TABLE 2 - uploaded by Russell Monroe Gersten
Content may be subject to copyright.
Summary of Mean Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals (CI) Related to the Nature of the Independent Variable 

Summary of Mean Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals (CI) Related to the Nature of the Independent Variable 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
We present results of a mete-analysis on writing interventions for students with learning disabilities and draw implications for practice. 13 studies designed to teach students with learning disabilities to write better expository or narrative text were analyzed. Results indicated that the interventions used in the research studies consistently pro...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Adding biomarker information to real world datasets (e.g. biomarker data collected into disease/drug registries) can enhance mechanistic understanding of intra-patient differences in disease trajectories and differences in important clinical outcomes. Biomarkers can detect pathologies present early in disease potentially paving the way for preventa...

Citations

... Okuma güçlüğü yaşayan ÖÖG olan öğrenciler birden fazla sürecin organizasyonu konusunda zorluk çekmekte ve yürütücü işlevleri de zayıf performans göstermektedir (Altemeir ve diğerleri, 2008). Okuduğunu anlama konusunda yapılan çeşitli çalışmalar, yürütücü işlevlerle ilişkili olan üstbilişsel ve öz düzenleme stratejilerinin okuduğunu anlama becerisini olumlu göstermektedir (Gersten ve Baker, 2001;Graham, 1997;Swanson ve Hoskyn, 1998). ÖÖG olan öğrencilerin sözel dil olarak konuşma dili ve yazılı dil olarak okuma alınanda yaşadıkları zorlukların yürütücü işlevlerle ilgili sorunlardan kaynaklanabileceği belirtilmektedir (Johnson, Humphrey, Mellard, Woods ve Swanson, 2010;Bull ve Scerif, 2001;Willcutt, Pennington, Boada, Ogline, Tunick, Chhabildas ve Olson, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrenciler okuma, yazma ve matematikte farklı sorunlarla karşılaşmaktadır. Özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrenciler en çok okuma alanında sorun yaşamakta ve öğrencilerin büyük bir kısmı okumada yaşadıkları güçlükler nedeniyle tanı almaktadır. Özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin yaşadıkları akademik güçlükler yürütücü işlevlerdeki sorunlarından kaynaklanabilmektedir. Bununla birlikte öğrencilerin yürütücü işlevlerdeki yetersizlikleri okul başarılarını olumsuz olarak etkilemektedir. Özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin sorun yaşadıkları alanlara yönelik çeşitli müdahaleler uygulanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada 2000-2021 tarihleri arasında özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin yürütücü işlev becerilerini geliştirmeye yönelik uygulanan müdahaleleri içeren çalışmalar incelenmiştir. Özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin yürütücü işlev becerilerine yönelik müdahaleleri konu alan çalışmaların gözden geçirilmesinin hedeflendiği bu çalışmada EbscoHost, ProQuest Central, Springer LINK, SAGE, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS ve ULAKBİM Ulusal Veritabanları’nda “yürütücü işlevler”, "yürütücü işlev müdahaleleri", "özel öğrenme güçlüğü",”executive functions”, “executive functions interventions”, “specific learning disabilities”, “working memory”, “attention” anahtar sözcükleri kullanılarak tarama yapılmıştır. Bu kapsamda dahil etme ölçütlerini karşılayan 13 makaleye ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulgular bölümünde özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin yürütücü işlev becerilerini geliştirmeye yönelik uygulanan müdahaleler ile ilgili çalışmaların katılımcıları, yöntemleri ve sonuçları konusunda bilgi verilmektedir. Sonuç olarak araştırmaya dahil edilen yürütücü işlev müdahalelerinin özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin dikkat, çalışan bellek ve akademik becerilerini olumlu olarak etkilediği görülmektedir. Ek olarak, Türkiye’de özel öğrenme güçlüğü ile ilgili literatürün gelişmesi, öğrencilerin yürütücü işlev becerilerinin değerlendirilmesi ve geliştirilmesi için daha fazla bilimsel çalışma ihtiyacı bulunmaktadır.
