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Summary of the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes of Veronicaceae, as delimited by Albach et al. (2005a). Based on results presented by Albach et al. (2005a).

Summary of the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes of Veronicaceae, as delimited by Albach et al. (2005a). Based on results presented by Albach et al. (2005a).

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Recent molecular phylogenetic studies in Lamiales have shown that the large group traditionally recognised as Scrophulariaceae is not monophyletic. Efforts to reconstruct the phylogeny of this large clade and to revise its classification to reflect that phylogeny have resulted in seven monophyletic groups, comprised mostly of members of Scrophulari...

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... 2004aAlbach et al. , 2004bAlbach et al. , 2005aAlbach et al. , 2005bOyama and Baum 2004;Oxelman et al. 2005;Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005). From these studies, the present concept of Veronicaceae includes ∼90 genera and ∼2000 species. The most detailed study of Veronicaceae to date is that of Albach et al. (2005a) who proposed the groups listed below (Fig. 3). A synopsis is provided in the following sections, with a list of genera for which representative taxa have been included in molecular phylogenetic ...
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... contrast, the more detailed study of Albach et al. (2005a) recovered Hemiphragma as the sister group to a well supported Digitalideae-Veroniceae-Plantagineae clade. Figure 3 depicts this relationship, but future studies are necessary to understand the uncharacteristic morphology of Hemiphragma in light of its phylogenetic position in Veronicaceae. ...
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... and Veronica, based on their shared tetramerous corolla, reduced stamen number and seed morphology. This close relationship has been substantiated by molecular systematic studies Olmstead et al. 2001;Bello et al. 2002;Albach et al. 2005a); however, the relationship between Plantagineae and Veroniceae is unresolved with respect to Digitalideae (Fig. ...

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A molecular systematic study of Scrophulariaceae sensu lato using DNA sequences of three plastid genes (rbcL, ndhF, and rps2) revealed at least five distinct monophyletic groups. Thirty-nine genera representing 24 tribes of the Scrophulariaceae s.l. (sensu lato) were analyzed along with representatives of 15 other families of Lamiales. The Scrophul...

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... hectáreas, representando el 24.13 % de la superficie estatal (González-Flores & Contreras-Macbeath 2020 Revisión de literatura y medios electrónicos. Para verificar los registros de plantas parásitas en el estado e identificar el material examinado y colectado en campo, se consultó literatura especializada como monografías o revisiones taxonómicas para familias o géneros de plantas parásitas (e.g., Eastwood 1909, Philcox 1965, Ernst 1972, Kuijt 1975, Hawksworth & Wiens 1977, Hansen 1980, Sleumer 1984, Yatskievych & Mason 1986, Simpson 1989, Nesom 1992a, b, Hiepko 2000, Kuijt 2003, Tank et al. 2006, Alvarado-Cárdenas 2009, Kuijt 2009, 2011, Costea et al. 2011, además se revisaron recursos electrónicos como Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Stevens 2001), The Internacional Plant Names Index (www.ipni.org), The Parasitic Plant Connection (Nickrent 2018) y Tropicos (www. ...
