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Teachers' salaries and GDP per capita (average 2009-2010). Note. Teachers' annual gross salaries of fully qualified, full time, in public schools, average primary and lower secondary. (Source: Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe, 2009/10, Eurydice: European Commission). GDP per capita, average 2009-2010 (Source: Eurostat). 45-degree line divides countries into low-and high-contributors. Legend: AUT = Austria, BGR = Bulgaria, CZE = Czech Republic, DNK = Denmark, GBR = England, EST = Estonia, FIN = Finland, FRA = France, DEU = Germany, GRC = Greece, HUN = Hungary, ISL = Iceland, IRL = Ireland, ITA = Italy, LVA = Latvia, LIE = Liechtenstein, LTU = Lithuania, LUX = Luxembourg, NLD = Netherlands, NOR = Norway, POL = Poland, PRT = Portugal, ROM = Romania, SVK = Slovakia, SVN = Slovenia, ESP = Spain, SWE = Sweden, CHE = Switzerland.

Teachers' salaries and GDP per capita (average 2009-2010). Note. Teachers' annual gross salaries of fully qualified, full time, in public schools, average primary and lower secondary. (Source: Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe, 2009/10, Eurydice: European Commission). GDP per capita, average 2009-2010 (Source: Eurostat). 45-degree line divides countries into low-and high-contributors. Legend: AUT = Austria, BGR = Bulgaria, CZE = Czech Republic, DNK = Denmark, GBR = England, EST = Estonia, FIN = Finland, FRA = France, DEU = Germany, GRC = Greece, HUN = Hungary, ISL = Iceland, IRL = Ireland, ITA = Italy, LVA = Latvia, LIE = Liechtenstein, LTU = Lithuania, LUX = Luxembourg, NLD = Netherlands, NOR = Norway, POL = Poland, PRT = Portugal, ROM = Romania, SVK = Slovakia, SVN = Slovenia, ESP = Spain, SWE = Sweden, CHE = Switzerland.

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Article
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We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice policy...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... Woessmann and West (2006) indicate beneficial effects in countries with low teacher salaries, and in some East-European countries financing associated with teacher experience and education has a positive effect (Ammermueller, Heijke, & Woessmann, 2005). Our data (Figure 2) shows that teachers' salaries to GDP per capita range from more than 200%, in the case of Denmark, to 40% or less, in the case of Bulgaria and Lithuania. Most post- communist countries have below 100% results. ...

Citations

... Therefore, we turn from country to school level. More specifically, we are motivated by school governance and school choice literature (e.g., Woessmann et al. 2009;Cobb and Glass 2009;Põder, Kerem, and Lauri 2013;Musset 2012;Lauri and Põder 2013;Le Grand 2007;Põder, Lauri, and Veski 2016), which argue that certain policies may bring education systems closer to efficiency without having a significant impact on equity. This literature emphasizes the importance of compositional effects on educational production functions, such as the teacher and peer effects for instance, in addition to individual-level background effects. ...
... The question of school inequality is addressed differently across Europe. It has been shown [14] that, although both "no-choice" with "no-tracking" and "choice" with "tracking" and "school variability" resulted in efficient school systems, only "no-choice" with "no-tracking" led to greater equity. The right to education is based on education equity, which is highly valued and recognised internationally such as the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights: ...
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The degree of homogeneity and heterogeneity among schools affects the comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the school system and the type and scope of classroom interaction. Since the beginning of the 1980s, interest has gradually increased in the effects of homogeneity and heterogeneity of schools on classroom interactions; this research involves various disciplines and has different goals. The present paper contributes to academic debate on the often ignored consequences of socialisation of pupils with diversity. In particular, we revise the evidence on the effect of socialisation (or lack of it) with diversity resulting from the degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity to which school children are exposed through their interactions in the classroom. We aim, in particular, to shed light on what the assumed value of classroom interactions as an argument in favour or either heterogeneous or homogeneous groups. We review work analysing school homogeneity in relation to age, gender, ethnicity and disability and the effect on classroom interactions. Most studies concur with current achievement motivation theories, which highlight the important role of context and agents of socialisation, such as classroom peers, in the development of pupils' beliefs and behaviours. Studies that find support for classroom homogeneity tend to focus narrowly on academic performance, whereas findings that support classroom heterogeneity tend to analyse higher order values such as equity and inclusiveness. The findings in the literature suggest, furthermore, that children's experiences of exclusion and diversity influence their friendship decision-making, suggesting that heterogeneous schools promote a more inclusive society.