... In order to write texts that convince the reader, they need to be able to see different perspectives and produce reasons that can support their own ideas. In summary, students with LD show poorer performance in writing skills than their typically developing peers (Gersten and Baker, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Written expression is one of the highest achievements of literacy. During the writing process students should use their background knowledge, experiences and imagination to become productive and write them in an organization according to a text structure. Many different cognitive skills are required to use actively during writing a text. Students with learning disabilities experience difficulties in writing. Studies conducted with learning disabilities show there are fewer studies on written expression skills than other academic skills such as reading fluency and reading comprehension. The aim of this review study is to describe the difficulties students with learning disabilities experience in written expression, explaining the reasons behind those difficulties, emphasizing the importance of written expression skills and giving examples of effective strategy instruction methods towards writing skills. Strategy instruction aims to develop the writing skills of students during the planning, writing and revising phases of written expression process. Significant improvements have seen in studies conducting strategy instruction according to the SRSD teaching model which presents opportunities for frequent practice and explicit modeling to students with learning disabilities.It is possible to teach how to write more qualified written products by teaching effective strategies according to the phases of the writing process. With this study, it is aimed to increase the awareness of parents, teachers and experts working in the field about supporting the written expression skills of students with learning disabilities and to contribute to the education of children.
... Δομημένος τρόπος διδασκαλίας και δομή κειμένου. Η κατανοητή παρουσίαση των στρατηγικών γραπτής έκφρασης από τους εκπαιδευτικούς και η σαφής επεξήγηση των στόχων τους, με ιδιαίτερη έμφαση στην υποδειγματική διδασκαλία, συμβάλλουν αποφασιστικά στη βελτίωση του γραπτού λόγου των μαθητών με μαθησιακές δυσκολίες (Gersten & Baker, 2001). Παρόμοιο είναι και το εύρημα ότι όσο πιο συγκεκριμένα σε περιεχόμενο είναι τα κείμενα και όσο πιο ξεκάθαρη δομή έχουν, τόσο πιο εύκολα γίνονται κατανοητά. ...
... Μέσω της συγκεκριμένης διδασκαλίας οι μαθητές κατορθώνουν να κατακτήσουν γνωστικές και μεταγνωστικές στρατηγικές γραπτής έκφρασης και στη συνέχεια να εργαστούν ανεξάρτητα στο αντικείμενο. Αντίστοιχα, μέσω της διδασκαλίας των στρατηγικών σχεδιασμού, καταγραφής και ελέγχου γραπτών κειμένων οι μαθητές κατακτούν τον τρόπο οργάνωσης και δομής ενός αφηγηματικού κειμένου (Gersten & Baker, 2001). ...
Chapter
Στόχος του παρόντος κεφαλαίου είναι η παρουσίαση μιας παρεμβατικής μελέτης βασισμένης στις διαστάσεις της διαφοροποιημένης διδασκαλίας της γραπτής έκφρασης. Το διδακτικό πρόγραμμα που περιγράφεται στην παρούσα ενότητα υλοποιήθηκε σε τμήματα ένταξης στα οποία φοιτούσαν μαθητές με μαθησιακές δυσκολίες των τάξεων από Δ’ έως Στ’ Δημοτικού. Όλοι οι μαθητές διδάχθηκαν από τους ειδικούς εκπαιδευτικούς γνωστικές και μεταγνωστικές στρατηγικές καταγραφής αφηγηματικών κειμένων με στόχο την αυτόνομη συγγραφή κειμένων τα οποία να έχουν συνοχή, συνάφεια, πλούσιο λεξιλόγιο και συγκεκριμένη δομή. Καθώς το θεωρητικό υπόβαθρο της διαφοροποιημένης διδασκαλίας έχει περιγραφεί σε προηγούμενα κεφάλαια, στο παρόν θα παρουσιαστούν οι τρόποι υλοποίησης της διαφοροποίησης στη γραπτή έκφραση βάσει των διαστάσεων: «επίπεδο/μαθησιακή ετοιμότητα», «ενδιαφέροντα» και «τελικό προϊόν» για τους άξονες «μαθητής» και «αναλυτικό πρόγραμμα» (ΑΠ), όπως αυτά παρουσιάζονται από την Παντελιάδου (2008, σελ. 10). Κάθε διάσταση διαφοροποιημένης διδασκαλίας (στο παρόν κεφάλαιο εισάγεται κάτω από τον τίτλο «Τι») παρουσιάζεται μέσω του τρόπου με τον οποίο υλοποιήθηκε στο διδακτικό πρόγραμμα («Πώς») και των ευρημάτων της σχετικής βιβλιογραφίας που συνέβαλαν στην επιλογή της συγκεκριμένης προσαρμογής («Γιατί»).
