Summary statistics of the outcome variables and explanatory variables.

Summary statistics of the outcome variables and explanatory variables.

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There is a high prevalence of gender gap in Bangladesh which might affect women’s likelihood to receive maternal healthcare services. In this backdrop, we aim to investigate how gender inequality measured by intrahousehold bargaining power (or autonomy) of women and their attitudes towards intimate partner violence (IPV) affects accessing and utili...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... study considered a total of 5,460 women who experienced childbirth at least once in the last three years preceding the survey. Table 1 shows the distribution of the respondents across different socioeconomic and demographic features, and maternal healthcare services. We observed that about 42.25% of the respondents received the required ANC services, 31.18% ...
Context 2
... observed that about 42.25% of the respondents received the required ANC services, 31.18% attained sufficient ANC visits, 37.63% received SBA during delivery and 64.46% received the services of postnatal checkup (Panel A in Table 1). We also found that around 58.79% of the ...
Context 3
... inequality and maternal healthcare services respondents had autonomy and 83.5% had negative attitudes towards IPV (Panel B in Table 1). Most of the respondents were Muslims (91.94%), nearly 75% lived in rural areas and 42.86% of them were poor (Panel C in Table 1). ...
Context 4
... inequality and maternal healthcare services respondents had autonomy and 83.5% had negative attitudes towards IPV (Panel B in Table 1). Most of the respondents were Muslims (91.94%), nearly 75% lived in rural areas and 42.86% of them were poor (Panel C in Table 1). One of the interesting findings is that compared to their husbands the respondents were relatively more educated. ...
Context 5
... women with negative attitudes towards IPV and lived in rural areas were more likely to receive five required ANC services (COR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.31-2.60 and AOR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.00-2.24) relative to women who lived in rural areas having positive attitudes towards IPV (Table 4, S1 Table). Moreover, we found that women's negative attitudes towards IPV and lived in urban areas were more likely to receive five ANC services (COR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.30-3.39) ...
Context 6
... country is experiencing a higher prevalence of IPV, thus, we recommend strong surveillance and monitoring by the law enforcement authority and proper implementation of the domestic violence act to reduce the prevalence of IPV which in turn could positively contribute to gender equality and improve access to and utilization of maternal healthcare in Bangladesh. S1 Table. Unadjusted effect of gender inequality on access to five ANC services: Understanding the heterogeneous channels. ...

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Citations

... Parental son preference and valuation of sons over daughters are common phenomena in many cultures worldwide, introducing sexbiased economic and demographic inequalities in some societies (Ahmed et al., 2021;Barot, 2012;Vlassoff, 2007). The adverse effects of overvaluing sons include sex differences in immunization coverage, perceptions of illness and need for care, quality of medical care-seeking, medical-care expenditure, and female-biased infant and child mortality in South Asian countries (Chowdhury et al., 2003;Hanifi et al., 2018;Ismail et al., 2019;Najnin et al., 2011;Shah et al., 2014;Subedi et al., 2022;Willis et al., 2009). ...
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Valuation of sons over daughters introduces sex-biased health, economic, and socio-demographic inequalities in many societies. This study aims to examine fetus-sex differences in maternity services and infant sex differences in medical care for terminally ill neonates in Bangladesh, using secondary data from the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), maintained by icddr,b since 1966 along with data from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality and Health Care Survey (BMMS) 2016. HDSS follows a well-defined rural population (0.24 million in 2018) to register vital events and migrations and records the use of maternity services for the index birth and medical care-seeking during the terminal illness of each death in verbal autopsy. The BMMS 2016 recorded maternity care and maternal complications for the last live birth of mothers in the same population (n = 27,133). Bivariate analyses estimated the use (in %) of maternity services for the index live births and medical services for terminally ill neonates for each socio-demographic variable. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (AORs) adjusted for socio-demographic variables and clustering of births to the same mothers. HDSS registered 49,827 live births and 1049 neonatal deaths during 2009–2018. We found similar prenatal care-seeking for male and female fetuses but higher facility delivery (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI:1.12–1.23) and C-sections (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI:1.15–1.25) for male fetus pregnancies, differences that remain after adjusting for maternal complications. Sex differences persisted in seeking care for terminally ill neonates. Trained provider consultation (AOR = 1.46, CI:1.00–2.12); hospital admissions (AOR = 1.43, CI:1.01–2.03); and dying in hospital (AOR = 1.91, CI:1.31–2.78) were all higher for male neonates. Other variables positively associated with delivery care and medical care-seeking were lower birth order of the child, higher maternal education, and higher family wealth status. Policy and decision-makers need to be aware of gender disparities in maternity care and care of sick neonates and plan remedial actions.