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Summary of the marketing audit field work.

Summary of the marketing audit field work.

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Article
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Natural Protected Areas face the challenge of conciliating attractions with satisfaction of their different stakeholders without compromising their own resources. Marketing can play an important role to this challenge from a macromarketing perspective. No studies are found in the literature on the integral assessment of marketing practices in Natur...

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... details of the field work are summarized in Table 1. The population under study comprised natural areas of Spain, Italy, USA, and Mexico, the directors of which were sent a URL via e-mail to respond to an online self-administered questionnaire (32 items for each one of the two dimensions: the situation of their NP with respect to each item and the importance it had for the development of the NP). ...
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... to the directors, a third of the items that presented a high assessment of performance-in other words, those that were done best (scores between 6.33 to 8.36 over 10, the average of the third best score of 7.14, Appendix A, Table A1)-had to do with taking into account, in relation to the natural area, the principal economic events; seeking sustainable alternatives to environmental impact; knowing the opinions of their visitors; and knowing and responding rapidly to changes in legislation that might affect them. With regard to strategy, what was done best was related to clear definitions of the mission, which has to be feasible and known to everybody; having a corporate identity manual; and encouraging good relations with interest groups and the internet as part of the strategy. ...
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... exceptions were the situations in which there was no great imbalance in the scores; in other words, performance was considered to be practically at the same level as importance, as in the consideration of the internet as a part of park strategy, the search for sustainable alternatives relating to environmental impact, a clear definition of the mission, and the availability of an internal communications system. Neither were there differences, although their scores were lower than the earlier ones, for the items relating to training in marketing, and the completion of an online database and direct marketing activities (Appendix A, Table A1). ...
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... authors declare no conflict of interest. Table A1. Scores for importance and performance. ...

