Tectonic zones of the Urals (explanations in the text). Abbreviations: PBB, Platinum-bearing Belt; MGA, Main Granitic Axis; MUF, Main Uralian Fault; EMF, East Magnitogorsk Fault; SMF, Serov–Mauk Fault; KRF, Kartaly (‘Troitsk’) Fault. URSEIS and ESRU– SB, lines of seismic profiles described in the text. 

Tectonic zones of the Urals (explanations in the text). Abbreviations: PBB, Platinum-bearing Belt; MGA, Main Granitic Axis; MUF, Main Uralian Fault; EMF, East Magnitogorsk Fault; SMF, Serov–Mauk Fault; KRF, Kartaly (‘Troitsk’) Fault. URSEIS and ESRU– SB, lines of seismic profiles described in the text. 

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The Uralian orogen is located along the western flank of a huge (>4000 km long) intracontinental Uralo-Mongolian mobile belt. The orogen developed mainly between the Late Devonian and the Late Permian, with a brief resumption of orogenic activity in the Lower Jurassic and Pliocene-Quaternary time. Although its evolution is commonly related to the V...

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Context 1
... zones of the Urals (Fig. 4) The Uralides are divided into several north-south striking structural zones, giving the Urals a general appearance of an approximately linear fold- belt, in contrast to the more strongly oroclinal and more mosaic chains of the European Variscides, Alps or Kazakhstanides (Franke 2000;Khain 2001;Agard & Lemoine, ...
Context 2
... Urals is divided into the following structural zones, which are from west to east ( Fig. 4; Puchkov , 2000): (1) A -the Preuralian foredeep, which inherited the western part of a bigger and long-living orogenic basin. It is filled mostly by Permian preflysch (deep-water condensed sediments), flysch and molasse. (2) B -the West Uralian megazone, predomi- nantly consisting of Palaeozoic shelf and deep-water passive margin ...
Context 3
... complexes of oceanic crust and ensimatic island arc, including the Platinum-bearing Belt of layered basic-ultramafic massifs (PBB), overlain by platformal carbonate and rift-related volcanic rocks. (5) E -the East Uralian zone, bordered to the west by the East Magnitogorskian mélange zone (EMF) and to the east by the Kartaly (Troitsk) Fault (KRF) (Fig. 4). This zone comprises Proterozoic gneisses and schists overlain by weakly metamorphosed Ordovi- cian to Devonian sedimentary clastic strata and by tectonically emplaced sheets of Palaeozoic (Ordovician-Lower Carbonifer- ous) oceanic and island arc complexes. The East Uralian Zone is intruded by voluminous Late Palaeozoic granite bodies ...
Context 4
... Tagil arc is also known for the presence of gabbro-ultramafic massifs composing a gigantic (c. 1000 km) linear, platinum-bearing belt (PBB on Fig. 4). The concentric-zonal massifs consist of dunites, clinopyroxenites, gabbro and plagiogra- nites, and mafic rocks comprise up to 80% of the belt. Disseminated platinum is hosted by dunites, and industrial deposits are represented mostly by modern (or reworked Meso-Cenozoic) placers. The geodynamic significance of the belt is contro- ...
Context 5
... With the demise of the Magnitogorskian arc, subduction did not terminate in the Urals as a whole. Ensialic subduction (either island arc or Andean-type or maybe two subduction zones of different type) of uncertain polarity began in the latest Devonian and lasted until the Mid-Bashkirian in the eastern Urals. The Main Granitic Axis of the Urals (Fig. 4) developed first as a chain of suprasubductional tonalite-granodiorite massifs by the end of the Famennian or the beginning of the Tournaisian (c. 360 Ma), when the southern part of the Magnitogorsk subduction zone ceased to operate ( Bea et al. 2002;Fershtater et al. 2006). Simultaneously, immediately to the east, a wide NNE-trending ...
Context 6
... increases to the north, and in the Mikhailovsk and Serebryansk pro- files it is c. 30% (calculated after Brown et al. 2006c). In the Cis-Polar and Polar Urals, however, shortening can be still much greater, judging by the upper section of figure 4 in ; see also Yudin (1994). This may be explained by the wedging-out of Kazakstania to the north, where two rigid cratons, Laurussia and Siberia, come into contact. ...