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Antecedentes: Las angiospermas parásitas obtienen agua y nutrientes de un hospedero. Éstas pueden ser holoparásitas si obtienen agua y fotosintatos, o hemiparásitas, si obtienen agua y minerales. Las hemiparásitas se dividen en parásitas obligadas, si dependen del hospedero durante todo su ciclo biológico; o en facultativas, si no requieren del hospedero para sobrevivir. Entre las obligadas están los muérdagos, que además pueden parasitar a otros muérdagos, siendo entonces plantas epiparásitas. Para México se consideran 14 familias, 41 géneros y 411 especies de plantas parásitas. Preguntas: ¿Cuál es la diversidad de angiospermas parásitas en Morelos? Especies de estudio: Angiospermas parásitas. Sitio de estudio: Estado de Morelos, México. Métodos: Se revisaron 650 ejemplares de nueve herbarios (ENCB, FCME, HUAP, HUMO, IEB, MEXU, RSA, UAMIZ y XAL) y de 15 colecciones digitales (ARIZ, ASU, CM, COLO, F, GH, IND, LL, MO, NMC, NY, RM, UCR, UTC y TEX). Se colectaron 178 especímenes en diecinueve municipios. Los nombres de cada taxón fueron validados en Tropicos, The Plant List y el International Plant Names Index. Resultados: Se registraron 11 familias, 22 géneros y 60 especies de plantas parásitas en Morelos. Del total, 14 especies son holoparásitas, 19 son hemiparásitas facultativas y 27 son hemiparásitas obligadas. Se reportaron diez especies de muérdagos epiparásitos, con cinco registros nuevos de interacciones previamente no documentadas. Conclusiones: Las plantas parásitas representan el 1.69 % de la riqueza de angiospermas en Morelos, 24 especies son endémicas de México. La mayor diversidad se encuentra en Áreas Naturales Protegidas. Translate stop Translate stop
... Capraria L. and Limosella L. in Scrophulariaceae s.s., Lindenbergia Lehm. and Schizosepala G.M. Barroso (= Agalinis Raf.) in Orobanchaceae; Tank et al., 2006]. Hence, it seems clear that Gratioleae, even in the circumscriptions partially based on phylogenetic studies (Albach et al., 2005;Rahmanzadeh et al., 2005), remain paraphyletic and the number of genera is over-estimated. ...
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Gratioleae are the most species-rich tribe of Plantaginaceae in the tropics, spanning c. 30 genera and > 300 species, with a wide range of morphological variation and ecological strategies. As a first effort towards a phylogenetic classification of Gratioleae we generated a new phylogenetic hypothesis with improved taxa sampling, based on one nuclear and three plastid markers, using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference approaches, and performed ancestral state reconstructions of ten morphological characters of flowers. The paraphyly of Stemodia s.l. was corroborated with members being retrieved in four clades; Bacopa, Conobea, Leucospora and Schistophragma are non-monophyletic. As actions towards recognizing only monophyletic genera in Gratioleae, we propose Stemodia s.s. as a monophyletic and morphological cohesive group, describe Umbraria as a new genus to accommodate two species segregated from Stemodia, transfer Stemodia vandelliodes to Darcya, merge Conobea with Bacopa and re-establish the names Chodaphyton ericifolium and Geochorda glechomoides. Traits used to define Stemodia s.l. are plesiomorphic in the tribe; the flower type (composed of seven floral characters) constitutes a good diagnostic set of traits for almost all genera in the tribe. Our study sheds light on the urgent need to reassess generic circumscriptions towards a unified classification in Gratioleae.
... Lamiales is one of the most intractable orders of flowering plants, with major changes in composition and family circumscription as a result of molecular phylogenetic studies , 1995, 2001, Wagstaff and Olmstead, 1997, Rahmanzadeh et al., 2005. Tank et al., 2006, Schäferhoff et al., 2010, Refulio-Rodriguez and Olmstead, 2014. Lamiales is composed of 26 families, ranging from the monotypic Plocospermataceae to Lamiaceae with more than 7,800 species. The disaggregation of the large Scrophulariaceae s.l. was one of the major taxonomic changes promoted by phylogenetic results. A proliferation of sm ...
... The disaggregation of the large Scrophulariaceae s.l. was one of the major taxonomic changes promoted by phylogenetic results. A proliferation of smaller families occurred as a result, such as the description of Calceolariaceae, Linderniaceae, Mazaceae, Orobanchaceae, Paulowniaceae, and Schlegeliaceae Reeves, 1995, 2001;Oxelman et al., 2005;Rahmanzadeh et al., 2005;Tank et al., 2006). Other families were expanded to include former members of Scrophulariaceae, such as Stilbaceae . ...
