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Temporal distribution of CV parking citations issued within the City of Toronto.  

Temporal distribution of CV parking citations issued within the City of Toronto.  

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Over the past several decades, road space and curb space have become increasingly scarce in urban areas. Commercial vehicles are then forced to compete with passenger vehicles for this limited space; this situation leads to an increase in illegal commercial vehicle parking. Increased commercial vehicle parking causes increased congestion, reduced s...

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... In New York City Studies, delivery vehicles usually pay $ 500 to $ 1000 per truck per month for parking fines (Holguín-Veras et al., 2011). The intention of discouraging unauthorized parking through fines is often voided as delivery companies expect to pay for parking fines and allocate costs for them intentionally (Wenneman et al., 2015). Downtown Seattle also showed that 40 percent of commercial vehicles parked in unauthorized locations including passenger vehicle loading zones (PLZs), the middle of the road, tow-away zones, and no-parking zones (Girón-Valderrama et al., 2019). ...
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While the number of deliveries has been increasing rapidly, infrastructure such as parking and building configurations has changed less quickly, given limited space and funds. This may lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, preventing the current resources from meeting the future needs of urban freight activities. The aim of this study was to discover the future delivery rates that would overflow the current delivery systems and find the optimal numbers of resources. To achieve this objective, we introduced a multi-objective, simulation-based optimization model to define the complex freight delivery cost relationships among delivery workers, building managers, and city planners, based on the real-world observations of the final 50 ft of urban freight activities at an office building in downtown Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Our discrete-event simulation model with increasing delivery arrival rates showed an inverse relationship in costs between delivery workers and building managers, while the cost of city planners decreased up to ten deliveries/h and then increased until 18 deliveries/h, at which point costs increased for all three parties and overflew the current building and parking resources. The optimal numbers of resources that would minimize the costs for all three parties were then explored by a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-2) and a multi-objective, evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D). Our study sheds new light on a data-driven approach for determining the best combination of resources that would help the three entities work as a team to better prepare for the future demand for urban goods deliveries.
... Other figures have been garnered from parking citation data. In Chicago, Kawamura et al. (2014) found the top three cited violations were "Vehicle type prohibited" (29.5%), "No parking zone" (17.6%), and "Expired meter" (12.9%), while Wenneman et al. (2015) found that in Toronto, the top three cited violations were "Parking during prohibited time or day" (52.8%), "Stopping during prohibited time or day" (21.5%), and "Standing during prohibited time or day" (8.0%). ...
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While several studies have begun to quantify the problems presented by curb conflicts surrounding delivery vehicles, especially unauthorized parking behavior, fewer have specifically examined these issues through the lens of driver behavior. To gain on-the-ground insight into competition for curb space, what issues drivers face, and the circumstances that inform their parking choices and related behaviors, we use data from Reddit to examine US driver perceptions and behavior, posing the following questions: What are some key challenges parcel delivery drivers encounter when delivering in urban areas? What strategies do drivers employ when parking their vehicles to make deliveries? What reasons do drivers cite for engaging in unauthorized or questionable parking practices? We find that parking is among the largest challenges drivers face while delivering in urban areas, largely because parking difficulties extend the time required to complete many routes. Drivers in our sample preferred to park in authorized spaces, but generally accepted the practice of unauthorized parking to complete their routes. Often, they did so due to lack of available parking, but also for safety and/or expedience. Moreover, drivers reported that parking enforcement personnel rarely issued tickets or other reprimands, acknowledging that for delivery vehicles, unauthorized parking is often necessary. Finally, drivers also described concerns surrounding interactions with other road users while making deliveries, especially in terms of conflict and safety. Curb management policies and freight providers’ practices alike will need to adapt in the face of the changing landscape of the curb.
