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System architecture of the proposed PS-UA scheme in PS LTE system.

System architecture of the proposed PS-UA scheme in PS LTE system.

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This paper addresses the issues of user association in a multi-tier heterogeneous networks (HetNets) to reduce co-channel interference and provide load balancing for proactively offloading users onto mobile personal cells (mPC). Previously much of the literature discussed the user' association problem for HetNets with conventional fixed small cells...

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... mPC is moving to provide a high data rate to the users connected to it. In order to offload more users to an mPC, bias is introduced. Although, by increasing bias value more users are associated with the mPC as shown in Fig. 2 by grey circle for which the radius of the grey circle increases as the bias value increases. This will also result in more interference with the offloaded users located in the CRE because of getting high power from the neighbor eNB. Thus, in order to reduce this interference, eICIC was introduced by third-generation partnership ...

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... In heterogeneous networks, device association is an important issue to improve system performance, and the goal of the device association issue is to determine the communication mode of every ground device in heterogeneous networks [19,20]. Kaleem et al. proposed a user association scheme based on the public security user priority to solve the problem of user association in a multi-layer heterogeneous network, and they realized load balancing and interference management in a long-term evolution system of high volatility public security in [21]. Mlika et al. studied the strategy of base station dormancy and user association under the constraint of guaranteeing the minimum rate of users in [22]. ...
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Along with the continuous revolution of energy production and energy consumption structures, the information data of smart grids have exploded, and effective solutions are urgently needed to solve the problem of power devices resource scheduling and energy efficiency optimization. In this paper, we propose a fifth generation (5G) and satellite converged network architecture for power transmission and distribution scenarios, where power transmission and distribution devices (PDs) can choose to forward power data to a cloud server data center via ground networks or space-based networks for power grid regulation and control. We propose a Joint Device Association and Power Control Online Optimization (JDAPCOO) algorithm to maximize the long-term system energy efficiency while guaranteeing the minimum transmission rate requirement of PDs. Since the formulated issue is a mixed integer nonconvex optimization problem with high complexity, we decompose the original problem into two subproblems, i.e., device association and power control, which are solved using a genetic algorithm and improved simulated annealing algorithm, respectively. Numerical simulation results show that when the number of PDs is 50, the proposed algorithm can improve the system energy efficiency by 105%, 545.05% and 835.26%, respectively, compared with the equal power allocation algorithm, random power allocation algorithm and random device association algorithm.
... - [76] It also showed that the same approach could be used for other RP processes. Parameter selection process. ...
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Artificial Intelligence has left no stone unturned, and mechanical engineering is one of its biggest consumers. Such technological advancements in metal melting can help in process simplification, hazard reduction, human involvement reduction & lesser process time. Implementing the AI models in the melting technology will ultimately help various industries, i.e., Foundry, Architecture, Jewelry Industry, etc. This review extensively sheds light on Artificial Intelligence models implemented in metal melting processes or the metal melting aspect, alongside explaining additive manufacturing as a competitor to the current melting processes and its advances in metal melting and AI implementations.
... Recently, the academia and the industry have analyzed the different assignment problems in 5G where the principal one is the user assignment to a Base Station in heterogeneous networks [13]. These solutions focus on determining the users (devices) belonging to each base station, addressing the issues of user association in the network, and studying parameters related to physical and data link layers [14]. However, neither solution discusses the association between the stations and the mobile access network, analyzing and improving the behavior of IP mobility management protocols. ...
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5G is expected to support new services and applications that will change the user experience and will drive to a new business landscape. Moreover, most of the services will require optimum connectivity and seamless mobility in heterogeneous networks. To cope with these challenges, network mobility management and network densification are envisioned to be key factors in the emerging 5G architectures. By deploying a large number of cells, 5G architectures can provide users with high throughput and flexible access services, an improvement of the network scalability and optimized network coverage. However, with this densification, seamless mobility support can lead to significant increasing in signaling overhead due to frequent handovers. In this context, network operators need to efficiently plan the deployment of the base stations taking into account the mobility management of the users, and the service degradation that this mobility process could cause. This article aims to optimize the assignment of the base stations to the access routers in the mobile network to improve the network performance. The results obtained show that our proposed Link-Network Assignment algorithm based on clustering techniques achieve significant gains in terms of signaling and data forwarding costs. These simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can successfully reduce signaling cost and packet delivery cost by up to 56% and 5%, respectively, on average, compared with baseline algorithms.
