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Summary of Procrastination's Correlational Findings: Conscientiousness and Intention–Action Gap 

Summary of Procrastination's Correlational Findings: Conscientiousness and Intention–Action Gap 

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Procrastination is a prevalent and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure that is not entirely understood. Hence, the relevant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical work is reviewed, drawing upon correlational, experimental, and qualitative findings. A meta-analysis of procrastination's possible causes and effects, based on 691 correlations, r...

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... results for conscientiousness and its facets are summarized in Table 5. Several early studies have shown that there was some connection between procrastination and competitiveness or super- ego strength (Effert & Ferrari, 1989;Wessman, 1973). ...
Context 2
... have studied self- discipline using a wide variety of self-control, organization, and planning scales. Results, as reported in Table 5, indicate an aver- age correlation of .58 (K 21). ...
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... way this has been assessed is by administering procras- tination measures in conjunction with a self-report intention- action discrepancy measure, such as Kuhl's (1994) state-oriented hesitation scale or Schouwenburg's (1992) dilatory behavior scale. As Table 5 indicates, dilatory behavior correlates on average .52 with procrastination (K 16). ...
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... addition, several researchers investigated this topic by mea- suring the disparity between intended and actual work habits. As Table 5 indicates, the average correlation was .29 (K 6). Of note, the size of this gap is highly contingent on the time separating intention and action. ...

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... When accounting for now/tomorrow choices within participants, the model suggests that time discounting is not the only factor: procrastination is more likely to occur with less rewarded and more effortful tasks. This is in line with studies that emphasized the failure to regulate emotional responses to task aversiveness as a key determinant of procrastination behavior 6,17,18,22 . However, across participants, these factors were neutralized in the current study by using subjective ratings to adjust the pairing of effort cost and reward value, which may be viewed as emotional responses to task aversiveness and outcome attractivity. ...
... It could represent a common proximal pathway between procrastination (difficulty in exerting an immediate effort) and impulsivity (difficulty in resisting an immediate pleasure), even if the distal causes are distinct. The existence of both shared and distinct mechanisms may help explain why, although they are distinguishable phenotypic traits 7 , procrastination and impulsivity are correlated across individuals 6,11,58 , and share a significant genetic variability in twin studies 7,59 . Self-regulation failure (or cognitive control deficiency) has indeed been proposed as a common core component of short-sighted behaviors 60,61 . ...
... Procrastination is considered a stable trait-like behavior 6 , with significant heritability demonstrated by twin studies 7 . However, the causal pathways through which genes could shape the brain architecture so as to produce procrastination behavior are not elucidated. ...
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Humans procrastinate despite being aware of potential adverse consequences. Yet, the neuro-computational mechanisms underlying procrastination remain poorly understood. Here, we use fMRI during intertemporal choice to inform a computational model that predicts procrastination behavior in independent tests. Procrastination is assessed in the laboratory as the preference for performing an effortful task on the next day as opposed to immediately, and at home as the delay taken in returning completed administrative forms. These procrastination behaviors are respectively modeled as unitary and repeated decisions to postpone a task until the next time step, based on a net expected value that integrates reward and effort attributes, both discounted with delay. The key feature that is associated with procrastination behavior across individuals (both in-lab and at-home) is the extent to which the expected effort cost (signaled by the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) is attenuated by the delay before task completion. Thus, procrastination might stem from a cognitive bias that would make doing a task later (compared to now) appear as much less effortful but not much less rewarding.
... Academic procrastination, defined as "the voluntary delay of action on academic tasks despite expecting to be worse off for that delay" (Gustavson & Miyake, 2017;Steel, 2007), is a highly prevalent phenomenon in educational contexts. ...
... Given the relevance of academic procrastination, the scant research on it in the stage of secondary education , and the excessively fragmented perspective of the research in this area (Rebetez et al., 2015;Steel, 2007), this study aims to analyze the structural relationships between students' procrastination and self-regulated learning, as well as their effects on students' well-being and academic achievement in this educational stage. There is a general consensus among researchers that the absence or lack of self-regulation skills plays a central role in academic procrastination (Balkis & Duru, 2016). ...
... Procrastination in daily life decreases with age (Steel, 2007;Van Eerde, 2003), which means that effective strategies are developed to overcome it and they improve with repeated practice. However, the results for academic procrastination are not conclusive because some studies show an increase between secondary education and the university (Ozer, 2011). ...
