Figure - available via license: CC BY
Content may be subject to copyright.
Summary of study outcomes by intervention goal and in total

Summary of study outcomes by intervention goal and in total

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Background: Women of childbearing age are vulnerable to weight gain. This scoping review examines the extent and range of research undertaken to evaluate behavioral interventions to support women of childbearing age to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RC...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... 1 describes the study characteristics of the included RCTs overall, and by intervention goal. Individual study characteristics are described in Additional file 1: Table S2. Of the 87 included RCTs, 52.9% (n = 46) focused on preventing excessive GWG, 20.7% (n = 18) on weight loss or preventing weight retention in the postpartum period, [72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89] and 16.1% (n = 14) focused on both preventing excessive GWG and preventing weight retention in the postpartum period [90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103]. ...
Context 2
... women who were breastfeeding. Table 2 describes the outcomes measured across the included RCTs. All studies measured weight related outcomes, with 78.2% (n = 62) having a weight-related primary outcome [27, 29-34, 36, 38, 40-44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 54, 56-59, 61-66, 68, 69, 71-80, 82-87, 90-103, 105, 106, 108-111]. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
African American (AA) girls and women having disproportionately higher rates of obesity than their racial/ethnic counterparts. There is an urgent need to address overweight and obesity in AA girls through preventive interventions that enhance lifestyle physical activity (PA) and improve dietary behaviors in middle adolescence. Middle adolescence re...

Citations

... However, the obesity rate increased to 38.6% in 2013-2016 [10]. Hutchesson et al. concluded that providing an efficient behavioral intervention focusing on improved health behavior and weight management to young adult females could improve future outcomes for both planned and unplanned pregnancies [11]. ...
... Patients diagnosed with GDM are, in general, included in a group of women irrespective of their nutritional status and metabolic conditions [7]. Yet, obesity is a pandemic also affecting women of childbearing age [15][16][17][18][19], driving a higher prevalence of pre-pregnancy maternal obesity. Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is a risk factor for developing GDM [1][2][3][4]7,9,10]. ...
Article
Pregnant women may develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a disease of pregnancy characterised by maternal and fetal hyperglycaemia with hazardous consequences to the mother, the fetus, and the newborn. Maternal hyperglycaemia in GDM results in fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction. GDM-harmful effects result from chronic and short periods of hyperglycaemia. Thus, it is determinant to keep glycaemia within physiological ranges avoiding short but repetitive periods of hyper or hypoglycaemia. The variation of glycaemia over time is defined as ‘glycaemia dynamics’. The latter concept regards with a variety of mechanisms and environmental conditions leading to blood glucose handling. In this review we summarized the different metrics for glycaemia dynamics derived from quantitative, plane distribution, amplitude, score values, variability estimation, and time series analysis. The potential application of the derived metrics from self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the potential alterations of pregnancy outcome in GDM are discussed.
... Women, in particular, appear more susceptible to obesity, with the prevalence of female obesity having more than doubled in the past 30 years and the prevalence of morbid obesity in women more than twice that recorded in men [3]. Evidence suggests that among adults, young women of childbearing age (18-44 years) are the most at risk of developing obesity [4,5], with this cohort demonstrating the highest rate of weight gain [6][7][8][9][10]. Furthermore, the adverse effects associated with obesity appear to be greater in women, with the risks of developing cancer and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders significantly higher than observed in men [11][12][13][14][15]. Mounting evidence highlights the strong association between excessive weight gained during early childbearing years and longer-term adverse health outcomes [4,[16][17][18]. ...
... Evidence suggests that among adults, young women of childbearing age (18-44 years) are the most at risk of developing obesity [4,5], with this cohort demonstrating the highest rate of weight gain [6][7][8][9][10]. Furthermore, the adverse effects associated with obesity appear to be greater in women, with the risks of developing cancer and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders significantly higher than observed in men [11][12][13][14][15]. Mounting evidence highlights the strong association between excessive weight gained during early childbearing years and longer-term adverse health outcomes [4,[16][17][18]. ...