... 1. use of one appropriate way of instructing adolescents with learning disabilities and low achievers to write one particular genre, 2. focused and intensive nature of the writing instruction, and 3. use of interactive dialogues in conferences between students and intervention researchers. Gersten, Baker and Edwards (1999) summarized research on effective instruction in expressive writing for students with learning disabilities. Expressive writing was defined as writing for the purpose of displaying knowledge or supporting selfexpression. ...
Book
Full-text available
This revised edition updates and expands on the first edition published in 2016. In this revised edition, theories of different types of learning strategies are expanded and more recent studies are added. A large amount of tabular information is also reconstructed in a more meaningful manner. The book is divided into five chapters. Chapter one covers the different definitions of learning disabilities to reach a consensus with respect to the meaning of this term. Chapter two discusses learning strategies as a general instructional intervention for students with learning disabilities at the intermediate level and beyond. Each of the other three chapters in this book presents detailed theoretical and experimental information on a specific type of learning strategies and introduces an innovative multiple-strategies model for teaching a specific language skill to those students. Chapter three addresses the teaching of communication strategies to students with oral communication disabilities. Chapter four deals with the teaching of reading strategies to students with comprehension disabilities. The last chapter is concerned with the teaching of writing strategies to students with written expression disabilities. The book also contains a list of references and a subject index. [For the 2016 edition of this book, see ED568128.]
... Kooperatives Schreiben wird oftmals als eine Methode zur Zusammenarbeit von (im besten Fall befreundeten) Schülern betrachtet. Aber es ist ebenso nachweislich effektiv, wenn die Kooperation beim Schreiben zwischen Lehrpersonen und Schülern stattfindet -gerade bei schwach schreibenden Schülern (Gersten & Baker, 2001). Damit steht Lehrpersonen eine weitere Möglichkeit zur Verfügung, den Schreibprozess zu entlasten und die Schüler beim Schreiben zu beobachten. ...
... Dass sich das Beobachten lohnt, zeigen Studien mit schreibschwachen Schülern. Diese profitieren davon nachweislich, wenn Lehrpersonen ihnen genau demonstrieren, wie man Schreibstrategien anwendet (Gersten & Baker, 2001). ...
Book
Full-text available
Schreibförderung kennt viele Förderansätze und -maßnahmen. Über zahlreiche Maßnahmen ist aber noch zu wenig bekannt, ob sie die Schreibkompetenz überhaupt verbessern. In diesem Band werden daher systematisch und kompakt Förderansätze dargestellt, die ihre Effektivität in internationalen Studien bereits unter Beweis gestellt haben. Diese Maßnahmen beziehen sich auf die Hauptprozesse des Schreibens (Planen und Revidieren als kognitiv anspruchsvolle Fähigkeiten und das Verschriften als basale Fertigkeit) und Entlastungsmöglichkeiten des Schreibens. Zu den Förderansätzen beim Verschriften zählen Trainings der Handschrift bzw. des Tastaturscheibens und das Kombinieren von Sätzen. Das Planen und Revidieren lassen sich durch gezielte Vermittlung von Schreibstrategien und Textstrukturwissen sowie klare Produktziele vor dem Schreiben verbessern. Daneben haben Lehrpersonen diverse Möglichkeiten, den Schreibprozess zu entlasten, etwa durch Feedback, kooperatives Schreiben, die Option, Texte diktieren zu können, den Einsatz von Computern mit Textverarbeitungssoftware und die gezielte Analyse von Textprodukten und Schreibprozessen. Diese Fördermaßnahmen lassen sich in der Unterrichtspraxis wie einzelne Module einsetzen und adressieren verschiedene Probleme beim Schreiben. Das Buch stellt Schreibprozesse dahin, wo sie im Unterricht gehören: in das Zentrum. Es richtet sich an Lehrpersonen aller Schulstufen und -formen, die einen kompakten Überblick über wirksame Förderansätze und deren systematische Verbindungen untereinander suchen. Der Band gibt zudem einen Überblick über den Erwerb und die Entwicklung von Schreibkompetenz, den Stellenwert des Schreibunterrichts und den Ertrag des Schreibens für das Leseverstehen und für das Fachlernen. Dieser Überblick hilft Lehrpersonen dabei, besser abzuschätzen, wo ihre Schülerinnen und Schüler sich in ihrem Kompetenzerwerb befinden, und angemessene Maßnahmen auszuwählen.