... Phylogenetic studies focusing the order usually rely on plastid markers , 1995, 2001, Wagstaff and Olmstead, 1997, Rahmanzadeh et al., 2005Tank et al., 2006;Schäferhoff et al., 2010;Refulio-Rodriguez and Olmstead, 2014), while studies employing nuclear low-copy genes or genomic data are limited to infra-familial clades (e.g. Yuan et al., 2010, Welch et al., 2016Ogutcen et al., 2021). ...
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Lamiales is one of the most intractable orders of flowering plants, with several changes in family composition, and circumscription throughout history. The order is worldwide distributed, occurring in tropical forests and frozen habitats. In this study, a comprehensive phylogeny of Lamiales was reconstructed using DNA sequences. The tree was used to infer dispersal patterns, focusing on the tropics and extratropics. Molecular and species geographic data available from public repositories were combined to address both objectives. A total of 6,910 species, and 842 genera of Lamiales were sampled using the Python tool PyPHLAWD. The tree was inferred using RAxML, and recovered a monophyletic Lamiales. All 26 families were recovered as monophyletic with high support. The families Bignoniaceae, and Plantaginaceae are remarkable examples. The first emerged as monophyletic and included tribe Jacarandeae, while the later emerged as monophyletic in its sensu lato and included both the tribes Angelonieae, and Gratioleae. Distribution points for all species were retrieved from GBIF. After filtering, 1,136,425 records were retained. Species were coded as present in extratropical or tropical environments. The in and out of the tropics dispersal patterns were inferred using a maximum likelihood approach that identifies hidden rate changes. The model recovered higher rates of transition from extratropics to tropics, estimating two rates of state transitions. When ancestral states are considered, more discrete transitions from extratropics to tropics were observed. The extratropical state was also inferred for the crown node of Lamiales and old nested nodes, revealing a rare pattern of transitions to the tropics throughout the upper Cretaceous and Tertiary. A significant phylogenetic signal was recovered for the in and out of the tropics dispersal patterns, showing that state transitions are not frequent enough to erase the effect of tree structure on the data.
... Broomrapes are obligate non-photosynthetic holoparasitic root plants belonging to the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae) [11][12][13], whose native distribution range mostly extends to the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere [14]. Broomrapes are estimated at around 150-200 species [15], with no direct economic importance, but with devastating consequences to infected crops (e.g., legumes, vegetables, Brassica crops) mainly through yield reductions [9]. ...
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... Von Wettstein 1891) but variably affiliated with tribe Gratioleae (Von Wettstein 1891; Thieret 1954Thieret , 1967 or Mimuleae (Dumortier 1829;Burtt 1965;Argue 1984;Fischer 2004). However, Scrophulariaceae were found to be polyphyletic and some genera were subsequently transferred to existing families like Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae, Phrymaceae and Stilbaceae, and some genera were separated as small monophyletic families, including Calceolariaceae, Linderniaceae, Mazaceae, Paulowniaceae, Schlegeliaceae, and Wightiaceae (Olmstead and Reeves 1995;Oxelman et al. 1999Olmstead et al. 2001;Albach et al. 2005;Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005;Tank et al. 2006;Liu et al. 2020), then leaving a much reduced Scrophulariaceae s.s. To date, a number of genera have not yet been sequenced and are still unplaced. ...
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Mazus lanceifolius (Mazaceae) is a perennial herb with opposite leaves and endemic to central China that has not been collected for 130 years. Rediscovery of this enigmatic species in the wild allows for determination of its phylogenetic position within Mazaceae. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Mazaceae based on DNA sequences from four plastid markers ( matK , rbcL , rps16 and trnL - trnF ) and nuclear ribosome ITS consistently showed that Mazus was not monophyletic. Mazus lanceifolius is in the most basal clade within Mazaceae, as sister to the remaining species of three recognized genera Dodartia , Lancea and Mazus . These results support the separation of M. lanceifolius from Mazus as a new genus, which was established here as Puchiumazus Bo Li, D.G. Zhang & C.L. Xiang. Meanwhile, a collection from Shennongjia Forestry District of Hubei Province, China, misidentified as “ M. lanceifolius ” in previous molecular study, is here revealed to represent an undescribed species of Mazus , i.e., M. fruticosus Bo Li, D.G. Zhang & C.L. Xiang, sp. nov. Morphologically, Puchiumazus is clearly distinct from the other three genera by having quadrangular to somewhat ribbed stems, and obviously opposite leaves. In addition, we provide a taxonomic key to the four genera of Mazaceae.