... Grip strength will be measured using a hand-held dynamometer (Jamar Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer, Performance Health Supply, USA). To perform this measure, participants will Are currently physically inactive (exercising less than 150 min/week) 4 Have not undergone weight loss surgery or another surgery in the past 3 months 5 Not pregnant (or within 6 months post-pregnancy) or lactating 6 Do not have a significant mental illness or cognitive deficits 7 ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Obesity in women has more than doubled in the past thirty years. Increasing research suggests that increased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can largely attenuate the negative health risks associated with obesity. Though previous literature suggests that combined training may be the most effective for improving CRF in adults with obesity, there is minimal research investigating the efficacy of combined and resistance programmes in women with obesity. This article outlines a protocol for a parallel pilot study which aims to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of three exercise modalities in women with obesity for increasing CRF and strength and improving body composition and other health outcomes (i.e. quality of life). Methods and analysis Sixty women (aged 18–50) with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 and/or waist circumference ≥ 88 cm) who are physically inactive, have no unstable health conditions and are safe to exercise will be recruited from September 2021 to December 2022. The main outcome will be feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and procedures. Trial feasibility outcomes will be evaluated to determine if a definitive trial should be undertaken. Trial acceptability will be explored through follow-up qualitative interviews with participants. Secondary outcomes will include CRF (predicted VO 2 max), anthropometrics (i.e. BMI), strength (5RM bench press, leg dynamometry, grip strength) and other health outcomes (i.e., pain). Participants will be block randomised into one of four trial arms (aerobic exercise, resistance training and combined training groups, non-active control group) and measurements will be completed pre- and post-intervention. The exercise groups will receive an individualised supervised exercise programme for 3× sessions/week for 12 weeks. The change in mean values before and after intervention will be calculated for primary and secondary outcomes. ANOVA and t -tests will be applied to evaluate within-group and between-group differences. If sufficient participants are recruited, the data will be analysed using ANCOVA with the age and BMI as covariates. Discussion This pilot will provide data on the feasibility and acceptability of trial procedures and of the programmes’ three progressive time-matched exercise interventions (aerobic, resistance and combined) for women living with obesity, which will help inform future research and the potential development of a full-scale randomised clinical trial. Trial registration ISRCTN, ISRCTN13517067 . Registered 16 November 2021—retrospectively registered.
... However, WLO studies often neglect to investigate the physiological responses to exercise and, instead, primarily focus upon improving body composition and physical activity levels (10,11,15). Thus, guidance for exercise prescription as an intervention to improve health in this population is mainly informed by male-only literature and, therefore, it fails to account for the sex-specific biological differences and life events that influence exercise-induced responses (16)(17)(18). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of different exercise modalities and determine the optimal exercise prescription for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and metabolic health of women with obesity. Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1988 and October 2020 was conducted. The RCTs were screened using the following inclusion criteria: 1) participants: women aged 18 to 65 years with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and without comorbidities; 2) intervention: exercise; 3) comparison: non-intervention control; and 4) outcomes measures: cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption), body composition (i.e., body weight, percentage body fat), and/or metabolic measures (i.e., blood pressure, cholesterol). Results: A total of 20 RCTs with a total of 2,062 participants were included. Although the results showed that any form of exercise was more effective than control, improvements in fitness and body composition were modest. Aerobic exercise (vigorous and moderate intensity) appeared most promising for improving fitness and body weight, whereas low-load resistance training resulted in the largest improvements in body fatness. Conclusions: In women living with obesity, aerobic exercise was consistently effective in improving fitness and body composition. Although both resistance training and combined exercise interventions appear promising, more research is needed to evaluate their efficacy and determine an optimal exercise prescription for this population.
... Most studies have assessed women with obesity during their reproductive period, including pregnancy. During this period, a healthy and balanced diet, associated with nutritional education provided by a nutritionist/dietitian, has been shown to be crucial to prevent excessive weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women [117][118][119][120][121][122]. It also is a protective factor for the occurrence of gestational diabetes and hypertension, and pre-eclampsia [119,123]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Women are more affected by obesity than men which increases their risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, it is important to understand the effectiveness of different types of diet in the context of women's health. This review aims to summarize the scientific evidence on the effects of different types of diet for women with obesity and their impact on CVD and cancer risk. This review included epidemiological and clinical studies on adult women and different types of diets, such as the Mediterranean (MED) diet, the Traditional Brazilian Diet, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), intermittent fasting (IF), calorie (energy) restriction, food re-education , low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a very low-carbohydrate diet (VLCD). Our main findings showed that although LCDs, VLCD and IF are difficult to adhere to over an extended period, they can be good options for achieving improvements in body weight and cardiometabolic parameters. MED, DASH and the Traditional Brazilian Diet are based on natural foods and reduced processed foods. These diets have been associated with better women's health outcomes, including lower risk of CVD and cancer and the prevention and treatment of obesity.
