104 participants on their changes of social, psychological and physical health as exposed to the hikikomori lifestyle. Methods: Participants were interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months by administering a set of questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Results: All three health domains of hikikomori were significantly improved over the follow-up period as evidenced by: (1) increased social network scores from 2.79 ± 1.80 to 3.09 ± 1.87, (2) decreased perceived stress scores from 21.18 ± 5.87 to 20.11 ± 5.79, and (3) reduced blood pressure levels from 118/75 to 115/71 and waist-to-hip ratios. Almost half of the participants have recovered from hikikomori by returning to the workforce in society; however, the health improvements were dominant in those that remained as hikikomori and were associated with the gradual swapping of exercise practices from light to moderate level strength. Conclusions: With intended exposure to social worker engagement, physical assessments of the cohort study triggered the social workers to encourage participants to do more exercises, which in turn enhanced their awareness of health modification towards a better health. Engagement of social workers could be considered as part of the intended exposure for all participants, which suggested social work intervention was effective in helping hikikomori recovery.
... The protracted confinement in bedroom could be hard to lead the usual domestic cycle of adequate and regular sleep causing poor sleep quality [1,3]. A recent review has discussed the similarities between hikikomori status and pervasive developmental disorders, which suggested the associations of physical problems such as headaches, neck, back and muscle pains, and gastrointestinal problems with the irregular sleep-wake rhythm of hikikomori [4]. Indeed, from the bio-psychosocial point of view, as supported by empirical evidences, the harmful impacts of socially withdrawn and sedentary lifestyle on both physical and mental health have long been established. ...
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Background: A prospective study was conducted to follow-up how the living lifestyle of hikikomori could change the social, mental and physical health profile. Methods: A cohort consisted of 104 young people living as Hikikomori were interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months by using the same set of questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Results: Besides the high attrition of 30% in wave 2 and 25% in wave 3, almost half of the participants have recovered from hikikomori by returning to the workforce in society. The three domains of health profile of hikikomori were significantly improved over the follow-up period by: 1) increasing the social network scores from 2.791.80 to 3.091.87, 2) decreasing the perceived stress scores from 21.185.87 to 20.115.79, and 3) reducing blood pressure levels from 118/75 to 115/71 and waist-to-hip ratios. Those variables were also predictable by lifestyle living with the hikikomori according to the Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, whereas the participants of current study had increased the practice of moderate-intensity exercises. Conclusion: Social work intervention was effective in helping the recovery of hikikomori while physical assessments followed by encouragement from social workers to do more exercises might enhance their awareness in health modification towards a better health.
... Excessive energy intake and insufficient physical activities could be a major cause of weight gains by time, which eventually leads to obesity [57,58]. Furthermore, the poor sleeping quality of current participants was consistent with previous report that hikikomori tended to sleep at extremely late night hours or during the day [59]. Very frequent and prolonged use of computers and electronic devices at home as the top activities amongst the hikikomori cases could be associated with poor sleep quality, which coincided with the strong association between sleep quality and daytime function with the use of technologies [60,61]. ...
... Clinical significance of human circadian rhythms was reviewed [63], which has highlighted the negative impacts of disrupted sleeping cycle on cardiovascular regulation associated with BP levels. Another study discussed how irregular sleep-wake rhythm of hikikomori could be associated with physical problems such as headaches, neck, back, or muscle pain, and gastrointestinal problems [59]. However, such physical parameters have not been measured in the current study, and are deemed to be further investigated. ...
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A cross-sectional study was designed to understand the impacts of "hikikomori" lifestyle on physical health. A total of 104 eligible hikikomori cases were recruited from the social services network of Hong Kong with a mean age of 19.02 ± 3.62 (ranged 13-31) year-old, and had completed the set of questionnaires and a series of anthropometric and physical health measurements. Despite SF36 score of 84.0 indicated good physical functioning in general, participants were lived sedentarily with high incidence of hypertension at 15.4% and prehypertension at 31.7%. Occurrence of hypertension and prehypertension in cases living as hikikomori >6 months were 3 times and 1.5 times higher than those newly onset cases, respectively. The blood pressure levels were correlated with age and all obesity index parameters measured including waist circumference and body mass index. Results also observed a shift of body weight from underweight to overweight and obesity along the hikikomori duration. Half of the hypertensive cases involved the elevation of systolic blood pressure, which suggested higher odds of cardiovascular complications. In conclusion, the hikikomori lifestyle could be a risk behavior that may harm the younger generation physically by promoting obesity and hypertension and probably other chronic illnesses.