... The school choice literature shows that certain policies may bring education systems closer to efficiency with or without having significant impact on equity (Woessmann 2008;Woessmann et al. 2009;Cobb and Glass 2009;Põder et al. 2013;Musset 2012;Lauri and Põder 2013). However, are school choice ideals and policies transferable across cultures? ...
... Proximity-based assignment is also widely used in countries such as Germany, Australia, Norway, France, and Denmark (Noreisch 2007;J. Taylor 2012;Põder, Kerem, and Lauri 2013;Humlum and Smith 2015). In proximity-based assignment, children are assigned to nearby schools; thus, the problem still exists. ...
Article
A serious spatial inequality of educational opportunity in school enrollment persists worldwide. The use of random mechanisms in school allocation might improve spatial equality, with lotteries applied in some choice-based systems. China uses a proximity-based assignment, yet the optimization of spatial equality of educational opportunity by introducing a lottery has received little consideration. To achieve the maximum spatial equality of educational opportunity, in this study, a random proximity-based model was developed, and the swarm optimization method was used to solve the model. A case study in the Shijingshan district of Beijing was used to illustrate the model outputs. For comparison, a proximity-based model was also developed and solved. After introducing a lottery into a proximity-based enrollment system, the spatial disparity of educational opportunity was reduced by 70 percent. The average travel distance to school increased 3.5-fold but was still much less than the actual average distance of 4.3 km. Relaxing the maximum travel distance constraint could significantly improve spatial inequality. Although total equality was significantly improved, only 51 percent of students benefited from increased opportunities, which implies that the model could be adopted in a centralized institutional context, such as China, but might be ineffective in a democratic system.
... This paper proposes a case specific insights of school-level policies and how they affect pupils' achievement and educational equity in Italy. The Italian educational system is an interesting case to study : Põder, Kerem and Lauri (2013) using cross-country estimates and calibrating scores of efficiency and equity and show that the Italian educational system is a distinct case characterised by high equity and low efficiency scores. However, this outlier position underlines the possible trade-offs between efficiency and equity. ...
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This paper identifies the relationship between pupils' Family Background, their mathematics scores, and school-level policies, using the 2012 Programme of International Student Assessment for Italy and multilevel modelling. School-level policies have played a leading role in recent school reforms in many countries, but there is no straightforward empirical evidence for how they affect pupils' outcomes and the equality of educational outcomes. Our findings show that that only some school policies intensify the Family Background Effect-(educational equity) and affect student outcomes (educational efficiency) simultaneously. We find that competitive schools are able to screen students by selecting higher socioeconomic status parents, which mainly harms equity without having much effect on efficiency. There are some policies which allow some trade-off between aforementioned objectives, mainly policies related to management schools.
... These reforms relate to welfare society principles, one of which is to ensure right to education for everyone (Bolívar, 2012). Welfare society emphasise close interconnection between educational policy and global economy (Põder, Kerem, & Lauri, 2013) as changes of occupational models and family structures influence that many families are not able any more to ensure children safety and care after lessons end; children after school are left alone without any guidance (Armstrong & Armstrong, 2004). In this context the most vulnerable groups become children from single, divorced, migrant, poor families (Pfeifer & Holtappels, 2008). ...
Article
Growing disproportion between different social groups, migration, unemployment, busyness of parents, not safe outside environment – there are just few general aspects of social life that influence concept and organization of all day schools. The purpose of the article is to analyse the possibilities of decreasing social exclusion in education by implementing all day school conception. In order to achieve research goal, secondary data analysis was done by applying multi stage sample. Research data shows that all day school phenomenon is not new in European education. States have to deal with inequalities in social life and education – to minimize learning results gaps, to compensate shortage of social skills, to prevent risky behaviour, to ensure safe environment and care at school and use all day school model as the mean to face these challenges. All day schools have purpose to serve as best as possible to students and their families by providing individual help, using benefits of longer time at school, specialists supervisions, community support. Social life realities and unique contexts form not unified models of all day school.