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The main objective of this study was to test a structural theoretical model of the effects of self-regulated learning on academic stress, subjective well-being, and academic achievement in Secondary Education, considering academic procrastination as a mediator. An additional aim was to explore whether these relationships were moderated by gender and educational level. Participants were 728 students in compulsory and post-compulsory secondary education in a large city in Eastern Spain. Path analysis results indicated that the proposed model showed satisfactory fit, with the three dimensions of self-regulated learning significantly predicting the educational outcomes considered, and that procrastination mediated these relationships. Overall, the model is able to predict 9.8% of the variance of academic stress, 23.1% of students wellbeing, and 14% of academic achievement. Moreover, the multi-group routine revealed no moderation effects due to gender, but educational level moderated two relationships, between self-efficacy and academic achievement and between metacognitive strategies and procrastination. Additionally, supplementary models were tested for three specific subjects (Spanish Language, Foreign Language and Mathematics), which showed an improvement in explained variance, being respectively: 29%, 28% and 27%. Results are discussed in light of previous research and in terms of their impact on educational practice.
... Ainda sobre as variáveis pessoais que impactam o sucesso acadêmico, destaca-se a procrastinação acadêmica, que se refere ao adiamento não estratégico do início ou da conclusão de tarefas acadêmicas, como a elaboração de trabalhos e exercícios, leitura de textos, estudo diário ou para prova, em prol de atividades irrelevantes mesmo que isso gere consequências negativas (Sampaio et al., 2012;Steel, 2007;Wolters, 2003). ...
... Também compreendida como uma estratégia autoprejudicadora (Ganda & Boruchovitch, 2016), a procrastinação acadêmica impacta o rendimento acadêmico (Steel, 2007), favorece a manifestação de estados emocionais negativos, tais como angústia, frustração, irritação, autocondenação, e associa-se a elevados níveis de ansiedade, alteração de hábitos alimentares e vulnerabilidade à depressão (Flett et al., 2016;He, 2017). ...
... Os níveis de procrastinação acadêmica tendem a diferir quando se consideram as características demográficas e os métodos de coleta de dados (Gómez et al., 2016;He, 2017;Steel, 2007). ...
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Os objetivos do estudo são analisar as diferenças da autoeficácia na formação superior (AEFS) e da procrastinação acadêmica em função do sexo, idade e momento do curso e estabelecer relações entre os construtos. Participaram da investigação 1.635 estudantes do ensino superior, 66,5% mulheres, 48,6% ingressantes e 67,5% menores de 22 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram a Escala de Autoeficácia na Formação Superior e a Escala de Procrastinação Acadêmica. As mulheres relataram níveis superiores na AEFS e nas dimensões regulação da formação, ações proativas e gestão acadêmica. Os estudantes mais velhos descreveram autoeficácia mais elevada na totalidade da escala e em todas as dimensões e os ingressantes indicaram menor nível de autoeficácia acadêmica. Os homens e os estudantes mais jovens relataram resultados mais elevados na procrastinação. As correlações entre a autoeficácia e a procrastinação são negativas e, na maioria, moderadas. Os achados reforçam a relação conceitual entre os construtos e potenciais implicações para o sucesso acadêmico são discutidas.
... Procrastination research has produced almost as many construct definitions as the number of researchers studying it (Steel, 2007). However, recent works have converged on defining it as the tendency to voluntarily delay work even at the expense of being worse off for the delay (Steel, 2007(Steel, , 2010Tuckman, 1991), with particularly adverse outcomes for students in both academic performance and psychological distress (e.g., Kim & Seo 2015;Stöber & Joormann, 2001;Van Eerde, 2003). ...
... Procrastination research has produced almost as many construct definitions as the number of researchers studying it (Steel, 2007). However, recent works have converged on defining it as the tendency to voluntarily delay work even at the expense of being worse off for the delay (Steel, 2007(Steel, , 2010Tuckman, 1991), with particularly adverse outcomes for students in both academic performance and psychological distress (e.g., Kim & Seo 2015;Stöber & Joormann, 2001;Van Eerde, 2003). ...
... Further, procrastination stems from a failure or a lack of self-regulation -defined as the way individuals use internal or external cues to initiate, maintain, or terminate specific actions -(e.g., Haghbin et al., 2012;Klassen & Kuzucu, 2009;Lee, 2005;Steel, 2007;Tuckman, 1998;Tuckman & Sexton, 1989). Procrastination may also be posited as a result of a deficit in motivation (e.g., Haghbin et al., 2012;Klassen et al., 2008;Klingsieck et al., 2013;Senecal et al., 1995;Yurtseven & Dogan, 2019). ...