Context 7
... from 'thin-skinned' -to thick-skinned tectonics along a sharp ramp due to an abrupt change in the plasticity of the rocks. In the east we do not see any 'thin-skinned' tectonics at all. This may reflect the incompleteness of the eastern part of the profiles (URSEIS had been stopped at a state border with Kazakhstan and ESRU -in swamps of Siberia) (Fig. 4). On the other hand, Late Palaeozoic orogenic processes reached much farther to the east than the initial boundary between Uralides and Kazakhstanides (Fig. 1). In the Central Kazakhstanian Caledonides, orogenic processes are documented by Permian deformation of different styles, voluminous Late Palaeozoic syn-orogenic granite and ...

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... While this peak is as large as the abundant Meso-and Palaeoproterozoic ages for the Palaeo-Volga, the modern Volga material contains fewer Proterozoic zircons in comparison to this remarkably well defined Variscan peak (Fig. 15). Variscan age zircons are widespread in volcanic rocks in the southern Urals (Puchkov, 1997(Puchkov, , 2009 and references therein). Since the Variscan signal is not significant in the age distribution of the other EEP rivers, which do not include the Ural Mountains in their drainage basins, this can be seen as strong evidence for Uralian sediment input to the Volga. ...
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Constraining the controls on the distribution of sediment at a continental scale is a critical step in understanding long-term landscape and climate evolution. In particular, understanding of the role of rivers in wider sediment routing and impacts on aeolian loess formation on a continental scale remains limited. Extensive Quaternary loess deposits are present on the East European Plain and in the Black Sea - Caspian Sea region and are associated with major rivers draining numerous surrounding cratonic and orogenic hinterland areas. Coupled with this, complex changes in local and global sea level have affected the extent and drainage of the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, and Quaternary glaciations have impinged on the northern margin of the East European Plain. This suggests that sediment routing and loess formation may show complex patterns and controls. Here, we apply UPb dating of detrital zircons from fluvial, marine and aeolian (dominantly loess) sedimentary records on the East European Plain and in the Black Sea - Caspian Sea region. This shows a strong control of large rivers on the distribution of sediments at a continental scale in the region, through long-distance transport of several 1000 km, sourced from continental and mountain glacier areas prior to marine or atmospheric reworking and transportation. Strong spatial variability in zircon UPb data from loess deposits on the East European Plain reveals multiple diverse sources to the different individual loess sections, whereas no significant temporal variability in loess source is detected during the Late Pleistocene of the Lower Volga loess in South Russia. While the sediment supply from glacial areas via rivers plays an important role for the provenance of East European Plain loess deposits, our data indicate that the stark spatial diversity in loess provenance on the East European Plain is often driven by the input of multiple local sources. Similar to the loess, marine sediments from different basins of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea also show significant spatial variability. This variability is controlled by the bathymetry of the seas, leading to sedimentary intermixing by sea currents within, but not between different separated sea basins. A direct comparison of marine and aeolian sediments at the same depositional site suggests that although loess and marine sediments are both dominantly sourced from river sediments containing far travelled sedimentary material, local sources play a more important role in many loess deposits.
... However, Siberian Traps LIP magmatic activity encompassed a duration of 22-26 m.y. with a series of minor pulses continuing into the Middle-Late Triassic (ca. 240-230 Ma) (Ivanov et al., 2013;Puchkov, 2009Puchkov, , 2010Walderhaug et al., 2005). Our U-Pb zircon ages from the West Vorontsova Peninsula, West Kamenny Island, and Plavnikovye Island plutons yield ages between ca. ...
Article
This study presents new whole rock major and trace element, Sr-Nd isotopic, petrographic, and geochronologic data for seven latest Permian (Changhsingian)–Late Triassic (Carnian) granitoid intrusions of the northwestern and northeastern Taimyr Peninsula in the Russian High Arctic. U-Pb zircon ages, obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), define the crystallization age of the Taimyr intrusions studied as ranging from ca. 253 Ma to 228 Ma, which suggests two magmatic pulses of latest Permian–Early Triassic and Middle–Late Triassic age. Ar-Ar dating of biotite and amphibole indicate rapid cooling of the intrusions studied, but Ar-Ar ages of several samples were reset by secondary heating and hydrothermal activity induced by the Middle–Late Triassic magmatic pulse. Petrographic data distinguish two groups of granites: syenite–monzonites and granites–granodiorites. Sr-Nd isotopic data, obtained from the same intrusions, show a variation of initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios between 0.70377 and 0.70607, and εNd(t) values range between –6.9 and 1.2. We propose that the geochemical and isotopic compositions of the Late Permian–Triassic Taimyr granites record the existence of a magma mush zone that was generated by the two pulses of Siberian Traps large igneous province (LIP) magmatism.