... This paper proposes a case specific insights of school-level policies and how they affect pupils' achievement and educational equity in Italy. The Italian educational system is an interesting case to study : Põder, Kerem and Lauri (2013) using cross-country estimates and calibrating scores of efficiency and equity and show that the Italian educational system is a distinct case characterised by high equity and low efficiency scores. However, this outlier position underlines the possible trade-offs between efficiency and equity. ...
... As stated, the FBE shows how much pupils' educational achievements are affected by their FB, such as parents' education and social, economic, and immigrant status. While educational equality conceptualised as the achievement of independence from FB has been the focus of system-level studies (e.g., Põder, Kerem, & Lauri, 2013) and individual level studies (e.g., Wössmann, 2004;Schütz et al., 2008;Nonoyama-Tarumi, 2008), the results obtained show the variety of effect sizes even within Europe - Schütz et al. (2008) show that estimates of FBE (based on data from 1995 and 1999) range from 29% (England) to 8% (France) from standardised test scores. At the same time, the different sizes of FBE by country indicate not only the variability of inequality of opportunity, but also the skill dispersion between countries and the unevenness of intergenerational mobility. ...
Article
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We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia – countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social status. The number of books at home is used as a proxy when operationalising family background, and its effect is measured as a percentage of individual-level PISA scores. Fixed-effect regression results reveal that family background remains a powerful determinant in the educational results of 15-year-old students in all three cases, being largest in Sweden. Furthermore, we show how the family background effect is moderated by school-level choice policy, that is, how students and schools are matched. The analysis reveals that zoning policies have statistically significant negative effects on the impact of the family background effect, independent of country-level policies.
... The problem of cream-skimming is not only prevalent in pro-choice countries. There is evidence (Hirsch, 2002;Seppänen, 2003;Põder et al., 2013) that in the case of regulated choice and/or catchment-based assignment, there are some open enrolment schools that are over-subscribed and highly selective. However, school choice is largely an urban phenomenon, as in rural areas there is often no more than one school nearby and educational decision-making by families has no such eff ect on school allocation, thereby justifying our division between urban and rural schools. ...
... One potential explanation behind this is the magnitude of selectivity in urban settings -in Russia the share of specialised character schools is almost 30% of all schools, while in Estonia the share of oversubscribed schools is barely 10%. And even though admission to this group of schools is highly competitive and selective (see Põder and Lauri 2013), this does not cause too much harm in terms of average educational inequality. In addition, we have not verifi ed whether any system level policy has an eff ect on equity; instead, we indicated that, independently of country level school choice policies, admission by academic record has a segregating eff ect in terms of increasing the family background eff ect. ...
Article
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In this article, we demonstrate the size of family background eff ects in various regions of Russia and Estonia, concentrating on urban and rural diff erences, addressing the idea that the family background eff ect is moderated by school level admission policies. Having common path-dependent educational institutions from the communist period, the countries diff er in both the extensiveness of the welfare state and system level school choice policies. However, we see many commonalities in both systems, especially at the urban school level. The family background eff ect is defi ned as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income and social status. In operationalising family background, the number of books at home and parental education are used as proxies, and its effect is measured as a percentage of the individual level PISA 2012 score. We contribute to the literature by studying school choice, its key characteristics and moderating effects by school level admission policy in an urban environment.
... Finally, in a meta-analysis, QCA can identify leadership features across studies that consistently matter for school achievement, using an approach similar to that of Dunlop, Maggetti, Radaelli, and Russel (2012) for regulatory impact assessment in political science. The method is expanding in educational research (Põder, Kerem & Lauri, 2013) and in other fields (e.g. Schulze-Bentrop, 2013;Marx, Rihoux, & Ragin, 2014). ...