... The discussion of parking problems associated with relevant strategies has been extended from local studies to a global scale as thee problems relate to transport, mobility, land use, society, technology, and planning (Pojani et al., 2019). A large portion of existing parking-related studies focus on exploring the impact of parking policies on managing parking problems by examining the demand and supply of parking spaces and constructing different policy scenarios (e.g., Pojani and Sipe, 2021;Parmar et al., 2020;Wenneman et al., 2015;Van Ommeren et al., 2014). Some common findings from such studies show that changing or introducing parking regulations (e.g., adjustment of parking prices and hours) serves as a straightforward approach to reduce parking problems (Barter, 2015). ...
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The prevalence of parking problems has increasingly challenged urban planners in transport planning and become a crucial consideration in achieving sustainable city goals. Current studies focus on parking in inner city areas, giving less attention to issues in outer city areas that have different neighbourhood features. This study examines the differences in parking problems between inner and outer city spaces and reveals the nexus between built environment features and the prevalence of parking problems. We utilised a large-scale administrative dataset of civil complaints from Brisbane City Council, Australia and retrieved 162,986 parking-related complaints in 2014–2017 to account for parking problems. We examined its spatiotemporal patterns across the inner, middle and outer city rings, and how these patterns vary by problem types and calendar events, and associate with the built environment features. Our results show that parking problems are more concentrated in the inner city ring, with only some sporadically distributed local clustering in the outer city areas. On holidays and weekends, parking problems are relatively more obvious in the outer city than the inner and middle city rings. Furthermore, more problems are reported in areas where land uses are less mixed, land parcels are smaller, and on vacant land or areas with larger green space coverage, especially in industrial areas or areas near transport hubs and junctions. Our findings provide evidence for the need to consider parking policies beyond inner city conditions and to implement more sustainability-oriented initiatives on transport, mobility and liveability across all urban spaces.
... ere are many studies on practical aspects of parking (see [33], for a thorough review) including parking pricing [4,34,35], cruising for parking [36,37], enforcement [38], parking competition [39,40], optimal parking control strategies [4,41], and parking for commercial vehicles [42][43][44][45]. e existing literature is not explicitly applicable to AV parking because AVs do not have the same parking pattern as CVs. ...
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Parking is a cumbersome part of auto travel because travelers have to search for a spot and walk from that spot to their final destination. This conventional method of parking will change with the arrival of autonomous vehicles (AV). In the near future, users of AVs get dropped off at their final destination and the occupant-free AVs search for the nearest and most convenient parking spot. Hence, individuals no longer bear the discomfort of cruising for parking while sitting in their vehicle. This paper quantifies the impact of AVs on parking occupancy and traffic flow on a corridor that connects a home zone to a downtown zone. The model considers a heterogeneous group of AVs and conventional vehicles (CV) and captures their parking behavior as they try to minimize their generalized travel costs. Insights are obtained from applying the model to two case studies with uniform and linear parking supply along the corridor. We show that (i) CVs park closer to the downtown zone in order to minimize their walking distance, whereas AVs park farther away from the downtown zone to minimize their parking search time, (ii) AVs experience a lower search time than CVs, and (iii) higher AV penetration rates reduce travel costs for both AVs and CVs.
... Studies have shown that the delivery vehicles pay $ 500 to $ 1000 per truck per month for parking fines in New York City (Holguín-Veras et al., 2011). Although parking fines are imposed to discourage unauthorized parking, many delivery companies allocate costs for parking fines as a part of doing businesses in urban areas (Wenneman et al., 2015). In 2013, data collected at over 60 locations in Chicago showed that trucks parked illegally 28.7 percent of the time, far more than 3 percent of illegal parking rate for passenger vehicles (Kawamura and Sriraj, 2016). ...
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Dwell time is defined as the time that delivery workers spend performing out-of-vehicle activities while their vehicle is parked. Restricting vehicle dwell time is widely used to manage commercial vehicle parking behavior. However, there is insufficient data to help assess the effectiveness of these restrictions. This makes it difficult for policymakers to account for the complexity of commercial vehicle parking behavior. The current study aims to identify factors correlated with dwell time for commercial vehicles. This is accomplished by using generalized linear models with data collected from five buildings that are known to include commercial vehicle activities in the downtown area of Seattle, Washington, USA. Our models showed that dwell times for buildings with concierge services tended to be shorter. Deliveries of documents also tended to have shorter dwell times than oversized supplies deliveries. Passenger vehicle deliveries had shorter dwell times than deliveries made with vehicles with roll-up doors or swing doors (e.g., vans and trucks). When there were deliveries made to multiple locations within a building, the dwell times were significantly longer than dwell times made to one location in a building. The findings from the presented models demonstrate the potential for improving future parking policies for commercial vehicles by considering data collected from different building types, delivered goods, and vehicle types.