... The Uralian orogenic belt, located between the continental Asia and Europe (Figs. 1 and 2), is an important tectonic feature in the construction of the continental Asia. It is originated from the Uralian Ocean, the western part of the PAO formed during the rifting of the passive margin of the Baltica, i.e., the East European craton, in the Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician (Puchkov, 2009). The initiation of subduction in the Uralian Ocean could be traced back to the Middle to Late Ordovician at ca. 460 Ma (Puchkov, 2009), resulting in the Ural orogeny in early Paleozoic (UO in Fig. 3). ...
... It is originated from the Uralian Ocean, the western part of the PAO formed during the rifting of the passive margin of the Baltica, i.e., the East European craton, in the Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician (Puchkov, 2009). The initiation of subduction in the Uralian Ocean could be traced back to the Middle to Late Ordovician at ca. 460 Ma (Puchkov, 2009), resulting in the Ural orogeny in early Paleozoic (UO in Fig. 3). In the Magnitogorsk arc, one major intra-oceanic arc in the Uralian Ocean, initiation of subduction occurred at ca. 416 -410 Ma (Scarrow et al., 2002;Brown et al., 2006). ...
... The Uralian orogenic belt could be considered as the most western end of the CAOB (Figs. 1 and 2). It records the Paleozoic collisions of at least two intra-oceanic arcs with the Baltica in the Late Devonian in the south (MBC in Fig. 3) and Early Carboniferous in the north, and its subsequent continental collisions with the Kazakhstan and Siberian plates during the assembly of Pangea (Brown et al., 2006;Puchkov, 2009). Therefore, the closure of the Uralian Ocean should be in the early Late Carboniferous (Puchkov, 2009), though it was believed before that the closure occurred in the Early Permian-Early Triassic (Otto and Bailey, 1995). ...
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This is a review of the formation and tectonic evolution of the continental Asia in Phanerozoic. The continental Asia has formed on the bases of some pre‐Cambrian cratons, such as the Siberia, India, Arabia, North China, Tarim, South China, and Indochina, through multi‐stage plate convergence and collisional collages in Phanerozoic. The north‐central Asia had experienced the expansion and subduction of the Paleo‐Asian Ocean (PAO) in the early Paleozoic and the closure of the PAO in the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, forming the PAO regime and Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In the core of the CAOB, the Mongol‐Okhotsk Ocean (MOO) opened with limited expansion in the Early Permian and finally closed in the Late Jurassic‐Early Cretaceous. The south‐central Asia had experienced mainly multi‐stage oceanic opening, subduction, and collision evolution in the Tethys Ocean, forming the Tethys regime and Himalaya‐Tibetan Orogenic Belt. In eastern Asia, the plate subduction and continental margin orogeny on western margin of the Pacific Ocean, forms the West Pacific regime and West Pacific Orogenic Belt. The PAO, Tethys, and West Pacific regimes, together with pre‐Cambrian cratons among or surrounding them, made up the major tectonic and dynamic systems of the continental Asia in Phanerozoic. Major tectonic events, such as the Early Paleozoic Qilian, Uralian, and Dunhuang orogeneses, the Late Paleozoic East Junggar, Tianshan, and West Junggar orogeneses, the Middle to Late Permian Ailaoshan orogeny and North‐South Lhasa collision, the early Mesozoic Indochina‐South China and North‐South China collisions, the late Mesozoic Mongolia‐Okhotsk orogeny, Lhasa‐Qiangtang collision, and intra‐continental Yanshanian orogeny, and the Cenozoic Indo‐Asian, Arab‐Asian, and West Pacific margin collisions, constrained the formation and evolution of the continental Asia. The complex dynamic systems have left large number of deformation features, such as large‐scale strike‐slip faults, thrust‐fold systems, and extensional detachments on the continental Asia. Based on past tectonics, a future supercontinent, the Ameurasia, is prospected for the development of the Asia in ca. 250 Myr.
