Substrates approved for BSF rearing (adapted from the International Platform of Insects for Food and Feed (IPIFF)).

Substrates approved for BSF rearing (adapted from the International Platform of Insects for Food and Feed (IPIFF)).

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Each year, the food supply chain produces more than 1.3 billion tons of food and agricultural waste, which poses serious environmental problems. The loss of the massive quantity of secondary and primary metabolites retrievable from this resource is a significant concern. What if there is a global solution that caters to the numerous problems arisin...

Citations

... However, the limitations for microbial fermentation strategies include the need for a controlled environment to promote microbial activity (Braguglia et al., 2018), which may increase the cost of FW management. In addition, some FW streams will require costly Ravi et al. (2020) pre-treatments to increase rate of decomposition and maximize biomass reduction. ...
... The transformation of FW into products or material of higher quality, value, or functionality often creating novel, innovative, and premium products (adding value) is referred to as upcycling (Ravi et al., 2020). This can be achieved through several strategies including microbial fermentation and insects such as BSFL. ...
... The production of nutrient-dense poultry products (meat and eggs) represents sustainable value-addition where nutrients are recovered from FW and redirected into the food chain. Upcycling of nutrients from FW into valuable poultry products for human nutrition is a four stage process, which includes: 1) FW selection (larval dietary requirements may be met through blended waste substrates or fortification with supplemental nutrients), 2) larval FW conversion (nutrients in FW are converted into chitin, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and organic acids), 3) transfer of larval nutrients to poultry (BSFL-containing diets are formulated), and 4) human consumption of poultry products (Ravi et al., 2020). However, there are cost constraints associated with BSFL upcycling of FW arising from transportation and energy requirements (Singh and Kumari, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Food waste (FW) contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, burdens waste management systems, worsens food insecurity, and reduces biodiversity. Consequently, upcycling strategies must be refined to efficiently convert FW into valuable products. The utilization of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) to convert FW into nutrient-rich insect meal for use in poultry diets is one such nascent strategy. This upcycling strategy has the potential to address food security challenges while reducing environmental impacts of both FW and poultry production systems. Indeed, innovations in BSFL production and the abundance of FW means that this strategy has a high potential for adoption and scaling up, despite a regulatory framework that lags in several countries. We analyse the suitability of various FW streams for BSFL and the insect's nutraceutical value for poultry. This strategy can resolve the global FW problem while contributing towards sustainable food production systems with minimal recourse to additional planetary resources.
... At the end of the rearing process, the insect larvae are sieved from frass, cleaned and, if not used as live larvae mainly for poultry feeding purposes, devitalized by blanching, boiling, drying, cooling, freezing, or freeze drying (Ravi et al., 2020). The devitalization techniques affect the derived-product quality in terms of protein solubility and bio-availability, lipid oxidation, product color, and microbial load (Ravi et al., 2020). ...
... At the end of the rearing process, the insect larvae are sieved from frass, cleaned and, if not used as live larvae mainly for poultry feeding purposes, devitalized by blanching, boiling, drying, cooling, freezing, or freeze drying (Ravi et al., 2020). The devitalization techniques affect the derived-product quality in terms of protein solubility and bio-availability, lipid oxidation, product color, and microbial load (Ravi et al., 2020). Insects can then be further processed to obtain two main fractions: insect-derived meals (with high levels of protein) and insect oils. ...
... Insects can then be further processed to obtain two main fractions: insect-derived meals (with high levels of protein) and insect oils. As exhaustively described by Ravi et al. (2020), for HI two processing methods are used. In the dry method, dry larvae are pressed under cold (T = 25 °C) or hot (T > 60 °C) conditions, to obtain a defatted meal. ...
... For most production, insects are further processed into full meals, defatted meals and oil which are sold for human and animal consumption. While several studies are proposing protein extraction methods (Ravi et al., 2020), no producers in Quebec are offering this product yet (TFIC, 2022) and minimal information is publicly available about the products being ready to reach the market. ...
... This means that substrates containing a high proportion of water hyacinth contribute a high frass yield. The present study corroborates the results of [44], who reported a 25% BSFL frass yield from 1000 kg of food and vegetable substrate during the BSFL treatment process. The frass yield reported in this study, though, is a little lower than that reported by [40,45], who reported frass yields from brewery waste and food waste of 33.3% and 33.8%, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, inefficient waste management is viewed as a social, environmental, and economic threat. Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) waste treatment is a promising strategy for efficient waste management that offers a continuous supply of organic fertilizer. However, no thorough investigations have looked into the frass produced during the processing of water hyacinth and fruit waste as a fertilizer. In this study, BSFL processed experimental water hyacinth and fruit waste at various ratios for a total of 20 days of experimentation, first processing 8 kg of waste per treatment (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) for 14 days, and then adding 6 kg of waste per treatment for the following 6 days. The physicochemical composition of the frass produced by BSFL composting water hyacinth and fruit waste was examined to determine its fertilizer value. The results indicated that the moisture content of the frass ranged from 41.4 to 60%, while the pH, electrical conductivity, and carbon to nitrogen ratio ranged from 6.02 to 8.09, 4.00 to 6.34 ds/m, and 14.94 to 29.65, respectively. The micro-mineral content of the frass is within the acceptable ranges suggested by various organizations, with organic carbon ranging from 23.5 to 29.13%, total nitrogen from 0.79 to 1.95%, phosphorus from 0.18 to 0.42 mg/kg, potassium from 0.19 to 2.62%, calcium from 0.14 to 0.03%, and magnesium from 0.07 to 0.19% making the frass suitable for agricultural use. Similarly, the micro-mineral contents (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) of the frass are within acceptable ranges for use as organic fertilizer.
