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TCI Correlational Analyses

TCI Correlational Analyses

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Based on findings from prior research studies, trauma histories have been found to be ubiquitous in psychopathic women. In this study, the Rorschach Trauma Content Index (TCI) was used to better understand the trauma histories of incarcerated women (N = 180). The TCI was significantly correlated with total reported trauma events, reported sexual ab...

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... to the nature of the Rorschach variables selected (unequal distribution, J-Shaped curves; Exner, 1995), these variables were examined with non-parametric statistics (Spearman rho;Viglione, 1995). The TCI correlational analyses found 10 significant correlations (see Table 2). These Though there was not a significant correlation with the TSI-2 TRAUMA scale, there was a positive trend (ρ [73] = .209, ...

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... The splatter effect there, you know how when you hit a water balloon, how it just splatters? Smith et al. (2020) employed the Rorschach Trauma Content Index (Armstrong & Loewenstein, 1990) in a sample of women prisoners, where the experience of child sexual trauma was high; 44.4% met criteria for PTSD and 55% had a trauma-related disorder. They explored the relationship between the Rorschach Trauma Content Index (Armstrong & Loewenstein, 1990) and a number of other personality test measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991) and the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (Briere, 2011). ...
... Ganellen (2008) reviews typical Rorschach Scores in defensive protocols: Low R, high Lambda, low Blends, Populars, and Personalizations. The susceptibility of the Rorschach to dissimulation sets of "faking good" or "faking bad" has received additional study, some of which has been inspired by the publication of a great deal of information about the Rorschach, including the actual cards, on Wikipedia (Smith, 2010;Hartmann & Hartmann, 2014). Sewell (2008;Sewell & Helle, 2018) notes that there are few studies on faking good, and for faking bad found that skilled practitioners often misclassify those faking bad as genuine patients. ...
Article
Early research on trauma employing the Rorschach found it to be an ideal instrument, with its red, black, gray, and vibrant colors, to elicit trauma content. Two patterns of Rorschach responses emerged: the constricted pattern, where the evaluee kept to a form-based, avoidant approach to the blot, as if defending against the memories of the trauma, and a flooded pattern, where morbid and aggressive images paralleled that of psychosis. The Rorschach as an instrument continues to demonstrate high sensitivity to the experience of trauma, and research since 2005 has added complexity and additional validation for the use of the Rorschach in the evaluation of the effects of trauma.
... Increased levels of malignant internal processes and An + Xy provide further evidence of the FP's internally troubled world, suggesting links to somatization. The TCI provides additional information about dissociation and trauma symptomology (Armstrong & Loewenstein, 1990;Smith et al., 2020bSmith et al., , 2021a. The higher rates for FPs suggest higher rates of dissociation and trauma (also linked to paranoia) than in MPs. ...
... As noted in Table 4, except for AG (MP M = 0.50; FP M = 0.50; NP M = 0.89) both groups are hostile and angry, producing protocols abundant in responses suggesting aggressive identifications and issues (Gacono & Meloy's [1994] Extended Aggression scores; see also . While both groups contain a sense of being aggressed against that underpins their entitlement toward victimizing others (Gacono & Meloy, 1994), perhaps the increased proportions and frequencies of AgPast in the FP correlate with their elevations on other indices related to trauma (TCI; Smith et al., 2019Smith et al., , 2020bSmith et al., , 2021a. Hostile affect negatively impacts both groups (S-%) and significantly more so in FPs. ...
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The psychopathic personality is organized at a borderline level of personality. Additionally, while male psychopaths are considered to manifest pathological narcissism, female psychopaths are best understood in terms of malignant hysteria. Using Kernberg's three components of borderline personality functioning (identity diffusion, reliance on primitive defenses, and transient lapses in reality testing),
... The Rorschach Trauma Content Index (TCI 1 ) is associated with personal traumatic history and intrusive traumatic imagery. It has been used with populations, including incarcerated women, and those diagnosed with dissociative and trauma disorders (Armstrong & Loewenstein, 1990;Cole et al., 2007;Smith et al., 2020c;Zukerman et al., 2017). Another Rorschach scoring system (R-PAS; Meyer et al., 2011) offered the Critical Contents (CritCont% 2 ) score in lieu of the TCI (both highly correlated; Smith et al., 2020c;Viglione et al., 2012). ...
... It has been used with populations, including incarcerated women, and those diagnosed with dissociative and trauma disorders (Armstrong & Loewenstein, 1990;Cole et al., 2007;Smith et al., 2020c;Zukerman et al., 2017). Another Rorschach scoring system (R-PAS; Meyer et al., 2011) offered the Critical Contents (CritCont% 2 ) score in lieu of the TCI (both highly correlated; Smith et al., 2020c;Viglione et al., 2012). A mean TCI score of 0.25 has shown specificity and sensitivity for trauma, while mean scores greater than 0.30 has been suggested to indicate traumatic intrusions and/or dissociation and has been proven to differentiate traumatized and non-traumatized patients (Armstrong, 2002;Arnon et al., 2011;Kamphuis et al., 2008). ...
... If the TCI/CritCont% is measuring dissociation (Smith et al., 2020c;Viglione et al., 2012), it suggests, in contrast to Fingerson's (2008) assertion that those higher in psychopathy use less dissociation. Also, the female psychopaths on both the TCI and CritCont% had means higher than 0.30 suggestive of traumatic intrusions. ...
Article
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The histories of incarcerated women exhibit a multitude of personality issues including psychopathy, trauma, and interpersonal dependency. Two studies were undertaken to better understand these issues with psychopathic (PCL-R ≥ 30; N = 115) and non-psychopathic (PCL-R ≤ 24; N = 53) women incarcerated for drug, theft, fraud, violence, and sex offenses. In the first study, trauma symptoms were compared on Rorschach variables, TSI-2, and PAI scales. The female psychopathic group experienced more problems related to intrusive experiences and dissociation (TSI-2, Rorschach). In the second study, interpersonal dependency was also examined with the PAI, TSI-2, and Rorschach. The psychopathic females had higher rates of interpersonal dependency (PAI, Rorschach). Based on our findings we discuss the relationship between trauma and interpersonal dependency and the meaning of these testing variables and concepts within the personality functioning of these antisocial women.
Chapter
Long before psychology, bias has existed in science. From the beginning, concerns have been raised about the reliability, validity, and accuracy of social science research (Meehl, 1954). In this chapter, we define and discuss the origins of bias and how it can erode the scientific method. We focus specifically on bias in psychological research, theory, assessment, and treatment. We discuss the range of common misconceptions and misinformation that permeates the female offender literature. Finally, we conclude with ten myths about female offenders and offer guidelines for identifying bias and how to avoid it.
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide a theoretical and empirically based understanding of antisocial and psychopathic women. We begin by clarifying the differences between psychopathy, sociopathy, and ASPD, and then provide a historical perspective of hysteria. While the underlying personality of the female psychopath is paranoid, malignant hysteria is their predominant personality style (Gacono & Meloy, 1994). Overviews of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and Rorschach are offered as a refresher for those experienced clinicians and as a resource for those that are not. Finally, we present group PAI and Rorschach data (also Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 [TSI-2]) for 337 female offenders including subsets of psychopathic (N = 124) and non-psychopathic (N = 57) females. We make note of the differences between female and male psychopaths.