... All the species described here are reported for the first time from the South Urals. The studied assemblage includes inhabitants of relatively deep-water environments of carbonate deposition of the passive continental margin of Laurussia (Puchkov, 2009;Ivanov et al., 2014). The specificity of this assemblage is revealed when compared with assemblages known from epicontinental basins of the East European Platform, as well as from shallow carbonate platforms of terranes on the eastern slope of the South Urals (Akkermanovka), etc. ...
... In the Zilair zone, four regions are distinguished: Middle Uralian, Bolshoi Ik, Zhaksy-Kargayly, and Bakai-Aksu. In the Zhaksy-Kargaly region, that is concerned with this paper, the sections begin with the Tournaisian-Viséan member of clay-cherty shales (50-100 m), and the upper part of the Viséan and mainly the lower part of the Serpukhovian stage, with limestones (up to 50 m) (Puchkov, 2000). The latter, due to a number of characteristic features, including the abundance of ammonoid shells, were called "Dombar Limestone" (Ruzhentsev and Bogoslovskaya, 1971). ...
... Ruzhentsev and Bogoslovskaya (1971, p. 94) interpreted these carbonates as sediments of an "open shallow, richly populated sea." Over the past decades, ideas about the development of the Ural Orogen have changed dramatically (Puchkov, 2009(Puchkov, , 2010Ivanov et al., 2014). Nikolaeva et al. (2009b) introduced the term "Dombar Sea", describing the latter as "… a relatively deep (probably below the photic zone) tropical or subtropical basin on the margin of a local submerged uplift, heavily populated by crinoids and cephalopods and semi-isolated from the rest of the basin by deeper zones and strong currents." ...
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An Early Carboniferous gastropod assemblage from the Viséan/Serpukhovian boundary deposits of the Dombar Hills (western slope of the South Urals) is described. The assemblage is interpreted as having inhabited relatively deep-water environments of carbonate deposition on the passive continental margin of Laurussia. The lenses of crinoid limestones with abundant ammonoid shells are interpreted as deposits of mud mounds. The gastropod assemblage is distinguished by a set of specific features: some families, which are common for most Early Carboniferous assemblages, are absent, while most of the species present here are not found in shallow-water deposits of carbonate platforms. The described assemblage has a number of sim�ilarities with the older Erdbach assemblage. Several species from the described assemblage are also found in limestones of the same age in the Verkhnyaya Kardailovka deposited in the relatively deep-water carbonate ramp of the Magnitogorsk island arc. All taxa described here are recorded for the first time from the Urals. Of these, one genus Squamoworthenia gen. nov. and two species (Hammatospira cancellata sp. nov. and Stuck�enbergispira dombarensis sp. nov.) are new. The other twelve species were previously described from Britain, Belgium, Germany, Ukraine and North America: Straparollus (Straparollus) dionysii Montfort, 1810, Sinu�itina (Sinuitina) gratiosa (Koninck, 1883), Hesperiella thomsoni (Koninck, 1883), Agnesia prosseri Hyde, 1953, Ptychomphalina subconoidea (Koninck, 1883), Lunulazona lirata (Phillips, 1836), Glabrocingulum minutum (Zernetskaja, 1983), Dictyotomaria cauchyana (Koninck, 1843), Squamoworthenia duponti, (Holzapfel, 1889), Platyceras vetustum (Sowerby, 1829), Auriptygma naticoides (Holzapfel, 1899), and Soleniscus ventri�cosus (Koninck, 1881)
... (Late Triassic) (Figs. 3-4) (Glørstad-Clark et al., 2010;Klausen et al., 2015;Gilmullina et al., 2021). The large-scale progradation in the Induan is not coincident with any contractional orogenic event in the Urals (Puchkov, 2009), and it has therefore been suggested that this progradation was caused by regional tectonic uplift resulting from activity in the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (Eide et al., 2018a). The Carnian progradation coincides both with the Carnian Pluvial Event and the re-initiation of contraction in the Northern Urals (Klausen et al., 2015;Gilmullina et al., 2021). ...