... Bunun içinde yazılı metinlerde bu ögelere yer verebilmek için yazmaya başlamadan önce iyi bir planlama süreci ve yazma esnasında da iyi bir gözden geçirme ve düzenleme gerekmektedir. ÖÖG tanılı öğrenciler akranlarıyla karşılaştıklarında yazılı metinlerini oluştururken planlamaya daha az zaman harcamakta ve metinlerini düzenlemede sorunlar yaşamaktadırlar (Gersten ve Baker, 2001). Bu nedenle ÖÖG tanılı öğrencilerin yazılı metinleri incelendiğinde düzensizliklerin olduğu ve aktarılmaya çalışılan fikirlerin karışıklık gösterdiği belirtilmektedir (Gillespie ve Graham, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Yazılı anlatım; günlük hayatın hemen hemen her alanında bireylerin karşısına çıkan ve sıkça başvurulan iletişim araçlarından birisidir. Özel öğrenme güçlüğü tanılı öğrenciler akademik becerilerde yaşıtlarına göre düşük performans göstermektedirler. Bu öğrencilerin düşük performans gösterdikleri akademik becerilerden birisi de yazılı anlatım becerisidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı özel öğrenme güçlüğü tanılı katılımcıların yazılı anlatım düzeylerini belirlemek ve normal gelişim gösteren yaşıtlarıyla karşılaştırmaktır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda planlanan çalışmanın modeli ilişkisel tarama modelidir. Çalışma grubunu İzmir ilinde 2015-2016 eğitim-öğretim yılında 5, 6 ve 7. sınıfa devam eden 58 özel öğrenme güçlüğü tanılı ve 64 normal gelişim gösteren katılımcı oluşturmuştur. Çalışma sonucunda özel öğrenme güçlüğü tanılı katılımcıların yazılı anlatımlarının "dış yapı", "dil ve anlatım" ve "düzenleme" özellikleri düzeylerinin normal gelişim gösteren yaşıtlarına göre yetersiz seviyede olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Normal gelişim gösteren öğrencilerin yazılı anlatım özelliklerinin özel öğrenme güçlüğü tanılı öğrencilerden anlamlı düzeyde farklılaştığını göstermiştir. Abstract Written expression; It is one of the frequently used communication tools that come across individuals in almost every field of daily life. Students with learning disabilities perform poorly in academic skills compared to their peers. One of the academic skills that these students perform poorly is written expression skills. The aim of this study is to determine the written expression levels of the participants with special learning disabilities and to compare them with their peers who are typical developing. The model of the study planned for this purpose is the relational screening model. The study group was composed of 58 participants with special learning disabilities and 64 typical developing, who continued their 5th, 6th and 7th grades in the 2015-2016 academic year in Izmir. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the levels of "external structure", "language and expression" and "regulation" of the participants with special learning disabilities were inadequate compared to their typical developing peers. It has been shown that the written expression features of students with typical developing differ significantly from those with special learning disabilities.
... There is a broad research base on the effects of CAI, supporting the notion that this model is especially beneficial for struggling children and adolescents. In their meta-analysis, Gersten and Baker (2001) stated that using CAI in story writing instruction yields high effect sizes of d > 1.00 for students with LDs. Kellog and Whiteford (2009) added that automated feedback can boost such positive outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Most students who struggle with writing have particular trouble with planning a text. They do not find themselves sufficiently able to generate content and organize the ideas they wish to address into a coherent order. STOP & LIST is a well-proven strategy that has the potential to help students mold an internal representation of the text in their minds before composing it. However, teaching such a technique in diverse classroom environments is challenging. We thus developed a computerized version of a STOP & LIST intervention geared toward providing each student with sufficient practice opportunities and individualized feedback to acquire ample text-planning skills. In our randomized experiment, we involved 30 fourth graders with severe difficulties in expressive writing. We provided 15 students with seven 90-minute training sessions using our software, and the other 15 continued to participate in regular classroom activities. Our results speak to the high effectiveness of the intervention. The children obviously benefitted greatly from the treatment. Our program produced an effect size of about one and three quarters standard deviations. We end the paper with a critical discussion of the results and some practical implications of the findings.