... One of the most studied aspects of urban truck parking has been drivers' attitudes toward unauthorized ü Kawamura et al. (8) ü Jaller et al. (9) ü Giró n-Valderrama et al. (10) ü Dalla Chiara and Cheah (11) ü ü ü Dalla Chiara et al. (12) ü Holguín-Veras et al. (13) ü Dalla Chiara and Goodchild (14) ü Schmid et al. (15) ü Zou et al. (16) ü parking. Several papers have analyzed truck parking citation records to quantify the magnitude of unauthorized truck parking (6)(7)(8). Their data sets revealed that most citations were not a result of trucks stopping in the travel lane, arguably the parking behavior that causes the most negative externalities to other road users. In fact, parking in the travel lane represented only 2.8% (8) to 2.4% (6) of parking citations. ...
... These findings are in line with previous literature (6,(8)(9)(10). Previous empirical studies have observed percentages of parking events in the travel lane between 1.3% and 2.8%, with most observed parking occurring in authorized or unauthorized curb spaces. ...
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As e-commerce and urban deliveries spike, cities grapple with managing urban freight more actively. To manage urban deliveries effectively, city planners and policy makers need to better understand driver behaviors and the challenges they experience in making deliveries. In this study, we collected data on commercial vehicle (CV) driver behaviors by performing ridealongs with various logistics carriers. Ridealongs were performed in Seattle, Washington, covering a range of vehicles (cars, vans, and trucks), goods (parcels, mail, beverages, and printed materials), and customer types (residential, office, large and small retail). Observers collected qualitative observations and quantitative data on trip and dwell times, while also tracking vehicles with global positioning system devices. The results showed that, on average, urban CVs spent 80% of their daily operating time parked. The study also found that, unlike the common belief, drivers (especially those operating heavier vehicles) parked in authorized parking locations, with only less than 5% of stops occurring in the travel lane. Dwell times associated with authorized parking locations were significantly longer than those of other parking locations, and mail and heavy goods deliveries generally had longer dwell times. We also identified three main criteria CV drivers used for choosing a parking location: avoiding unsafe maneuvers, minimizing conflicts with other users of the road, and competition with other commercial drivers. The results provide estimates for trip times, dwell times, and parking choice types, as well as insights into why those decisions are made and the factors affecting driver choices.
... While data from parking citations are often cited as empirical evidence that commercial vehicles do not cruise, it is important to note that such data have several limitations: (1) citations quantify only how many vehicles committed parking violations but do not show how many vehicles parked legally; (2) there are different types of citations and not all of them are parking in the travel lane. Kawamura et al. (2014) and Wenneman et al. (2015) analyzed commercial vehicles citations in Chicago and found that only 2 percent were for parking in travel lanes, while the majority were for parking meter violations or unauthorized curb-side parking. Similarly, Rosenfield et al. (2016) reported that the most common reasons for parking citations in Toronto were time of day, permit, and meter violations. ...
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Parking cruising is a well-known phenomenon in passenger transportation, and a significant source of congestion and pollution in urban areas. While urban commercial vehicles are known to travel longer distances and to stop more frequently than passenger vehicles, little is known about their parking cruising behavior, nor how parking infrastructure affect such behavior. In this study we propose a simple method to quantitively explore the parking cruising behavior of commercial vehicle drivers in urban areas using widely available GPS data and how urban transport infrastructure impacts parking cruising times. We apply the method to a sample of 2,900 trips performed by a fleet of commercial vehicles, delivering and picking up parcels in Seattle downtown. We obtain an average estimated parking cruising time of 2.3 min per trip, contributing on average for 28 percent of total trip time. We also found that parking cruising decreases as more curb-space was allocated to commercial vehicles load zones and paid parking and as more off-street parking areas were available at trip destinations, whereas it increased as more curb space was allocated to a bus zone.