... Excessive energy intake and insufficient physical activities could be a major cause of weight gains by time, which eventually leads to obesity [57,58]. Furthermore, the poor sleeping quality of current participants was consistent with previous report that hikikomori tended to sleep at extremely late night hours or during the day [59]. Very frequent and prolonged use of computers and electronic devices at home as the top activities amongst the hikikomori cases could be associated with poor sleep quality, which coincided with the strong association between sleep quality and daytime function with the use of technologies [60,61]. ...
... Clinical significance of human circadian rhythms was reviewed [63], which has highlighted the negative impacts of disrupted sleeping cycle on cardiovascular regulation associated with BP levels. Another study discussed how irregular sleep-wake rhythm of hikikomori could be associated with physical problems such as headaches, neck, back, or muscle pain, and gastrointestinal problems [59]. However, such physical parameters have not been measured in the current study, and are deemed to be further investigated. ...
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To understand the health impacts of “hikikomori” lifestyle and to establish its first comprehensive health profile, a cross-sectional study was designed to measure how well the cases of hikikomori youths of Hong Kong were living, in terms of social, mental and physical aspects. This study involved 104 eligible participants at age 19.02 year-old who had completed the set of questionnaires and a series of anthropometric and physical health measurements. Despite SF36 score of 84.0 indicated good physical functioning in general, participants were lived sedentarily with high incidence of hypertension at 15.4% and prehypertension at 31.7%. Occurrence of hypertension in cases living as hikikomori >6 months was 3-times higher than those newly onset cases. The blood pressure levels were correlated with age and all obesity index parameters measured including waist circumference and body mass index. Half of the hypertensive cases involved the elevation of systolic blood pressure, which suggested higher odds of cardiovascular complications. Participants were mentally stable living with moderate levels of perceived stress and state anxiety, but borderline clinical depression. In conclusion, the hikikomori lifestyle could be a risk behavior that may harm the younger generation physically by promoting obesity and hypertension and probably other chronic illnesses.
... Sleep is one of the most important human biological processes which have deep effects on mental and physical health. [15] In Iran, 80% of those employed in the health and treatment system are nurses. [16] Studies have indicated that night-shift nurses suffer from sleepiness and making errors twice as much as day-shift nurses. ...
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Introduction: Sleep is affected by circadian cycle and its features. Amplitude and stability of circadian rhythm are important parameters of circadian cycle. This study aims to examine the relationship between amplitude and stability of circadian rhythm with sleep quality and sleepiness. Method: In this cross-sectional research, 315 shift nurses and health care worker of educational hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Iran, were selected using random sampling method. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Circadian Type Inventory (CTI) were used to collect the required data. Results: In this study, 83.2% suffered from poor sleep and one half had moderate and excessive sleepiness. The results showed that flexibility in circadian rhythm stability, job stress and sleepiness are among the factors affecting quality sleep in shift workers. Discussion: Those whose circadian rhythm amplitude was languid suffered more from sleepiness and those whose circadian stability was flexible had a better sleep. The variables including circadian rhythm stability (FR) and amplitude (LV) can act as predictive indices in order to employ people in shift work system so that sleepiness and drop in quality sleep are prevented.