... Only one user at a time is allowed to transmit to avoid collisions between transmission and reception during a group call. When a user is pressing the PTT button, it should be displayed as a separate pop-up to ensure that the user can selectively switch the reception mode without automatically disconnecting the group call [16,17]. Figure 5 shows an example concerning the creation of an MCPTT voice channel of the terminal for a group call, and it can be seen step-by-step as follows. ...
... mode without automatically disconnecting the group call [16,17]. Figu ample concerning the creation of an MCPTT voice channel of the termin and it can be seen step-by-step as follows. ...
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Existing technologies in disaster and safety communication networks (DSCNs) face problems such as narrow bandwidth, low transmission rate, and difficulty in securing channels. Conversely, public safety long-term evolution (PS-LTE) technology provides high-speed, low-latency, quick-setup, and high-security data access for multimedia-based mission-critical services. To perform tests on each unit of core equipment with PS-LTE technology, a new call model such as push-to-talk, which is a service representing PS-LTE, is required. Moreover, objective and consistent metrics and methods are required for administering tests on the unique functions of DSCNs newly constructed with PS-LTE technology. This paper proposes a call model for the core facilities of DSCNs established in Korea, and it also suggests test and verification methods for all the areas of PS-LTE, including mission-critical push-to-talk, evolved multimedia broadcast and multicast service, and coverage and quality assessment for wireless services.
... Zia et al. 30 Exploits a joint modeling of user's mobility and cell CIOs for network bandwidth optimization Zeeshan et al. 31 User association scheme for load balancing and interference minimization through proactive user offloading inheterogeneous cellular networks Mohamed et al. 32 Simulation-based discrete-time Markov chains (DTMC) model is exploited for next handover prediction to optimize QoE and reduction in core network signaling Gholami et al. 33 A user-cell association policy to optimize resource allocation among without mobility information Farooq et al. 17 Real traces-based Semi-Markov mobility prediction model is proposed for the handover and latency optimization Asghar et al. 10 Downlink rate maximization framework using joint optimization of cell individual offsets (CIOs), transmission power, and antenna tilts. ...
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Cellular networks are evolving into dynamic, dense, and heterogeneous networks to meet the unprecedented traffic demands which introduced new challenges for cell resource management. To address this, various cell association schemes have been proposed. However, the current schemes ignore users' mobility information, and as a result, their cell admission and bandwidth allocation policy are reactive. In order to enable proactive bandwidth management in emerging 5G fog access radio networks (FRANs), we proposed a novel mobility-aware cell association scheme (MACA) that exploits user's mobility and downlink rate demand information to associate it with the maximum rate offering cell. In MACA, the mobility prediction model consists of long-short-term memory (LSTM)-based neural network that considers joint information of unique cell identification numbers with the corresponding sojourn times and predicts the user's most probable next cell. Later, the underlying future cell assignment is formulated as a convex problem and solved using the Lagrangian dual decomposition method and compared the proposed framework performance with Semi-Markov, deep neural network (DNN), and MaxRSRP-based cell association approaches in terms of the next cell prediction accuracy, the impact of downlink rate allocation, and user satisfaction percentage. MACA scheme is trained using two publicly available pedestrian datasets. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs significantly better than the other schemes and yields the average next cell prediction accuracy of 93.42%, 1.63 times higher downlink rates, and 56.8% users satisfied with the allocated bandwidth.
... In these entire applications, sensor are the main component to collect the raw data for further processing through ICA algorithm. All these applications of sensor fault diagnosis are critical due to their direct impact on public safety [20][21][22][23][24]. Oil or gas leakage can cause dangerous environmental effects. ...
