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Summary of Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting P Score (N = 161) 

Summary of Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting P Score (N = 161) 

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Article
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Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape supportive...

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... Hypermasculine men often seem pressured to assert and prove their physical strength, social dominance, sexual prowess, and emotional control in public settings. Not surprisingly, hypermasculinity has been linked to physical aggression against women (Parrott & Zeichner, 2003), sexual coercion and aggression (Norris, George, Davis, Martell, & Leonesio, 1999;Osland, Firtch, & Willis, 1996;Schewe, Adam, & Ryan, 2009;Tatum & Foubert, 2009), military sexual aggression and assault (Robertson, 2016), rapesupportive attitudes (Obierefu & Ojedokun, 2019), intimate partner violence (Guerrero, 2009), and increased perpetration of male-on-male aggression (Wells, Graham, Tremblay, & Magyarody, 2011). In a lab setting, exposure to a gender threat while holding hypermasculine values was found to produce increased anger and aggression (i.e., choice of shock intensity given to a fictitious opponent) (Parrott & Zeichner, 2008;Reidy, Shirk, Sloan, & Zeichner, 2009). ...
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The societal and personal costs of aggressive and violent behavior have reached alarming levels within the United States. In the literature, several personality and personal factors have been uncovered as valuable predictors of aggressive and violent behavior. However, it may be the case another variable has been unduly discounted in its link to aggression. Masculine Honor Ideology (MHI) refers to a set of beliefs that dictate men must respond aggressively to threat or insult in order to maintain their ideal masculine reputation. The intent of the current study is to demonstrate the robust relationship that exists between MHI and lifetime aggressive behaviors in a nationwide study of adult men and to examine this relationship within the context of already established predictors of aggressive behavior. The predictors MHI will be compared to include maladaptive masculinity indicators (i.e., Toxic Masculinity, Puritanical Masculinity, and Ambivalence in Sexual Situations), and personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Disinhibition, Negative Affect, Detachment, and Psychoticism). Participants included 732 adult men (M age = 36.27) residing in the United States. It was hypothesized that MHI would account for unshared variance in lifetime aggression in regression models that control for the impact of personality and masculinity dimensions. Results indicated MHI outperformed maladaptive masculinity indicators in the prediction of lifetime aggression criterion variables. Antagonism appeared to be an overall stronger predictor of aggressive behavior; however, for one of the criterion variables, Antagonism and MHI contributed equally to the model. The study also hypothesized the odds of endorsing past aggressive behavior would be increased by stronger adherence to MHI. This hypothesis was supported and individuals who reported increased MHI adherence also displayed increased odds of endorsing a range of past aggressive behaviors and other indicators of lifetime maladjustment. Overall results suggested MHI offers a unique explanation of aggressive behavior. Additional research is required to gain a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between these variables. These findings also have implications for aggression intervention and prevention efforts.
... It is important that we continue to understand sexual aggression because of its prevalence in the college population. It is well documented that rape on college campuses is a major public health concern (McMahon, 2010; Tatum & Foubert, 2009). A portion of college women, 35 out of every 1,000 women, will experience a completed or an attempted rape during their college careers (Karjane, Fisher, & Cullen, 2005). ...
... Research demonstrating the relationships among traditional masculinity, rape, and rape-related perceptions has proliferated since the rise of feminist theorizing that the rape of women is motivated by male domination (e.g., Burt, 1980). This historical archive shows that adherence to masculine ideologies, as well as more general prejudicial attitudes toward women, relate to negative rape-related attitudes and the perpetration of sexual aggression (e.g., Garrett-Gooding & Senter, 1987;Hockett, Saucier, Hoffman, Smith, & Craig, 2009;Kowalski, 1993;Locke & Mahalik, 2005;Luddy & Thompson, 1997;Tatum & Foubert, 2009; for reviews, see Murnen, Wright, & Kaluzny, 2002;Zurbriggen, 2010). ...
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Masculine honor consists of stereotypic beliefs about male behavior, including the belief that men's aggression is appropriate, justifiable, and necessary in response to provocation, especially provocation that insults or threatens one's manhood, family, or romantic partner. We conducted two studies examining the relationships between stereotypic masculine honor beliefs and perceptions of rape. Masculine honor beliefs generally were associated with both negative attitudes toward rape and negative attitudes toward women who have been raped. Further, different components of masculine honor beliefs correlated differently with various rape perceptions. These outcomes illustrate the complexity of the stereotypic beliefs about appropriate male behavior that comprise masculine honor, and which emphasize men's responsibility to both take care of others and demonstrate interpersonal dominance.