... The students with blindness will simply make some indicative sign with their instrument writer (Perkins, PC Braille) to identify the different parts. • To review each student's production individually, analysing the purposes and established relationships between each one of the parts, giving the student the word for this activity (Gersten & Baker, 2001;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002;García & Arias-Gundín, 2014). • To recommend appropriate narrative readings, repeating the previous didactic sequence, so that the student generates a narrative text starting from the one they have read. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was prepared in order to analyze the linguistic ability of children with visual impairment and children with normal vision. Several features of the narrative episodes produced were investigated, including quantity, quality, the connections between them and the structural elements which they consist of. Central tendency measures and dispersion measures were applied, in addition to inferential measures. This leads us to the conclusion that the structural parts making up the texts depend on a great extent to the individual style of each subject. However, the two groups are markedly different in certain parts. Finally, pupils who were older and educated to a higher level have shown greater development of narrative ability, engaging more with the essential part quite largely forgotten in the younger pupils’ texts. With regard to the connections established by the pupils between the various episodes making up their narratives, the texts produced by pupils with visual impairments show predominantly temporary connections. Significant differences were found between the texts written by students who had normal vision and those who were blind or partially sighted. The greatest differences were observed in the length of the text and the complete episodes: both measures were greater in the texts written by students with normal vision.
... Após o mecanismo das correspondências grafo-fonéticas estar adquirido, a instrução sobre a escrita deve passar a incidir sobre o desenvolvimento de competências mais avançadas como produzir frases complexas, planear a escrita e rever o que se escreveu, capacidades necessárias à produção de textos (Berninger, Mizokawa, & Bragg, 1991;Gersten & Baker, 2001). Contudo, muitos alunos apresentam dificuldades nestas capacidades mais avançadas de escrita, até porque são relativamente escassas as estratégias de ensino que no contexto da produção textual incidem sobre a estrutura dos textos e sobre as estratégias de revisão em relação aos textos que os alunos escreveram. ...
Article
Full-text available
Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o impacto na escrita de textos narrativos, de um programa de escrita, em que os alunos têm acesso a instrumentos de autorregulação para a revisão dos textos. Participaram 71 crianças do 4º ano de escolaridade com práticas semelhantes ao nível do trabalho sobre o texto escrito na sala de aula, divididas em 3 grupos experimentais e 1 de controlo. Foram controladas as variáveis relativas ao nível cognitivo e ao desenvolvimento da linguagem lexical e sintática. Realizou-se no momento do pré e pós-intervenção um teste onde foi pedido às crianças que escrevessem uma mesma composição com base numa sequência de imagens. Entre os dois momentos realizaram-se 21 sessões de 60 minutos em grupo, distribuídas ao longo de 9 meses, nas quais as crianças dos grupos experimentais escreviam uma composição, sempre com base numa sequência de imagens e reviam a sua versão inicial. Nos grupos experimentais 1 e 2 proporcionou-se uma grelha com indicações sobre os principais elementos de uma estrutura narrativa, um com feedback e outro sem, com base na qual deveriam orientar a sua revisão. Às crianças do grupo experimental 3 foi-lhes pedido que revissem os textos sem recurso a qualquer tipo de instrumento e indicação específica. As crianças dos grupos de controlo despendiam o mesmo tempo em aulas de matemática e leitura. Os resultados apontam para uma evolução significativa em relação à qualidade dos textos narrativos produzidos entre o pré e o pós-intervenção em todos os grupos experimentais quando comparados ao grupo de controlo, embora não se registem diferenças significativas na evolução nos grupos experimentais.
... 16 Expressive writing promotes emotional and cognitive processing when writers articulate and explore their thoughts and feelings. [17][18][19] Despite small effect sizes, it has been associated with improved well-being and various health-related outcomes in different samples (for a meta-analysis, see the study by Frattaroli 20 ). Importantly, it is simple and implemented with minimal clinician intervention, making it a cost-effective strategy to enhance well-being. ...
Article
Purpose Caregivers of patients with cancer cope with socioemotional challenges, which can adversely affect their well-being. We developed an intervention, expressive writing and reading (EWR), to promote emotional processing and social connectedness among caregivers. In a single-arm pilot study, we assessed its feasibility and perceived usefulness. Methods Caregivers participated in weekly 1.5-hour EWR workshops offered over 20 weeks. After 4 sessions, they completed semistructured interviews, which were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. Findings Of 65 caregivers approached, 25 were eligible, 18 consented, and 9 (50%) caregivers completed at least 4 workshops and the interview. Their responses revealed 3 themes: “inner processing,” “interpersonal learning,” and “enhanced processing and preparedness.” Perceived benefits of EWR included emotional and cognitive processing (individual and collaborative), learning from the emotions and experiences of other caregivers, and preparing for upcoming challenges. Conclusions Expressive writing and reading can be a safe and cost-effective supportive intervention for caregivers of patients with cancer.