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Independent component analysis (ICA) is a well known technique of blind source separation (BSS) and is used in various applications, e.g. speech, biomedical, communication, robotics, leakage detection, vibration analysis and machinery fault diagnosis. The ICA technique estimates the original source signals from the recorded multidimensional mixed signals through various sensors from any physical process. In case one or more sensor becomes faulty the separation of mixed signals becomes very difficult. In machinery, ICA is used to diagnose faults in its rotating parts that is a major concern of public safety. In case of faulty sensors, fault diagnosis becomes difficult. Moreover, in certain situations of wireless sensor networks some of the sensors fail to collect accurate information. Therefore, to collect accurate information in case of sensor failure, fault diagnosis technique is required. In this paper, a sensor fault diagnosis technique called the state observing technique (SOT) is developed to first diagnose faults in the system and then identify the faulty sensors. Also the extended sensor technique (EST) is developed to improve the separation performance of the ICA algorithm in case of faulty sensors based on information provided by the SOT technique. Effectiveness of the proposed SOT–EST technique is evaluated through extensive simulations utilizing the FastICA algorithm of ICA. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to discuss the sensor fault diagnosis in the ICA applications.
... These results have restrictions, because they optimize the efficiency of the system or network based on user associations. Therefore, the effect of offloading has not been analyzed or well-studied, because it is more difficult because of the different signal and interference issues [13]. The existing systems do not take into account the different moving patterns and QoS requirements of users and the base station (BS). ...
... Thus, allocating resources to users has to be considered based on users' priorities and locations in the specific network situations. This kind of user information is referred to as context information in the proposed scheme [13]. ...
... A lot of research has focused on addressing co-channel interference issues in a single network by proposing efficient resource allocation schemes but without considering critical scenarios like the overlapping of two LTE networks [14][15][16][17][18]. Moreover, the concept of the mobile personal cell has been used previously by considering a single network [13,19]. However, deployment of the mPC has not been evaluated in the complex environment of coexisting public safety networks. ...
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The Republic of Korea has played a leading role in the development of next-generation long-term evolution (LTE) public safety networks. The LTE-based public safety (PS-LTE) network, the LTE-based high-speed railway (LTE-R) network, and the LTE-based maritime (LTE-M) network use the same 700 MHz frequency band. That results in severe co-channel interference (CCI), so there is a dire need for practical research into resolving the CCI issue. Moreover, unplanned deployment of the mobile personal cell (mPC) generates serious user-association issues owing to its movement, which leads to severe co-channel interference in coexisting PS-LTE and LTE-R networks. Indeed, it is important to satisfy users’ quality of service (QoS) requirements during resource allocation in specific public safety situations. Therefore, we address the CCI issues through wise deployment of the mPC for user association and load balancing in overlapping PS-LTE and LTE-R networks. In this paper, we propose a QoS mPC deployment (QoS_mPCD) scheme for priority-based load balancing and interference reduction in coexisting PS-LTE and LTE-R networks. The proposed scheme efficiently manages the user-association and load-balancing problems, and allocates the best resources to high-priority users based on defined service priority levels. Moreover, we employ an enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC) scheme that further reduces the interference with the users offloaded onto an mPC. System-level simulations are performed to evaluate the proposed QoS_mPCD scheme by considering important performance matrices such as user equipment (UE) throughput, UE received interference, and UE outage probabilities.
... Whereas, in [27], a fractional frequency reuse method is used to mitigate interference in a fixed HetNet, to improve the indoor coverage and maximise the network SE by minimising the user equipment (UE) outage probability. Moreover, a priority-based UE offloading and UE association with mobile small cells for public safety communication (PSC) is studied in [28]. However, the authors in [26][27][28] did not consider any of the 3GPP Rel-10 and Rel-11 ICIC techniques for the HetNet deployments. ...
... Moreover, a priority-based UE offloading and UE association with mobile small cells for public safety communication (PSC) is studied in [28]. However, the authors in [26][27][28] did not consider any of the 3GPP Rel-10 and Rel-11 ICIC techniques for the HetNet deployments. ...