... Since the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus over the past decades in women of childbearing age worldwide increased (up to 35%) (Hutchesson et al., 2020; Ministerio Nacional de Salud del Gobierno de Chile (MINSAL) 2017; World Health Organization (WHO), 2021a,b), the prevalence of maternal obesity and other pregnancy pathologies will likely continue to increase in the years ahead. Early events during foetal life contribute to the developmental origin of diseases. ...
... In line with this, unfortunately, worldwide GDM prevalence also increased between 2005 and 2018, reaching country-specific prevalence, with a mean range varying between 6 and 16% of the total pregnant women (McIntyre et al., 2019). Recent reports show that obesity in women of their childbearing age has also increased over the last decade (Hutchesson et al., 2020;MINSAL 2017;WHO, 2021a,b). This phenomenon is a critical determinant predicting a substantial increase in women with gestational diabesity (Cornejo et al., 2021). ...
Article
A balanced communication between the mother, placenta and foetus is crucial to reach a successful pregnancy. Several windows of exposure to environmental toxins are present during pregnancy. When the women metabolic status is affected by a disease or environmental toxin, the foetus is impacted and may result in altered development and growth. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease of pregnancy characterised by abnormal glucose metabolism affecting the mother and foetus. This disease of pregnancy associates with postnatal consequences for the child and the mother. The whole endogenous and exogenous environmental factors is defined as the exposome. Endogenous insults conform to the endo-exposome, and disruptors contained in the immediate environment are the ecto-exposome. Some components of the endo-exposome, such as Selenium, vitamins D and B12, adenosine, and a high-fat diet, and ecto-exposome, such as the heavy metals Arsenic, Mercury, Lead and Copper, and per- and polyfluoroakyl substances, result in adverse pregnancies, including an elevated risk of GDM or gestational diabesity. The impact of the exposome on the human placenta's vascular physiology and function in GDM and gestational diabesity is reviewed.
... Are children born to mothers with gestational diabetes heavier and more labile in blood sugar due to higher insulin sensitivity? [11]. ...
... In skeletal muscle it increases insulin sensitivity by enhancing skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in high-fat-fed rats. A current research confirmed that polypeptide found from the plant binds with IRs and controls downstream insulin signalling pathway [11]. Momordica charantia contains numerous biologically active chemical compounds such as glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oils, triterpenes, proteins, and steroids. ...
Article
Abnormal insulin secretion occurs during hypoinsulinism and hyperinsulinism. Hypoinsulinism is absolute or relative insulin insufficiency which produces a very common clinical sickness called diabetes mellitus. Hyperinsulinism designs an overhead normal level of insulin in a patient’s blood. Hyperinsulinism is the disproportionate production of insulin by tumors of the pancreatic β cells. Patients who suffer from hyperinsulinism disorder undergo hypoglycemic crises, weakness, intense perspiring, and vertigo. This alteration is not known by people of surrounding areas of developing countries like Cameroon. To identify previous work used to write this article a systematical search was done using engines including: “Antidiabetic plants help to control the hyperinsulism in pregnant diabetic women or animals” and “Toxicity of a given recorded plant name” used to verify the harmlessness of recorded plants. Plants that caught our attention are plants already used by hinterlands diabetic women in Cameroon. An increase in insulin secretion by fetal pancreas and placenta coincides with an increased number of insulin-producing B-cells to lower glucose levels in the bloodstream and promote the storage of glucose in adipose and muscle tissue, liver and other body tissues. It was demonstrated that insulin released from the liver stimulate also glucose uptake and naturally maternal insulin does not cross the placenta. Well controlled healthy pregnant women have a good chance of having a normal pregnancy and birth. But in developing countries diabetes is not generally well controlled during pregnancy in many hinterland areas and still affecting maternal and baby health. At the time of birth newborns diabetic mothers are still often larger, and after birth their vagina is harder and may upsurge the risk for nerve injuries and other trauma during birth. Also many risk including birth defect of the lower spine, birth defect of the brain, and limb result from pre-existing diabetes. Screening of all pregnancy for insulin resistance and early intervention may help to reduce these connected complications. Do antidiabetic plants more economical and available, taken by indigenous gestational diabetics control GDM?