... Von Wettstein 1891) but variably affiliated with tribe Gratioleae (Von Wettstein 1891; Thieret 1954Thieret , 1967 or Mimuleae (Dumortier 1829;Burtt 1965;Argue 1984;Fischer 2004). However, Scrophulariaceae were found to be polyphyletic and some genera were subsequently transferred to existing families like Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae, Phrymaceae and Stilbaceae, and some genera were separated as small monophyletic families, including Calceolariaceae, Linderniaceae, Mazaceae, Paulowniaceae, Schlegeliaceae, and Wightiaceae (Olmstead and Reeves 1995;Oxelman et al. 1999Olmstead et al. 2001;Albach et al. 2005;Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005;Tank et al. 2006;Liu et al. 2020), then leaving a much reduced Scrophulariaceae s.s. To date, a number of genera have not yet been sequenced and are still unplaced. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mazus lanceifolius (Mazaceae) is a perennial herb with opposite leaves and endemic to central China that has not been collected for 130 years. Rediscovery of this enigmatic species in the wild allows for determination of its phylogenetic position within Mazaceae. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Mazaceae based on DNA sequences from four plastid markers (matK, rbcL, rps16 and trnL-trnF) and nuclear ribosome ITS consistently showed that Mazus was not monophyletic. Mazus lanceifolius is in the most basal clade within Mazaceae, as sister to the remaining species of three recognized genera Dodartia, Lancea and Mazus. These results support the separation of M. lanceifolius from Mazus as a new genus, which was established here as Puchiumazus
... The Scrophulariaceae family had been shown to be polyphyletic (Olmstead and Reeves 1995) and reassignation of genera to monophyletic families, such as Calceolariaceae, Linderniaceae, Mazaceae, Orobanchaceae, Paulowniaceae, Phrymaceae, Plantaginaceae, Stilbaceae and Wightiaceae was recently done (Olmstead et al. 2001;Stevens 2001;Rahmanzadeh et al. 2004;Albach et al. 2005;Oxelman et al. 2005;Tank et al. 2006;Liu et al. 2019). Molecular and morphological studies supported new family Linderniaceae with the type genus Lindernia All. ...
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The article deals with the information on lectotypification of five names, Bonnaya bracteoides Blatt. & Hallb., B. micrantha Blatt. & Hallb., Torenia diffusa D.Don, Vandellia hookeri C.B. Clarke ex Hook.f., V. molluginoides Benth. and second-step lectotypification of Bonnaya pusilla Benth.
... and Teedieae Benth. (Oxelman et al. 2005;Tank et al. 2006). With the exception of a few genera with large radiations in the Northern Hemisphere (i.e. ...
... With the exception of a few genera with large radiations in the Northern Hemisphere (i.e. Verbascum L., Scrophularia L., Buddleja L.), the family, as currently circumscribed (Oxelman et al. 2005), has a distribution predominantly in the Southern Hemisphere (Tank et al. 2006). One of the largest southern radiations in the family is that of tribe Myoporeae, which has a centre of diversity in Australia. ...