... The conversion of waste streams into high-quality feed ingredients by BSFL is an ideal approach for establishing a circular economy by upcycling low value organic residues [3,4]. It has been estimated that BSFL can transform 1000 kg of fruit and vegetable waste into about 125 kg of fresh larval biomass and about 250 kg of frass, the main secondary product resulting from this bioprocess [5]. Frass is composed of larval excrement, larval exuviae from molting events, and undigested food waste [6]. ...
... Frass is composed of larval excrement, larval exuviae from molting events, and undigested food waste [6]. Considering its high nutrient content [7][8][9][10], its significant microbial diversity [11,12], and the large quantities generated [5], frass is currently poorly valorized, and its potential applications need to be further investigated. Several studies have investigated the potential use of frass as biofertilizers and have reported that frass has a similar mineral composition (N-P-K) to other biofertilizers used for growing plants [7][8][9][10]13,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Frass, the residual material resulting from the bioconversion of organic matter by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), has gained attention as a sustainable alternative to conventional fertilizers due to its high nutrient content. Additionally, frass has been found to possess antifungal properties, which can help control plant pathogens affecting horticultural crops. In this study, frass from BSFL reared on the Gainesville diet, a universally employed reference/control diet, was investigated in vitro for its effect on the growth of seven important fungal/oomycete pathogens. Dual culture overlay assays clearly showed that fresh Gainesville diet extract, as well as BSFL frass extract derived from this diet, contained microorganisms producing compound(s) that strongly inhibit(s) the mycelial growth of fungal/oomycete plant pathogens. Fungi and bacteria were then isolated from the fresh Gainesville diet and BSFL frass using the serial dilution technique. Among the different fungi/bacteria isolated, the isolate GV1-11 in Gainesville diet and FGV15-6 in frass demonstrated strong antifungal/anti-oomycete activity. Both isolates were genetically identified by whole-genome sequencing as Bacillus velezensis, a bacterium used as a biocontrol agent, strongly suggesting that B. velezensis, which is present in the Gainesville diet, can survive the process of BSFL rearing and is one of the key factors contributing to the observed antifungal and anti-oomycete activity in the resulting frass. This work underlines the importance of the inherent microbial characteristics of feedstocks on the antifungal/anti-oomycete activity of frass and points out the possibility of exploiting frass to control plant pathogens affecting horticultural crops.
... For instance, among the newly proposed raw materials for aquafeeds, insect-based meals are one of the most promising choices owing to their good nutritional composition and digestibility Henry et al., 2015;Nogales-Mérida et al., 2019;Pulido-Rodriguez et al., 2021). Furthermore, insects represent a highly sustainable supply chain that fully integrates environmentally responsible practices into a competitive and successful model, thus fitting the circular economy paradigm (Colombo et al., 2022;Ravi et al., 2020). ...
... The quality of BSF meal highly depends on the culture substrates of BSF maggot which include common organic waste (Shumo et al. 2019) and/or industrial waste (Ravi et al. 2020). Such different culture systems produced a distinctive different nutritional composition particularly with respect to crude protein and fat. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the potential use of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) meal as a protein source in the formulated feed for juvenile lobsters, Panulirus ornatus. A total of 160 heads of juvenile lobsters with initial weight of 0.24 ± 0.01 g and initial length of 21.77 ± 0.32 mm were distributed evenly into 16 rectangular fiberglass aquaria and kept individually for 8 weeks of the feeding experiment. Four formulated feeds containing defatted BSF meal as fishmeal replacements at 0%, 25%, 35%, and 50% and total dietary protein to energy ratio of ~ 26 g CP MJ⁻¹ were prepared and assigned as BSF0, BSF25, BSF35, and BSF50, respectively. Fishmeal is technically a suitable aquafeed ingredient in terms of crude protein, moisture, and amino acid compositions. The partially substituted defatted BSF meal has higher crude lipid and ash content than fishmeal. At the end of week 8 of feeding trial, the specific growth rate, length increment, survival rate, and moulting rate of juvenile lobster were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the fishmeal replacement. The fishmeal replacement with the defatted BSF meal did not significantly (P > 0.05) alter the whole-body proximate composition of the juvenile lobster. However, it significantly (P < 0.05) affected the superoxidase dismutase of juvenile lobsters. The cytokine cell expression analysis indicated that up to 35% of fishmeal replacement increased the inflammatory cytokine cells (Interleukin 8 and 17) of juvenile lobster, while an adverse impact was observed on juvenile lobster receiving 50% of fishmeal replacement by BSF meal. Histopathological analysis showed that the hepatopancreas cells of juvenile lobsters were damaged following fishmeal replacement beyond 35%. The present study indicated that up to 35% of defatted BSF meal can be used as fishmeal replacement in the formulated feed of juvenile lobster.