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This study aimed to analyze the influence of academic motivation on procrastination and, in turn, to examine the impact of procrastination on academic achievement, on the grounds of self-determination theory. Undergraduate students (N = 928) completed a sociodemographic and academic survey, the Tuckman Procrastination Scale, and the Academic Motivation Scale. Path-analysis findings revealed procrastination was negatively and significantly predicted by intrinsic motivation toward stimulating experiences, intrinsic motivation towards achievement, and extrinsic motivation external regulation. Further, procrastination was positively predicted by intrinsic motivation to know, extrinsic motivation identified regulation, extrinsic motivation introjected regulation, and amotivation. In turn, procrastination negatively predicted academic achievement. Overall, combining components of motivational interventions could aid in tailoring higher education interventions that seek to decrease procrastination and reduce the impact of this variable on academic achievement. Discussion of findings continues in light of previous literature concerning the relationship between motivation and procrastination.
... Några av de vanligaste orsakerna till skrivblockeringar anses vara rädsla för misslyckande, tidigare negativa skrivupplevelser och perfektionism (Boice, 1993). Prokrastinering innebär en tendens att skjuta upp eller misslyckas med att påbörja skrivandet, vilket i sin tur har en negativ inverkan på produktiviteten (Steel, 2007). Adaptiva upplevelser har ofta operationaliserats som upplevd produktivitet (Pyhältö m.fl., 2012) och kunskapstransformering (på engelska knowledge transformation: Bereiter & Scardamalia, 2013) -med andra ord en syn på skrivande som ett sätt att skapa och forma kunskap. ...
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Studiens syfte var att utreda samband mellan pedagogikstuderandes tidigare studieprestationer i gymnasiet, samt deras skrivupplevelser och akademiska välbefinnande på universitetsnivå. I ett frågeformulär rapporterade finlandssvenska pedagogikstuderande (N = 192) sina studentexamensvitsord i modersmål och litteratur, samt besvarade frågor om adaptiva och maladaptiva skrivupplevelser (kunskapstransformering, produktivitet, skrivblockeringar och prokrastinering) och akademiskt välbefinnande (studieengagemang och studietrötthet). Resultaten från en strukturekvationsmodell visade att studerande med lägre studieprestationer i gymnasiet upplevde mer skrivblockeringar, var mer benägna att skjuta upp studiearbeten, var mindre produktiva och rapporterade lägre kunskapstransformering under universitetsstudierna. Prokrastinering var även relaterat till studerandes akademiska välbefinnande: Studerande som tenderade att skjuta upp arbeten rapporterade högre nivåer av studierelaterad utmattning och cyniska inställningar till studierna samt lägre nivåer av studieengagemang. Sammanfattningsvis visade resultaten på vikten av att göra studerande mer medvetna om hur deras prestationer och skrivupplevelser relaterar till deras akademiska välbefinnande. Därmed kan man hjälpa dem att hitta mer gynnsamma studiestrategier för att stödja både lärande och välbefinnande inom högre utbildning.
... Procrastination, the voluntary delay of intended tasks or decisions, goes along with subjective discomfort and other negative consequences (e.g., Klingsieck, 2013;Steel, 2007). When defining procrastination, most authors agree that three main aspects must be met to classify a delay as an instance of procrastination. ...
... When defining procrastination, most authors agree that three main aspects must be met to classify a delay as an instance of procrastination. First, the delay must be voluntary (Steel, 2007), without external circumstances making the intended action unrealizable. Second, there needs to be an intention-action gap (Lay & Schouwenburg, 1993;Steel, 2007). ...
... First, the delay must be voluntary (Steel, 2007), without external circumstances making the intended action unrealizable. Second, there needs to be an intention-action gap (Lay & Schouwenburg, 1993;Steel, 2007). Third, the expectation of negative consequences needs to be accompanied by subjective discomfort, characterized by negative emotions, such as feelings of guilt or worry (Ferrari, 1998;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). ...