... 3 4 In low-income countries, this condition is more predominant among middle-aged adults, especially women of childbearing age (15 and 49 years), while it affects individuals of all ages and genders in high-income countries. 5 In 2016, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight and of those individuals, more than 650 million were obese, worldwide. 6 Approximately 40 million children under the age of 5 years and 340 million adolescents were reported to be obese between 2016 and 2018, globally. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The worldwide prevalence of obesity and overweight has doubled since 1980, such that approximately a third of the world’s population is reported as obese or overweight. Obesity rates have increased in all ages and both sexes irrespective of geographical area, ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Due to the high prevalence, related health consequences and costs of childhood and adult obesity, there is a need to comprehensively identify and assess the major underlying drivers of obesity and overweight in the African context. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be carried out as per the methodological outline by Arksey and O’Malley. The search strategy will be developed and search performed in the Scopus and PubMed electronic databases. In the first search, we will identify concepts that are used as an equivalent to obesity and overweight. Subsequently, we will search for studies comprising of search terms on the underlying factors that drive the development of obesity and overweight. Lastly, we will check reference lists for additional publications. Abstracts and full-text studies will independently be screened by two authors. Ethics and dissemination The proposed study will generate evidence from published data and hence does not require ethics approval. Evidence generated from this review will be disseminated through journal publications and conference presentations.
Article
Resumen Con el incremento de la prevalencia de la obesidad entre las mujeres en edad reproductiva están aumentando los efectos perjudiciales para la salud materna y neonatal. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir la evidencia que el manejo integral del control ponderal de las mujeres en edad reproductiva tiene sobre los resultados materno-fetales. Primeramente, se describe el impacto que la obesidad tiene en la fertilidad y la gestación y a continuación se destacan los aspectos específicos del manejo continuado del peso en cada una de las etapas (preconcepción, embarazo y posparto) durante estos años, no solo en las mujeres afectadas de obesidad antes de la gestación, sino también para evitar y revertir la ganancia de peso durante el embarazo que complique las gestaciones futuras. Finalmente, se discuten las necesidades especiales de planificación y seguimiento de las mujeres con antecedente de cirugía bariátrica para evitar deficiencias nutricionales o complicaciones quirúrgicas que pongan en peligro a la madre o puedan afectar el desarrollo fetal.
Article
The interconception period is considered a time when parents are likely to engage with health messages and are in frequent contact with healthcare professionals. Through this scoping review and policy analysis, we synthesized articles and guidelines on interconception care to provide recommendations to improve health outcomes for parents, infants and future generations. Four databases were searched systematically, using Medical Subject Headings and free‐text terms based on ‘interconception’ and ‘postpartum.’ Selected articles included systematic reviews, pilot studies and guidelines on interconception and postpartum interventions published globally and in English by UK public health organizations and government agencies between 1 January 2010 and 12 January 2021. Thirty percent of titles, abstracts and full‐text papers were double‐screened. The description table of identified guidelines was used as a template to qualitatively generate key categories, which later developed into a framework of six domains. Findings are described using a narrative synthesis approach. We found 47 documents with guidelines, 29 systematic reviews and 6 pilot studies on interconception and postpartum care. Six domains were generated as follows: interconception care, nutrition‐specific, nutrition‐sensitive, personal‐centred care, health professional, and multistakeholder approach. Interconception care opportunities include the postpartum period, family planning, routine practice and risk assessments. Health and nonhealthcare professionals with roles to play in the interconception period include general pratitioners, health visitors, dieticians, nutritionists, health psychologists, community groups, local authorities and charities such as Tommy's and First Step Nutrition. The interconception and postpartum periods offer crucial opportunities to intervene, to reduce possible long‐term effects of suboptimal nutrition. Although the policy analysis for this scoping review focused on the United Kingdom, the literature review had a global focus and the recommendations can have wider implications for other countries.