... The maximum extent of the Lower Triassic Western Urals Catchment was limited to the east by the Ural Orogenic Belt, the Baltic shield to the west, the Voronezh high to the southwest, and the uplifted part of the Volga-Ural Basin to the south ( Fig. 4; Nikishin et al., 1996Nikishin et al., , 2002. The Western Urals Catchment could have increased to its maximum extent in the Late Triassic due to uplift of the Northern Urals and Novaya Zemlya (Puchkov, 2009). ...
... The Ural orogeny was formed because of continent-continent collision around the Carboniferous-Permian boundary and was reactivated around the Permian-Triassic boundary (Leech and Stockli, 2000;Puchkov, 2009). The present-day Himalayas are an example of continent-continent collision today, and maximum relief is close to 9 km. ...
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Triassic strata in the Greater Barents Sea Basin are important records of geodynamic activity in the surrounding catchments and sediment transport in the Arctic basins. This study is the first attempt to investigate the evolution of these source areas through time. Our analysis of sediment budgets from subsurface data in the Greater Barents Sea Basin and application of the BQART approach to estimate catchment properties shows that (1) during the Lower Triassic, sediment supply was at its peak in the basin and comparable to that of the biggest modern-day river systems, which are supplied by tectonically active orogens; (2) the Middle Triassic sediment load was significantly lower but still comparable to that of the top 10 largest modern rivers; (3) during the Upper Triassic, sediment load increased again in the Carnian; and (4) there is a large mismatch (70%) between the modeled and estimated sediment load of the Carnian. These results are consistent with the Triassic Greater Barents Sea Basin succession being deposited under the influence of the largest volcanic event ever at the Permian-Triassic boundary (Siberian Traps) and concurrent with the climatic changes of the Carnian Pluvial Event and the final stages of the Northern Ural orogeny. They also provide a better understanding of geodynamic impacts on sedimentary systems and improve our knowledge of continental-scale sediment transport. Finally, the study demonstrates bypass of sediment from the Ural Mountains and West Siberia into the adjacent Arctic Sverdrup, Chukotka, and Alaska Basins in Late Carnian and Late Norian time.
... The Uralian orogen was the consequence of the Permian closure of the Uralian Ocean between Laurussia in the west and Siberia in the east. The former comprises the subducting plate, whereas the latter was the upper plate, upon which a magmatic arc was built (Puchkov, 2009). The southwestern margin of Baltica defined by the Trans European Suture Zone represents an Early Paleozoic suture (sometimes referred to as the "Polish Caledonides"), possibly reworked by strike-slip faulting in the Late Paleozoic. ...
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Orogens develop in convergent settings involving two or more continental and/or oceanic plates. They are traditionally defined as zones of crustal deformation associated with mountain building resulting from either accretion of a terrane and/or an arc, continent-continent collision or rift-inversion. However, this definition does not consider the genetic link between an oceanic domain and an intracontinental rift, even though extension associated with a scissor-shape opening can be demonstrated in many ocean-floored basins. Consequently, we propose a new concept of orogenic evolution based on the development of extensional margins subsequently subjected to crustal shortening. Thus orogens that develop as a result of the closure of wide basins, are distinguished from mountain belts developed above subduction zones or that result from continental collision and inverted intra-continental rifts. Our review of several key orogens identifies similarities and differences in geodynamic processes through geological time including prior to the onset of plate tectonics ca. 2.5 Ga. We propose that mapping based on comparative tectonics is a good way to constrain such an evolution, and that this can start with a global-scale map of past-to-modern orogens aimed at re-exploring mountain building concepts spatially and temporarily. This is the primary objective of IGCP 667 project “World Map of Orogens”.
... Hence, the overarching goal of this paper is to investigate possible analogue relationships between the U.S. Appalachian and BSS systems of basins and platforms. Elements of the Appalachian system ( Figure 1a) have been previously used as possible analogues for the nearby Timan-Pechora Basin (e.g., Artyushkov & Baer, 1986), and earlier generic comparisons of the Appalachian orogen with the Caledonian and Uralian orogens have been attempted (Allen & Allen, 2013;Arthaud & Matte, 1977;Artyushkov & Baer, 1983Brown et al., 2004Hatcher, 2010;Knapp et al., 1998;Kruse & McNutt, 1988;Matte, 2002;Puchkov, 2009). For example, Puchkov (2009) briefly suggested that evolution of the Uralian Orogeny was like that of the Taconian and Alleghanian orogenies in the Appalachian area but went no further in defining the analogue. ...