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Procrastination is the irrational delay of an intended task and is common among students. A delay can only be defined as procrastination when it is voluntary, the action was intended but not implemented, and the delay is accompanied by subjective discomfort. Established scales of procrastination cover mainly behavioral aspects but have neglected the emotional aspect. This inaccuracy concerning the construct validity might entail misconceptions of procrastination. Accordingly, we developed and validated the Behavioral and Emotional Academic Procrastination Scale (BEPS), which covers all aspects of the definition of procrastination. The 6-item scale measuring self-reported academic procrastination was tested in three studies. Study 1 ( N = 239) evaluated the psychometric qualities of the BEPS, indicating good item characteristics and internal consistency. Study 2 ( N = 1,441) used confirmatory factor analysis and revealed two correlated factors: one covering the behavioral aspect and the other reflecting the emotional aspect. Measurement invariance was shown through longitudinal and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Study 3 ( N = 234) provided evidence for the scale’s convergent validity through correlations with established procrastination scales, self-efficacy, and neuroticism. The BEPS thus economically operationalizes all characteristics of academic procrastination and appears to be a reliable and valid self-report measure.
... According to certain studies, such behaviour is common amongst 30% of students (Bäulke, Daumiller, and Dresel 2021), whether it involves putting off task commencement, and/or checking it once the task has been started (Svartdal et al. 2020). Procrastination may be defined as the voluntary but irrational deferral of tasks or actions to later than planned, which has negative consequences for the person involved (Steel 2007), such as poor academic performance (Cormack, Eagle, and Davies 2020;Hen and Goroshit 2020), problems of depression and anxiety (Fernie et al. 2017;Gil, De Besa, and Garzón-Umerenkova 2020;Wartberg, Thomasius, and Paschke 2021), or problems of insomnia and daytime sleepiness (Li et al. 2020). ...
... Procrastination seems to be linked to certain personality traits such as neuroticism (Ocansey et al. 2022), student learning styles (Visser, Korthagen, and Schoonenboom 2018), and even contextual factors related to teaching styles (Valenzuela et al. 2018). Yet the greatest consensus emerges when identifying it as a problem concerning the self-regulation of learning (Kamphorst et al. 2013;Limone et al. 2020;Mohammadi-Bytamar, Saed, and Khakpoor 2020;Suárez and Feliciano-García 2020;Martín-Antón et al. 2022), which might be caused by metacognitive deficits that lead to difficulties in time management (Garzón-Umerenkova and Gil 2017), task aversion (Solomon and Rothblum 1984;Steel 2007;Visser, Korthagen, and Schoonenboom 2018), perfectionism (Osenk, Williamson, and Wade 2020), or fear of failure (Solomon and Rothblum 1984;Abdi Zarrin, Gracia, and Paixão 2020;Gil, De Besa, and Garzón-Umerenkova 2020). Other students, however, seek a form of self-motivation through this behaviour by aiming to boost arousal (Fernie et al. 2017). ...
Article
Procrastination in academic activities is common amongst university students, and has negative consequences for their personal as well as academic development. As a result, there is a need for valid –yet at the same time brief and clear-cut– measurement tools that enable the specific procrastinating behaviour of university students to be measured. This work explores in depth the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Academic Procrastination Scale, a widely used brief tool in secondary and higher education in the Spanish speaking world. The scale was applied to a total of 1734 university students, together with the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students (PASS), the Unintentional Procrastination Scale (UPS) and the Active Procrastination Scale (APS). Factor analyses indicate the best fit is a structure involving four interrelated factors (task aversion, poor time management, low emotional and motivational self-control, and risk assumption) compared to other proposed models. The model presents factorial invariance between men and women, and adequate convergent validity. We discuss the implications of using this scale in higher education, since differentiating the four factors might help to identify different support measures depending on university student needs.
... Penelitian selanjutnya yang dilakukan oleh Steel (2007) menunjukkan bahwa 80-95% terlibat dalam penundaan tugas. Dalam melakukan prokrastinasi, siswa memiliki durasinya masingmasing. ...
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This research was conducted to determine the relationship between school well-being and academic procrastination in Mardisiswa Senior High School Semarang students. Academic Procrastination is a behavior carried out by students which deliberately delaying matters related to academic activities because it is considered difficult or unpleasant for them. School well-being is a student's subjective assessment of the school environment related to basic needs of students while carrying out academic and non-academic activities at school. The population in this research amounted to 211 students of Mardisiswa SHS, with 104 students as a sample which were taken through cluster random sampling technique. The measuring instruments used in this study were school well-being Scale (26 items, α = 0.893) and Academic Procrastination Scale (23 items, α = 0.863). Data analysis was performed with Spearman's Rho, showing a significant negative relationship between school well-being and academic procrastination in Mardisiswa SHS Semarang students (rxy =-0.498 and p = 0.000). The negative relationship implies that the higher of the school well-being levels, the lower of academic procrastination levels. Researcher's suggestions for the participants of this research would be improvement of time management to doing task and arrange priority scale related to doing task.