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Amaç: Uyku, kişinin hayat kalitesini ve iyilik halini etkileyen, sağlığın önemli bir değişkenidir. Uyku kalitesi kişinin uyandıktan sonra dinç, formda ve yeni bir güne hazır hissetmesidir. Tanımlayıcı tipteki bu araştırma, Tunceli Devlet Hastanesi’nde görev yapan hemşirelerin uyku kalitesinin ve ilişkili faktörlerin incelenmesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Veriler, araştırmacılar tarafından literatür taraması ile oluşturulan “Kişisel Tanıtıcı Form” ve “Pittsburg Uyku Kalitesi İndeksi (PUKİ)” kullanılarak Şubat - Nisan 2016 tarihleri arasında toplanmıştır. Anket formu 138 hemşireye uygulanmıştır. Verilerin istatistiksel analizlerinde t testi, ANOVA, Tukey testi kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Hemşirelerin %23.9’u 25-29 yaş grubunda, %52.9’u lisans mezunudur. Araştırmamızda hemşirelerin PUKİ puan ortalamaları 6.70±3.35 olup, %55.8’inin kötü uyku kalitesine sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Sigara içenlerde ve sosyoekonomik düzeyini kötü olarak algılayanlarda PUKİ puanları daha yüksek olarak saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Cinsiyete, yaş grubuna, medeni duruma, eğitim durumuna, gelir düzeyine, alkol kullanma durumuna göre PUKİ puanları değişmemektedir (p>0.05). Sonuç: Hemşirelerin yarısından fazlası kötü uyku kalitesine sahiptir. Hemşirelerin çalışma şartlarının, ücretlerinin iyileştirilmesi, sigara ve alkol gibi alışkanlıkları olanların bırakmaları için yönlendirilmesi, nöbetlerin iş yüküne göre ve yıpranmayı önleyecek biçimde düzenlenmesi, çalışanlara psikolojik danışmanlık hizmetlerinin sağlanması önerilebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sağlık Personeli, Hemşireler, Vardiyalı Çalışma, Uyku, Uyku Kalitesi. Aim: Sleep is an important variable of health that affects the quality of life and well-being of a person. Sleep quality is when a person feels vigorous, fit and ready to start a new day after waking up. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to examine the sleep quality of nurses working in Tunceli State Hospital and related factors. Data were collected between February and April 2016 using the Personal Information Form and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which were created by the researchers according to the literature. The questionnaire was applied to 138 nurses. T test, Anova, Tukey test were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: 23.9% of the nurses were in the 25-29 age group and 52.9% of them had bachelor's degree. In our study, the mean PSQI score of the nurses was 6.70 ± 3.35 and it was found that 55.8% had poor sleep quality. PSQI scores were higher in smokers and people who perceived their socioeconomic status as low (p <0.05). PSQI scores did not change according to gender, age group, marital status, education level, income level, alcohol use status (p> 0.05). Conclusions: More than half of the nurses had poor sleep quality. It may be suggested to improve the working conditions and wages of nurses, to direct those who have habits such as smoking and alcohol in order to quit these habits, to regulate seizures according to the workload and to prevent fatique and to provide psychological counseling services to employees. Keywords: Health Personnel, Nurses, Shift Work, Sleep, Sleep Quality.
Chapter
Early in the history of human space flight, scientists realized that several factors in the space environment may adversely affect human function and performance. Among the principal concerns expressed were potential disturbances in circadian rhythms and the subsequent effects on performance and well-being. In addition to environmental changes such as microgravity and a sunrise and sunset every 45 minutes in low Earth orbit, several operational reasons were cited for the possible development of sleep disturbances and fatigue during space flight. Over the years, spaceflight investigations have confirmed that sleep disruption and circadian desynchrony are regular occurrences before and during missions, while terrestrial studies have increasingly shown that circadian desynchrony and sleep disruption carry serious health and performance implications. As a result, serious potential consequences remain associated with these risks.
Chapter
This chapter uses the phenomenon of hidden youth in Hong Kong as an illustration of how the social censure perspective can be used to explore such issues as deviant youth. It describes how the social censure of hidden youth has been created (the creation of social censure) and applied (the application of social censure) to the youth, and how in turn this has driven their progression into the hidden situation as an ultimate consequence (the consequence of social censure). Nine theoretical concepts – namely Ideology/Hegemony, the Label of deviance, Power/Knowledge, Bio-power à Docile body, the Overseeing gaze, the Deployment of discipline, Resistance, Sense of self/Identity and Subculture – are incorporated into the theoretical framework of social censure. The exploratory data analysis undertaken involves the examination of data from news reports about hidden youth as well as relevant services and applied measures. Meanwhile, a thematic analysis considers qualitative data collected from hidden youth and surveillants, including police officers, social workers/counsellors, teachers and parents. Following an analysis of the discourses and labels attached to hidden youth, the power dynamics between the dominant surveillants and the youth, as well as the youth’s coping responses, the authors contend that the application of social censure to the investigation of the phenomenon of hidden youth in Hong Kong is fully supported.
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The non-visual effects of controllable LED light source on human circadian rhythms were evaluated by using a model of the circadian factor. The circadian factors of a nine-color LED light were calculated. The parameters of participants' electrocardiogram in the blue, green and red lights and the average temperature differences before and after turning on the lights in the nine-color light were recorded. Results show that the circadian factor of blue light is maximum and that of red light is minimum. Different color lights give different circadian factors. In the blue, green and red lights, the measured electrocardiogram data show ventricular rate, and QTc period show nearly no change in the red and green light. Comparatively, great changes were shown in the blue light. In the blue color light, the average temperature difference is maximum, while small in the red light and minimum in the white light. On the whole, the circadian factors are positively correlated with the average temperature difference. The impact of which different circadian factors have on non-visual effect cannot be ignored.