... Elements of the Appalachian system ( Figure 1a) have been previously used as possible analogues for the nearby Timan-Pechora Basin (e.g., Artyushkov & Baer, 1986), and earlier generic comparisons of the Appalachian orogen with the Caledonian and Uralian orogens have been attempted (Allen & Allen, 2013;Arthaud & Matte, 1977;Artyushkov & Baer, 1983Brown et al., 2004Hatcher, 2010;Knapp et al., 1998;Kruse & McNutt, 1988;Matte, 2002;Puchkov, 2009). For example, Puchkov (2009) briefly suggested that evolution of the Uralian Orogeny was like that of the Taconian and Alleghanian orogenies in the Appalachian area but went no further in defining the analogue. Difficulties in developing suitable regional external analogues for the offshore BSS probably result from lack of familiarity with possible analogue basins and the fact that the BSS is not as well explored as other regions. ...
... The geology and tectonostratigraphy of both Appalachian and BSS areas are largely the result of their development within the classic framework of the | 3 EAGE Wilson cycle (Ettensohn et al., 2019;Puchkov, 2009;Wilson, 1966), which necessarily includes such largescale tectonic elements as passive margins, foreland basins and intracratonic platforms (e.g., Beaumont, 1981;Price, 1973;Walcott, 1970). The Appalachian foreland basin and adjacent intracratonic platforms and basins are considered sources of potential analogues for comparison, because they represent the 'type-area' of the Wilson cycle (Ettensohn et al., 2019;Wilson, 1966) and also the 'typearea" for related tectonostratigraphic sequences (Hatcher et al., 1989;Tollo et al., 2010). ...
Article
The US Appalachian Basin and the Arctic Norwegian and Russian Barents Sea shelf (BSS) areas are two strategic provinces for the energy industry. The Appalachian Basin is a well‐studied, mature, onshore basin, whereas the offshore BSS is still considered a frontier area. This study suggests that the Appalachian Basin may be an appropriate analogue for understanding the BSS and contribute to development of a tectonostratigraphic framework for the area. Although the Appalachian and BSS areas reflect different times and settings, both areas began as passive margins that were subsequently subjected to subduction and continent collision associated with the closure of an adjacent ocean basin. As a result, both areas exhibited multi‐phase subduction‐type orogenies, a rising hinterland that sourced sediments, and a foreland‐basin sedimentary system that periodically overflowed onto an adjacent intracratonic area of basins and platforms with underlying basement structures. Foreland‐basin sedimentary systems in the Mid‐to‐Late Paleozoic Appalachian Basin are composed of unconformity‐bound cycles, related to specific orogenic pulses called tectophases. Each tectophase gave rise to a distinct sequence of lithologies related to flexural events in the orogen. In this study, similar sequences are recognized in both BSS foreland‐basin and adjacent intracratonic sedimentary sequences that formed in response to the Late Paleozoic–Mesozoic Uralian‐Pai‐Khoi‐Novaya Zemlya Orogeny, suggesting that the processes generating the sequences are analogous to the tectophase cycles in the Appalachian Basin. Hence, this pioneering use of the Appalachian area and its succession as large‐scale tectonostratigraphic analogues for the BSS may further enhance understanding of Upper Paleozoic to Middle Jurassic stratigraphy across the BSS.
... The Uralian orogen was the consequence of the Permian closure of the Uralian Ocean between Laurussia in the west and Siberia in the east. The former comprises the subducting plate, whereas the latter was the upper plate, upon which a magmatic arc was built (Puchkov, 2009). The southwestern margin of Baltica defined by the Trans European Suture Zone represents an Early Paleozoic suture (sometimes referred to as the "Polish Caledonides"), possibly reworked by strike-slip faulting in the Late Paleozoic. ...