... Studies have shown that stressful [32], difficult and tedious tasks [33] cause people to postpone them. The chronic nature of diabetes and the many limitations associated with it can lead to constant anxiety in the individual and make them bored with self-care and eventually make them delay adopting health-promoting behaviors. ...
Article
Background and objectives:Health-related procrastination refers to a delay in the performance of health-related activities, which is a rather neglected subject despite being critical. Due to the adverse effects of procrastination on the care and treatment of patients with type-2 diabetes, it is necessary to explore procrastination among this group of patients through in-depth studies. The present research was conducted to explain different types of health-related procrastination in patients with type-2 diabetes.Materials and methodsThis qualitative study applied content analysis with 13 patients with type-2 diabetes selected via purposive sampling. Data were collected through individual and semi-structured interviews. The data were then analyzed using Lundman and Graneheim content analysis method.Findings:Based on the analysis of the data, instances of health-related procrastination in patients with type-2 diabetes were classified into six main categories, including minimizing self-care, poor adherence to treatment, poor nutritional habits, poor adherence to drug regimen, disregard for disease monitoring, and a sedentary lifestyle.Conclusions The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the various forms of health-related procrastination in patients with type-2 diabetes. These findings can be employed in the design, implementation, and monitoring of treatment and care programs targeting these patients.
... Procrastination often occurs with respect to important goals such as health (Sirois, 2004;Stead et al., 2010) and education (Schouwenburg et al., 2004). Procrastination also appears to be extremely widespread (Steel, 2007), with 15-25% of adults being chronically affected (Harriott & Ferrari, 1996; and, while there may be differences in rates of procrastination among different populations (e.g., Steel & Ferrari 2013), virtually everyone is guilty of it at least occasionally (see Steel 2007 andKlingsieck 2013 for reviews). This should come as no surprise: as Ainslie remarks, "it always feels better to defer costs" (2010: 12; cf. ...
... Procrastination often occurs with respect to important goals such as health (Sirois, 2004;Stead et al., 2010) and education (Schouwenburg et al., 2004). Procrastination also appears to be extremely widespread (Steel, 2007), with 15-25% of adults being chronically affected (Harriott & Ferrari, 1996; and, while there may be differences in rates of procrastination among different populations (e.g., Steel & Ferrari 2013), virtually everyone is guilty of it at least occasionally (see Steel 2007 andKlingsieck 2013 for reviews). This should come as no surprise: as Ainslie remarks, "it always feels better to defer costs" (2010: 12; cf. ...
... Tice & Bratslavsky, 2000). 8 The question that concerns us here is thus not why procrastination often occurs (see Ainslie 2001;Steel & König, 2006;Steel, 2007 for general theoretical models); it is, rather, why sometimes it does not. Given that it does indeed always feel better to defer costs-to study tomorrow, to start going to the gym next week-how do we manage to overcome procrastination, when we do manage to do so? ...
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We tend to seek immediate gratification at the expense of long-term reward. In fact, the more distant a reward is from the present moment?the more we tend to discount it. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. Engaging in mental time travel plausibly enables subjects to overcome temporal discounting, but it is unclear how, exactly, it does so. In this paper, we develop a framework designed to explain the effects of mental time travel on temporal discounting by showing how the subject?s temporally extended self enables mental time travel to generate appropriate emotions that, in turn, via metacognitive monitoring and control, generate appropriate behaviours. Building on existing approaches we outline an initial framework, involving the concepts of emotion and the temporally extended self, to explain the effects of mental time travel on resisting temptation. We then show that this initial framework has difficulty explaining the effects of mental time travel on a closely related phenomenon, namely, overcoming procrastination. We next argue that, in order to explain these effects, the concept of emotion needs to be refined, and the concept of metacognition needs to be added to the framework: emotions involve an action-readiness component, which, through metacognitive monitoring and control, can enable the subject to resist temptation and overcome procrastination. Finally, we respond to an objection to our account?based on the somatic marker hypothesis?such that metacognition is not necessary to account for the role of emotions in decision-making.