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Temperature record for Greenland over the last 10,000 years After Carter, Spooner et al. (2013, Fig. 5).

Temperature record for Greenland over the last 10,000 years After Carter, Spooner et al. (2013, Fig. 5).

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... following statements are all true (Figs. 1, 2): ...
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... reproduced here as Fig. 7) provide a figure from IPCC 5AR which they offer as evidence that the IPCC's CMIP5 suite of computer models yield accurate projections of sea-level change. Yet at the same time, individual research publications continue to show major discrepancies between modelled and observed sea-level behaviour (e.g. Marsland et al., Fig. ...
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... altimetry (>3 mm/yr; Fig. 6) (e.g., Munk, 2002;Houston & Dean, 2012;Houston, 2013;Jevrejeva et al., 2014) as one of the biggest unsolved problems in sea-level studies (Boretti, 2012a). For example, de Lange (2010) compared the long term tide gauge record from Auckland with the nearest satellite altimeter record from the nearby Outer Hauraki Gulf (Fig. 10). His results show that the satellite data require a ~60% downscaling correction in order for them to fit with the in situ tide gauge ...
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... the results derived by different research groups, with all results depending upon the accuracy of complex adjustments some of which lack independent verification (Houston and Dean, 2012), plus the related problem that the signal being sought may well lie below the noise level of the data being used (Morner, 2013;Parker, 2014b). Figure 11. Long-term sea surface height (SSH) calibration time series for three satellite altimeter missions (Topex/Poseidon), Jason-1 and Jason-2). ...
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... biases [have] existed for years, and must be accounted for in constructing the combined sea-level record [their Fig. 7, re-shown here as Fig. 11]. The sources of these biases have only been recently discovered, and relate to errors in the altimeter characterization of data as well as inconsistency in the interpretation of mechanical reference point for the altimeter antennas on the spacecraft … ...
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... phenomena, including changes in sea-level, change through time in a non- stationary 7 way, and exhibit repetitive (though not exactly regular) patterns of behaviour over decadal and multi-decadal periods (Fig. ...
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... use 1983-2013 as their longest sea-level record and arbitrarily discard the earlier measurements, which extend back to the 19 th century (cf., Fig. 13). The available tide gauge records from the Tasman Sea and Southwest Pacific Ocean that are greater than 100 years long all exhibit a similar and significant multi-decadal PDO-related sea level signal, marked by an upward step every 50-60 years with a relatively flat signal in between these steps (e.g., Auckland; Fig. 14). As W&A (p. ...
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... the 19 th century (cf., Fig. 13). The available tide gauge records from the Tasman Sea and Southwest Pacific Ocean that are greater than 100 years long all exhibit a similar and significant multi-decadal PDO-related sea level signal, marked by an upward step every 50-60 years with a relatively flat signal in between these steps (e.g., Auckland; Fig. 14). As W&A (p. 49) themselves note, this behaviour reflects changes in the magnitude and frequency of El Niño and La Nina events over time, in line with a changing ...
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... that the PDO effect does not appear strongly in global sea level data, because the precise timing of the oscillation differs in different parts of the ocean basins, and thereby tends to average the effect out (cf., Fig. 12). 7 i.e., do not consist simply of random oscillations about a fixed long-term mean, but display steps, trends and baseline-shifting rhythmicities in their behaviour. . Fort Denison average annual sea- level record, 1866. After W&A ...
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... this, the PDO-related pattern can be coherent over wide regions such as the Tasman-Southwest Pacific, as can be seen by comparing the Fort Denison and Auckland tide gauge records (Figs. 12, 13; and compare W&A, Figs. 9, 10). Further analysis of the Auckland record yields long-term trend rates of sea-level rise of 1.4-1.8 mm/yr, the exact trend depending upon what time period is considered and where the analysis starts and finishes in relation to the PDO-related jumps (cf. W&A's similar alternative trend analyses of the Fort ...
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... this, the PDO-related pattern can be coherent over wide regions such as the Tasman-Southwest Pacific, as can be seen by comparing the Fort Denison and Auckland tide gauge records (Figs. 12, 13; and compare W&A, Figs. 9, 10). Further analysis of the Auckland record yields long-term trend rates of sea-level rise of 1.4-1.8 mm/yr, the exact trend depending upon what time period is considered and where the analysis starts and finishes in relation to the PDO-related jumps (cf. W&A's similar alternative trend analyses of the Fort Denison record, Fig. 12). In ...
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... compare W&A, Figs. 9, 10). Further analysis of the Auckland record yields long-term trend rates of sea-level rise of 1.4-1.8 mm/yr, the exact trend depending upon what time period is considered and where the analysis starts and finishes in relation to the PDO-related jumps (cf. W&A's similar alternative trend analyses of the Fort Denison record, Fig. 12). In choosing to analyse the short 18-year period 1993-2013 and 1996-2013, W&A have selected an arbitrary length of record that encompasses a late-1990s, El Niño-related regional jump in the rate of sea level change. Thereby, they achieve a significantly higher rate of sea level rise than the true long-term trend at Fort Denison of ...

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The global mean sea level (GMSL) changes derived from modelling do not match actual measurements of sea level and should not be trusted. Compilations of individual tide gauges of sufficient quality and length provide much more reliable information. The present work is a contribution towards a better understanding of the observed of sea levels in India and its relation to worldwide observations. The latest average relative rate of rise of worldwide sea levels from a compilation of 170 stations with more than 60 years of data returns an average relative rate of rise +0.25 mm/year. The individual rates of rise are about constant in between subsequent updates suggesting the absence of any acceleration. Observation in key sites suggests a similarly stable pattern. Along the coastline of India, the average rate of rise of sea level is +1.06 mm/year computed by considering the 11 longest tide gauges of average length 51 years. Shorter records may overrate the sea level rate of rise because of the local phasing of the quasi-60-year oscillation. In the longest records, the rates of rise are decreasing since 1955. The lack of any GPS monitoring of the vertical position of the tide gauge does not permit the determination of the absolute rates of rise.