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Orogens develop in convergent settings involving two or more continental and/or oceanic plates. They are traditionally defined as zones of crustal deformation associated with mountain building resulting from either accretion of a terrane and/or an arc, continent-continent collision or rift-inversion. However, this definition does not consider the genetic link between an oceanic domain and an intracontinental rift, even though extension associated with a scissor-shape opening can be demonstrated in many oceanfloored basins. Consequently, we propose a new concept of orogenic evolution based on the development of extensional margins subsequently subjected to crustal shortening. Thus orogens that develop as a result of the closure of wide basins, are distinguished from mountain belts developed above subduction zones or that result from continental collision and inverted intra-continental rifts. Our review of several key orogens identifies similarities and differences in geodynamic processes through geological time including prior to the onset of plate tectonics ca. 2.5 Ga. We propose that mapping based on comparative tectonics is a good way to constrain such an evolution, and that this can start with a global-scale map of past-to-modern orogens aimed at re-exploring mountain building concepts spatially and temporarily. This is the primary objective of IGCP 667 project “World Map of Orogens”.
... They conducted research on the stratigraphy, lithology and facies of the Carboniferous Fig. 1 Location of the studied sections on the map of structural zones (a) and on a satellite image from Google Earth (b). a: base map simplified from (Antsygin et al. 1993;Puchkov (2009). Legend: (1) pre-Palaeozoic and metamorphic rocks complexes, (2) pre-Carboniferous Palaeozoic rocks, (3) Carboniferous and younger deposits of the West Uralian Zone, (4) Russian Platform, (5) Preuralian Foredeep, (6) East Uralian Zone, (7) Carboniferous deposits of the Magnitogorsk Zone, (8) position of the Sikasya River Valley and Permian (Cisuralian) deposits on the western slope of the Bashkirian Urals and the Preuralian Foredeep. ...
... Therefore, for the Viséan deposits of the western slope of the South Urals, the substages (horizons) of the regional scheme of the Russian Platform are accepted (Antsygin et al. 1993;Alekseev 2008). This zone is distinguished by the development of box-shaped and linear folds, monoclinic structures and thrusts formed during the collision of the Baltic and Kazakhstan continents at the end of the Carboniferous period (Puchkov 2009). The Devonian deposits here overlie Precambrian formations with an unconformity. ...
... Devonian and Carboniferous deposits in the Sikasya valley southeast of the village of Makarovo form an asymmetrical synclinal structure with Serpukhoviam deposits in the core; the western flank is complicated by the large Alatau thrust . In the late Viséan, this region represented the passive shelf margin of the Baltic continent with a quiet tectonic regime (Puchkov 2009). ...
Article
Late Viséan foraminiferal assemblages from a section in the Sikasya (Sikaza) River Valley (South Urals) are studied to provide a reliable framework for stratigraphy and correlation of the Viséan-Serpukhovian boundary beds on the western slope of the South Urals. The middle–upper Viséan deposits on the Sikasya River are composed of shallow shelf carbonates with abundant foraminifers, corals, and brachiopods, and are represented by four regional substages: Tulian, Aleksinian, Mikhailovian, and Venevian. This section is known as the “Sikaza Section”. The upper Viséan deposits are overlain by Serpukhovian beds composed mainly of dolomites. The Tulian and Aleksinian successions consist of bioclastic and foraminiferal wackestone and packstone. In the Mikhailovian, there are packages of dolomites with interbeds of bioclastic grainstone to packstone, containing foraminifers. The Venevian is represented by bioclastic and foraminiferal grainstone and packstone. The following foraminiferal units are discussed: in the middle Viséan: (1) Paraarchaediscus koktjubensis–Endothyranopsis compressa; in the upper Viséan: (2) Ikensieformis proikensis–Archaediscus gigas, (3) beds with Vissarionovella (corresponding to the Ikensieformis ikensis Zone), and (4) Ikensieformis tenebrosa; the Serpukhovian is represented by (5) beds with Eostaffellina decurta.
... The Uralian orogen is located along the western flank of a huge (> 4000 km long) intracontinental Ural-Mongolian mobile belt. The orogen developed mainly between the Late Devonian and the Late Permian [Puchkov, 2009]. The Urals are divided into several north-south striking structural zones, giving the Urals a general appearance of an approximately linear fold belt. ...
... To the west the Tagilo-Magnitogorskian megazone are bordered by ser-pentinitic melange. This megazone predominantly consists of Ordovician-Lower Carboniferous complexes of oceanic crust and island arc, including the Platinum-bearing Belt of layered basic-ultramafic massifs, overlain by platformal carbonate and riftrelated volcanic rocks [Puchkov, 2009]. ...