Citations

... This work aims to answer the common question about the sustainable approach for appropriate management (Luque-Martínez et al., 2019;Deng & Li, 2019) of historical parks and to apply a methodological framework for management guidelines (Canada's Historic Places, 2010) with the aid of landscape character assessment and stakeholder's participation. The basis for any (new) proposed design within historical public parks should be a profound understanding of the site and its connections with the surroundings, regarding its spatial, historical, environmental, and ecological qualities. ...
... This work aims to answer the common question about the sustainable approach for appropriate management (Luque-Martínez et al., 2019;Deng & Li, 2019) of historical parks and to apply a methodological framework for management guidelines (Canada's Historic Places, 2010) with the aid of landscape character assessment and stakeholder's participation. ...
Article
This paper investigated the use of landscape character assessment and perception surveys of stakeholders (i.e. employees, students and visitors) and SWOT analysis as a holistic approach to developing landscape management guidelines for historical public parks. The aim is to conserve and protect the historical and cultural heritage (landscape character) of historical public parks and address the stakeholder needs that do not threaten the park's historical and cultural heritage. The site selected for study is Syggrou Estate, a historical park located within the northern suburbs of Athens, Greece. Specific objectives of the study are to: (i) assess the historical, cultural, and natural importance of Syggrou Estate, (ii) determine the perceptions and needs of stakeholders, iii) provide landscape management guidelines for historical public parks based on landscape character assessment, perception surveys and SWOT analysis. The results show that the most important aspects of Syggrou Estate are the forest and cultivations for the retention of the Estate's historical value. The three most popular development actions were to conserve the present crops, restore the basic infrastructure, and increase educational activities. This research is valuable for identifying and assessing landscape characteristics and enhancing landscape awareness for sustainable park management. It provides a consultation among experts and stakeholders regarding the park's development priorities and their associated landscape guidelines and supports practitioners on park management and any legislation regarding the protection and enhancement of parks history and biodiversity.
... Moreover, the image of a particular tourist destination is influenced by information appearing on social media (i.e., placemaking, city branding), which can even increase demand [19,20]. Targeted marketing strategies can also be effectively implemented through social media platforms, making tourism consumption more sustainable at the individual level [21]. Social media can also function as a platform for protesting against overtourism, as it allows local residents to protest against the phenomenon, as they did in Barcelona in connection with Airbnb [22]. ...
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Despite the growing importance of mobile tracking technology in urban planning and traffic forecasting, its utilization in the understanding of the basic laws governing tourist flows remains limited. Knowledge regarding the motivations and spatial behavior of tourists has great potential in sustainable tourism studies. In this paper, we combine social media (Twitter) and mobile positioning data (MPD) in the analysis of international tourism flows in Szeged, a secondary urban center in Hungary. First, the content of geotagged and non-geotagged Twitter messages referring to Szeged in a six-month period of 2018 was analyzed. In this way specific events attracting foreign tourists were identified. Then, using MPD data of foreign SIM cards, visitor peaks in the investigated period were defined. With the joint application of the social media and mobile positioning analytical tools, we were able to identify those attractions (festivals, sport and cultural events, etc.) that generated significant tourism arrivals in the city. Furthermore, using the mixed-method approach we were also able to analyze the movements of foreign visitors during one large-scale tourism event and evaluate its hinterland. Overall, this study supports the idea that social media data should be combined with other real-time data sources, such as MPD, in order to gain a more precise understanding of the behavior of tourists. The proposed analytical tool can contribute to methodological and conceptual development in the field, and information gained by its application can positively influence not only tourism management and planning but also tourism marketing and placemaking.
... Another interesting research area will be the examination of the effect of social media on the attractions of natural areas. According to Luque-Martínez, Faraoni and Doña-Toledo [77], natural areas are a tourism asset of immense importance. Nature tourism is a market niche with very specific characteristics, which is very common in Greece. ...
... Nature tourism is a market niche with very specific characteristics, which is very common in Greece. In their study [77], behavioral patterns on Twitter and Facebook were addressed to identify profiles. The authors proved that this information was useful for benchmarking to compare the profiles or clusters according to their social network activity. ...
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This article contributes to the knowledge of the impact that the cultural–heritage relationship has on tourism and sustainable development. Cultural tourism is increasingly relevant in terms of European and national policies, and the growing academic interest is notorious, reflected in the progressive increase in the number of studies in this area. We conduct a systematic literature review using an integrative synthesis of published peer-reviewed literature on patrimonial tourism, cultural tourism and touristic destination. Our search in web of science databases identified 329 publications on this topic of several research areas. Our review of these articles addresses the following three questions: (1) What kind of studies have been developed about culture–heritage relation? (2) What is the possible relationship between them and tourism and sustainable development? (3) What is the impact of studies identified in the literature? To answer these questions, we use a systematic literature review with bibliometric methods of co-word analysis. We conclude that relationship between culture and patrimony seems to be on the research agenda, particularly, studies about the impact of this relation on tourism and sustainable development.
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Protected areas (PA's) achieve recognition and enhanced protection when a sufficient number of tourists visit and appreciate them and influence policy to assure their survival. Despite the growing importance, little attention has been paid to visitor satisfaction in PAs. Visitor experience and satisfaction may be influenced by many attributes of PAs. The present study is an attempt to examine the effect of visitor impact management (VIM) practices on visitor experience and satisfaction concerning eco and wildlife tourism at Eravikulam National Park (ENP). VIM is a component of PA management and is required to ensure a high level of visitor experience, education, facilities, and services. For this purpose, researchers have measured the socio-economic profile of visitors and various attributes viz. Tourism Activities (TA), Environmental Impacts (ENI), Socio-Cultural Impacts (SCI), Visitor Impact Management (VIM), Visitor Education (VE), and overall satisfaction of visitors (OSA). The results of the study show that VIM is significantly and positively correlated with VE, OSA of visitors. (VIM, TA, ENI, SCI, VE) explained partial variation in the criterion variable viz., OSA.
Conference Paper
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Tourists consider social media platforms invaluable tools for travel planning. Social media serves as a major resource that provides consumers with useful information when organizing holidays, and that helps tourism businesses to deliver content for commercial marketing purpose. Tourism SMEs (Small and Medium Entrepreneurs) face challenges that inhibit the growth of implementing social media for marketing purposes. This paper, which is based on a systematic literature review of 181 academic journals, identifies the key challenges that hinder SMEs in the implementation of social media marketing in their business. This study reviews and analyses all extant social media-related research articles published in academic journals during 2010 to 2020, mainly in tourism, hospitality fields. Research findings thoroughly demonstrate the key challenges of implementing social media for marketing in the tourism industry. There are two main challenges that SMEs experience. The first category is organisational challenges, which include an uncertain return on investment and a lack of credibility and reliability as an information source, lack of technological knowledge, issues around social media presence, time constrains, and the failure to define marketing objectives. The second category is environmental challenges, which include empowered tourism consumers, competitive business environments, and the fear of negative comments.
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The increase of environmental problems due to the tourist activity has given rise to conservation of environment in destinations. In this sense, regional, national, and international regulatory provisions have proliferated during the last years. This article analyses the perception in the society about this kind of distinguishing signs, for the specific case of protected natural areas. Since local population participates in the appropriate development of protected areas, the knowledge and the communication of protection’s forms are necessary to achieve the purpose for which they were created. This article uses a structural equation model to know the relationship between implication of local population, knowledge and perception of forms to protect natural areas, and the influence on the support of actions related with these forms of protection. This article represents a sustainable innovation with the aim of getting recommendations about the use of distinguishing signs by tourist authorities, to achieve a good knowledge and communication of these signs, and an optimal management of destinations. The main result is that the perception of the effects produced by figures of protection influences on the support of actions related with these figures; in this way, the more positive perception is, the higher the support is.
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This paper aimed to present a model of natural environment management in national parks in Poland in the context of increased tourist traffic. The research area comprised Polish national parks as they are characterized by barely altered nature, little human impact, and undisturbed natural phenomena. The methods involved the observational method, literature analysis and criticism, and the in-depth interview method employed in November 2019. The respondents included national park management staff. The questions were prepared in accordance with the Berlin Declaration principles of sustainable tourism development and were extended with the authors’ own items. The questionnaire contained 17 questions, grouped in four parts: science and documentation; tourism; cooperation and education; environmental threats. The results indicate that in order for actions to prove efficient in a park, a conservation plan should be carefully developed. Its correctness requires monitoring the state of the environment, tourist traffic size and trends, and tourists’ impact on the environment. An important condition for effective tourism management in parks is to increase the competences of the administering bodies and knowledge regarding individuals’ responsibilities. Boards should be able to evaluate and modify conservation plans, spatial development plans, municipality development strategies, and projects for investments within the parks.