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This study presents an analysis of plastomes to assess relationships among the seven genera of tribe Myoporeae (Scrophulariaceae). Sampling included individuals from type species for all seven genera included in Myoporeae (Bontia, Calamphoreus, Diocirea, Eremophila, Glycocystis, Myoporum, Pentacoelium), one additional species of the large genus Eremophila, one representative of the sister tribe Leucophylleae (Leucophyllum), and the previously published plastome of Scrophularia takesimensis as an outgroup. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses based on > 7000 variable nucleotide positions. Maximum parsimony analysis produced a single tree with the same topology as the Bayesian consensus tree, and all nodes were fully resolved with 100% bootstrap support and 1.0 Bayesian posterior probability. Tribe Myoporeae was supported as monophyletic and sister to Leucophylleae. Two lineages are identified within Myoporeae; one containing the Australian endemic genera Calamphoreus, Diocirea, Glycocystis and the type species of Eremophila (E. oppositifolia), the second containing species with distributions outside of Australia (Bontia, Myoporum, Pentacoelium) and a species of Eremophila (E. gibbifolia). Eremophila is thus supported as polyphyletic. The application of genome skimming and assembly of plastomes has resolved generic relationships in tribe Myoporeae and revealed variable regions of the genome that will be useful in further genetic study of the group.
... Early molecular work with rps2 (Young & al., 1999) placed seven members of this group in a clade, but relationships along the spine of the tree were unresolved. Later work with greater taxon sampling (Wolfe & al., 2005;Tank & al., 2006) revealed the presence of two subclades, basically corresponding to tribes Castillejeae and Gerardieae in Fischer (2004), with Pedicularis sister to these. These are indicated in Fig. 4 as C and D, respectively. ...
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Angiosperms that morphologically and physiologically attach to other flowering plants by means of a haustorium have evolved 12 times independently resulting in 292 genera and ca. 4750 species. Although hemiparasites predominate, holoparasitism has evolved in all but two clades, Cassytha (Lauraceae) and Krameria (Krameriaceae). Santalales contains the largest number of genera (179) and species (2428) among the 12 parasitic plant lineages whereas Orobanchaceae is the largest single family with 102 genera and over 2100 species. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the molecular phylogenetic relationships among all clades of parasitic angiosperms. These methods have been particularly important in revealing the closest non‐parasitic relatives of holoparasites, plants that exhibit reduced morphologies, increased substitution rates, and frequent horizontal gene transfers, all of which confound phylogenetics. Although comprehensive molecular phylogenies are still lacking for many of the large genera, nearly complete generic level sampling exists, thus allowing unprecedented understanding of the evolutionary relationships within and among these fascinating plants.
... Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong (basionym Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell) is perennial rhizomatous herb belonging to the tribe Veroniceae of the family Plantaginaceae according to recent phylogenic studies (Albach et al., 2005(Albach et al., , 2004aBello et al., 2002;Olmstead et al., 2001;Tank et al., 2006), but was previously included in the family Scrophulariaceae. It is commonly known as Picrorhiza, or Gentian, or Nepalese kutki, or Hellebore in English. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong is important medicinal plant that is native to the eastern Himalayas and Hengduan mountains in China. It is also distributed in Nepal, north east India, Bhutan and northern Myanmar. Plant parts are traditionally used against different kinds of diseases and various compounds present in different plant parts are also effective against many diseases. Thus, N. scrophulariiflora has a high potential to maintain human health. Aim of the review: Although N. scrophulariiflora is very important and widely studied plant species but there is no comprehensive up-to-date review of published and unpublished literature. So, in the present article we have compiled and critically commented on the botanical characteristics, traditional uses, plant growth and cultivation, micropropagation, conservation status, secondary metabolites, pharmacology and toxicity of the plant. Materials and methods: Extensive literature searches both electronic online databases (Google Scholar, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed, ChemSpider, USPTO, Google patents and Espacenet) and library visits in Nepal were carried out to collect the literature on information published prior to April 2019. Results: N. scrophulariiflora was traditionally used for 82 ailments/diseases. There are 124 major phytochemicals extracted from the plant. Several compounds are effective in bioactivity. Pharmacologically, the plant is proved to be anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory in-vivo studies, and antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and nerve growth factor potentiating from in-vitro studies. Renal improvement activities were confirmed from both in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Toxicological tests and a single clinical trial in human beings have supported the notion that the plant is not poisonous but beneficial for curing wide ranges of diseases. Conclusion: N. scrophulariiflora is valuable medicinal plant that can serve as promising source of non-harmful and potential medicinal herbal remedies for human beings.