... Some of drivers tend to double parking, improvise their own parking, and others when supply and demand ratio of parking space is not balance. Land use has an impact on parking demand [1]. If the land use comprised of government service offices, retail stores, banks and others, these will generate a significant numbers of people to come to this area every day and they will demand for a parking space. ...
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Illegal parking has become a major problem in Malaysia especially in urban area due to the increased traffic volumes and limited parking space. When the parking facilities are limited, driver factor thus has a significant effect on the formation of traffic congestion. Extensive work has been conducted to address this issue, however most studies did not incorporate the impact of driver behaviour at limited parking condition whereas it is understood that “cruising for parking” at limited parking facilities has a very strong influence on the road traffic jams. Thus, objectives of this study are to analyse drivers’ personality traits which focus on consideration and selfishness traits; and to investigate drivers’ personality traits and their impact on driver parking behaviour in Kuching, Sarawak. Analyzation of driver parking behaviour was based on observational study of driver, vehicle, and situational variables. Experimental intervention then conducted to different age groups of drivers. They were asked to respond to questions that related to the driver parking behaviour characteristic. Analyses of the data reported in this study revealed that most of the drivers are considerate enough but they become a selfish person when confront with difficult situation at the parking space and their action sometimes are susceptible to illegal parking. The findings significantly beneficial to the traffic engineer, policy maker and researcher in enhancing parking control and management system.
... Parking in downtown or residential areas has become a major headache for both commuters and managers in most large cities, this is mainly attributed to the imbalance between parking demand and supply (1). Parking management has therefore become just as important as congestion control. ...
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In this paper, we present a bi-level approach to determine optimal parking management in large parking lots with multiple user classes and different types of parking spaces. The upper level of the model aims to maximize the social benefits of the local parking system, such as the system searching time and walking time by drivers. The lower level is a simulation system constructed using the multi-agent modeling environment NetLogo. However, it is essential to understand how drivers choose their parking location, then we can describe drivers’ movements and responses to different parking management strategies in the micro-simulation system. This study presents the results from a stated preference experiment on the choice behavior of drivers in Shanghai, China. The model attributes are walking distance, traveling time and uncertainties towards finding a vacant parking spot, which were selected based on a literature review. A simulated annealing algorithm is adapted to solve this bi-level simulation optimization model. The approach is applied to optimize parking management in the campus of Tongji University, China. The results show that the implementation of different duration limits is useful to adapt the time-varying demand with different user classes. The approach provides a powerful tool for strategically designing parking management, and for assessing parking policies and parking information systems.
... It is, therefore, of great importance to improve and optimize the loading and unloading operations to reduce their effects on the traffic performance. To that end, multiple researchers have developed different control schemes [18,19]. Recent work [20] evaluated the effects of pick-up maneuvers on traffic flows near maximal capacity, which were proved to have a major impact on traffic conditions. ...
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Pick-up and delivery services are essential for businesses in urban areas. However, due to the limited space in city centers, it might be unfeasible to provide sufficient loading/unloading spots. As a result, this type of operations often interferes with traffic by occupying road space (e.g., illegal parking). In this study, a potential solution is investigated: Dynamic Delivery Parking Spots (DDPS). With this concept, based on the time-varying traffic demand, the area allowed for delivery parking changes over time in order to maximize delivery opportunities while reducing traffic disruptions. Using the hydrodynamic theory of traffic flow, we analyze the traffic discharging rate on an urban link with DDPS. In comparison to the situation without delivery parking, the results show that although DDPS occupy some space on a driving lane, it is possible to keep the delay at a local level, that is, without spreading to the network. In this paper, we provide a methodology for the DDPS design, so that the delivery requests can be satisfied while their negative impacts on traffic are reduced. A simulation study is used to validate the model and to estimate delay compared to real situations with illegal parking, showing that DDPS can reduce system’s delay.