... Hypermasculinity reflects an exaggeration of traditional masculine messages, such as dictating that real men should enjoy danger, aggressively pursue sexual opportunities, and stand ground in a fight. While previous studies have related hypermasculine attitudes to sexual aggression (Koralewski and Conger 1992;Good et al. 1995;Suarez-Al-Adam et al. 2000;Tatum and Foubert 2009), treating hypermasculinity as a global construct creates difficulty in determining which particular dimensions of hypermasculinity predict sexual aggression. Understanding specific dimensions that contribute to sexual aggression may help refine sexual assault prevention programming or rehabilitation programming for sexual offenders. ...
... This is supported by research demonstrating that men who exhibit higher sexual coercion exhibit more callous sexual attitudes when compared to less sexually coercive men (Koralewski and Conger 1992). Further, research indicates that callous sexual attitudes are linked with laboratory aggression (Parrot and Zeichner 2003) as well as cultural attitudes that justify rape or rape myth acceptance (e.g., endorsing the belief that wearing a short skirt invites rape) (Good et al. 1995;Tatum and Foubert 2009). Ryan (2004) proposed that the relationship between rape myth acceptance and sexual aggression might be due to the extent to which callous sexual attitudes support rape beliefs. ...
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Article
Sexual assault is a problem on many college campuses, and many researchers have conducted studies assessing the prevalence of sexual assault perpetration and intentions to be coercive. Behaviorally descriptive survey items (i.e., “Have you ever coerced somebody to intercourse by holding them down?”) versus labeling survey items (i.e., “Have you ever raped somebody?”) will yield different responses, in that more men will admit to sexually coercive behaviors and more women will self-report victimization when behavioral descriptions are used (Koss 1998) instead of labels. Indeed, some men will endorse items asking whether they have used force to obtain intercourse, but will deny having raped a woman. There has been little research on differences between individuals to endorse a behaviorally descriptive item versus a labeling item. The present study uses discriminant function analysis to separate men who do not report intentions to be sexually coercive, those who endorse behaviorally descriptive intentions but deny it when the word rape is used, and those who endorse intentions to rape outright. Results indicated that participants can be differentiated into three groups based on scores from scales on hypermasculinity and hostility toward women. High hostility toward woman and callous sexual attitudes separated the no intentions group from those who endorsed either intentions to rape or those who endorses only the behavioral description of rape. The two types of offender groups were distinguishable mostly by varying levels of hostility, suggesting that men who endorse using force to obtain intercourse on survey items but deny rape on the same may not experience hostile affect in response to women, but might have dispositions more in line with benevolent sexism.
... Hypermasculine attitudes have been found to be a predictor of sexual aggression toward women (Burk et al., 2004;Tatum & Foubert, 2009). The authors of a study targeting male college freshmen reveal that 27% (n = 22) felt tempted to use force to obtain sexual intercourse, with 4 describing prior actions that would meet the Illinois legal definition of rape (nonconsensual sexual intercourse). ...
Article
This study examines correlates that contribute to sexually aggressive attitudes toward women. Using a sample that includes 217 college males from 3 southern universities, the study evaluates the relationship between college men’s hypermasculine and sexually aggressive attitudes, as well as how fraternity membership and disinhibition moderate this relationship. We hypothesized that sexually aggressive attitudes would be associated with a 3-way interaction among disinhibition, fraternity membership, and hypermasculine attitudes; this hypothesis was not supported. In addition, we hypothesized a similar 3-way interaction with hostility toward women as the dependent variable, as research suggests this is a precursor to sexually aggressive attitudes. Although this hypothesis was not supported, this study did reveal significant 2-way interactions: Fraternity Membership × Hypermasculinity and Fraternity Membership × Disinhibition. These results are further explained, and future directions are explored.
... In 2009, there were 8,097 reported cases of rape (Department of Justice, 2011). It has been well documented that rape on college campuses, especially among women, is a major public health concern (McMahon, 2010; Tatum & Foubert, 2009). A large portion of college women, 35 out of every 1,000 women, will experience a completed or an attempted rape during their college careers (Karjane, Fisher, & Cullen, 2005). ...
Article
Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship.
Article
Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.
Article
The meta-analysis examined the effect of moral development on 4 domains of action (real life, honesty, altruism, and resistance to conformity), and on action in general. The database, comprised by 151 studies across 71 years, stemmed from a previous narrative synthesis conducted by Blasi (1980), updated with studies published up to 2013. Results showed that (a) moral development was significantly related to action in general and to each domain, (b) the effect sizes were similar for altruism, real life, and resistance to conformity, with coefficients higher than r =.20, (c) the effect size for honesty was lower than for the other 3 types of behaviors, and (d) demographic or methodological variables did not affect the association between moral development and action. Discussion centers on similarities among domains of action, perfect and imperfect duties, and the need for other constructs to account for moral action.