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enabled networks can enhance wireless connectivity and support emerging services. However, this would require system‐level understanding to modify and extend the existing terrestrial network infrastructure. In this study, the authors integrated UAVs as user equipment and base stations into an existing long term evolution (LTE)‐Advanced heterogeneous network (HetNet) and provide system‐level insights of this three‐tier LTE‐Advanced air‐ground HetNet (AG‐HetNet). The performance of AG‐HetNet was evaluated through brute‐force technique and heuristics algorithms in terms of the fifth percentile spectral efficiency (5pSE) and coverage probability. In particular, system‐wide 5pSE and coverage probability were compared, when unmanned aerial base stations (UABSs) are deployed on a fixed hexagonal grid and when their locations are optimised using a genetic algorithm (GA) and elitist harmony search algorithm based on the genetic algorithm (eHSGA); while jointly optimising the inter‐cell interference coordination (ICIC) and cell range expansion (CRE) network parameters for different ICIC techniques. The simulation results show that the heuristic algorithms (GA and eHSGA) outperform the brute‐force technique and achieve better peak values of coverage probability and 5pSE. Simulation results also show that a trade‐off exists between peak values and computation time when using heuristic algorithms. Furthermore, the three‐tier hierarchical structuring of reduced power subframes further‐enhanced ICIC (FeICIC) defined in 3GPP Rel‐11 provides considerably better 5pSE and coverage probability than the 3GPP Rel‐10 with almost blank subframes eICIC. They also investigated the network performance for different practical deployment heights of UABS and they found low‐altitude UABSs to perform sparsely better than medium‐altitude UABSs.
... Considering the power imbalance between MBS and PBS, [22] optimizes the overall network performance by ignoring some cross-tier interference in the case of medium signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). [23] proposes a QoS prioritybased coordinated scheduling and hybrid spectrum access scheme in two-tier HetNet to alleviate cross-tier interference. [24] proposes the public safety users priority-based mobile personal cells user association scheme to reduce co-channel interference. ...
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The introduction of the relay in heterogeneous networks (HetNets) can enhance cell-edge signals, but it will also bring coexistence of multiple interference which is composed of co-tier, cross-tier and cross time slot (caused by the half-duplex mode of the relay) interference, resulting in the ineffectiveness of the existing interference alignment (IA) schemes. To solve the above problem, the partial IA scheme, which achieves IA in the case of limited antennas by rationally designing the order and method of eliminating interference, is proposed in this paper. First, we align the interference from other base stations (BSs) into the interference space generated by pico BS to reduce the interference dimension of the relay, and then solve the interference between BSs and users by null space and concatenated precoding schemes. Furthermore, the feasibility condition of antenna configuration is analyzed. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme is superior to the traditional IA scheme in sum rate, and the performance of the proposed scheme is further improved as the relay transmission power increases.
... Experimental results proves the efficacy of the proposed algorithms. However, their developed system ignored most of the important issues like spectrum decision, spectrum mobility, and carrier frequency selection by targeting public safety communications (PSC) [15][16][17]. ...
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Cognitive radio (CR) is introduced to efficiently and opportunisti-cally use the limited spectrum to minimize the spectrum scarcity issues. Usually , service providers purchase the spectrum license from the policy-makers and spectrum regulator authority. The non-licensed users cannot utilize the licensed bands even though primary user is not transmitting. It sometimes results in under-utilization of frequency bands, which in turn decreases the spectral efficiency. The CR can opportunistically use the freely available licensed spectrum. To solve the spectrum scarcity problem, we implemented CR using software defined radio (SDR) on frequency modulated (FM) radio band (88MHz-108MHz), because of ease in access and availability. The proposed solution is equally valid for other frequency bands as well, because the printed circuit board (PCB) adopted here supports frequency from 50MHz to 2.2GHz. The proposed solution uses energy-detection based spectrum-sensing technique for primary user (PU) detection, and afterwards secondary user (SU) starts the data transmission over the vacant frequency band. We presented real-time experimental results for the detection probabilities by testing under various false alarm probabilities to verify the efficiency of the designed system. Experimental results show that we can achieve high detection probability even at low receiver sensitivity. When PU becomes active, then the proposed system quickly shift the public-safety user to other available white spaces to avoid halting the licensed user transmission. This solution is beneficial for security and defense organization such as army, traffic wardens, city wardens, and police.