... Nutrient recycling refers to the use of food industry waste to obtain high quality micro and macronutrients that are edible and can be incorporated into the food supply chain, this recycling has been suggested as a solution to the current environmental crisis, since it lessens the use of anthropogenic N and nonrenewable sources of nutrients, such as P [7]. One of the processes that is aligned with this recycling of nutrients is the use of insects. ...
... Specifically, the Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) (BSFL) is gaining popularity in this field due to its capacity to transform a wide range of wastes into compounds of commercial interest like protein and lipids [8]. BSFL is not only considered as part of many (food, cosmetic and energy) industries' supply chain, but it is claimed to be a successful waste management alternative [7]. ...
... Frass refers to a mixture of materials including substrate leftover, microbiota involved in waste decomposing and fly byproducts: exuvia and feces [9]. Given 1,000 Kg. of fruit and vegetables, it is possible to obtain 125 Kg. of BSFL and 250 Kg. of frass in a 14 to 21days period [7]. The amount of frass left depends on the larvae population and the substrate's nature, but it is safe to say that frass is the main residue in the BSFL rearing facilities [10]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nutrient recycling alludes to recovering nutrients from food industry waste that can be added to the food supply chain. It has been suggested as a solution to the current environmental crisis. The Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) (BSFL) is gaining popularity due to its capacity to transform a wide range of wastes into compounds of commercial interest. Among the generated compounds, frass, which is the residue of their rearing, has become of interest due to its nutrient-rich composition. Because of the latter, frass has been proposed as an organic fertilizer. However, whether it complies is yet to be established. A good fertilizer is one that comes from a stable and mature compost. Immediately after BSF rearing, frass has shown a high biological activity, so it is recommended to receive a post-treatment. This review aims to gather the studies that reported composting as a frass treatment, detailing the changes during the process, the physicochemical properties and the indicators that reflect on frass as a ready-to-use organic fertilizer.
... Insect biodiesel production has numerous parameters that need to be optimized to improve output. For instance, waste products (vegetables, fesses, or industrial) and abiotic modulators such as pH, moisture, temperature, chemical contents, nutritional load, and phenolics (Ravi et al., 2020). In addition, insect species also have lifespans, eating ranges, behavioral changes, especially in crowded locations, and avoidance of unfavorable egg-laying places. ...
... Several studies focused on the potentiality of BSFL in biodiesel production; they can target many low-cost media, including sewage, manure, and food waste (Liu et al., 2019;Ravi et al., 2020). In this context, (Wang et al., 2017) investigated that the physicochemical properties of larvae lipids have been validated as a promising source of biodiesel synthesis. ...
... Moreover, the mass production of this feedstock should be evaluated to determine its cost-effectiveness and environmental viability. After the lipid extraction, the remaining parts are protein-rich biomasses that may be utilized in animal nutrition (Ravi et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
Currently, fossil fuels dominate the global energy mix, causing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change. In this context, the conversion of bioenergy materials to secondary biofuels can be profitable to substitute fossil fuels. This chapter discusses the most common biofuel production technologies and recent advances, highlighting the role of insects in production processes as a sustainable green approach. Since these processes should be environmentally evaluated, the environmental impacts were discussed in respect of life cycle assessment (LCA). Production and measurement systems of different types of biofuels have also been reported. This chapter builds knowledge and provides background information on promising biofuel production technologies.
... Defatted H. illucens meal was able to replace 60% of the fishmeal without negative effects in L. vannamei compared to <30% for full-fat insect meal (Chen et al., 2021a;Hu et al., 2019b;Wang et al., 2021). This demonstrates that postprocessing techniques can influence the nutrient composition and quality of the product and its suitability as a feed (Ravi et al., 2020). The amino acid composition of insect meal also influences crustacean growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is a growing global food production sector that aims to meet the increasing demand for dietary protein. Crustaceans are an important and predominantly high-priced aquaculture segment that could support the transfer of sustainable new technologies to other sectors. Areas of interest include disease management and compound feeds, both of which have the potential to improve both the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Modern compound feeds are largely composed of fishmeal and/or terrestrial plant materials, the production of which is unsustainable, leading to the depletion of finite resources. Insects are a promising protein-rich alternative to fishmeal that can reduce the environmental footprint of aquafeeds and crustacean aquaculture. First research data have shown that insect meal has a favourable nutritional composition with positive health effects, and is environmentally sustainable with a strong economic potential, particularly supporting circular economy by valorising otherwise unused side-streams. In this article, we discuss the current state of crustacean aquaculture and highlight the benefits of insect meal compared to today’s compound aquafeeds in terms of health and growth-promoting properties as well as environmental benefits. We then consider the molecular mechanisms that confer immunity and disease resistance in crustacean aquaculture and show how insect feeds can support disease management and thus consumer health. Next, we assess the environmental sustainability of crustacean aquaculture and insect farming, the legal framework for insect-based feeds and consumer acceptance issues. Lastly, we identify research gaps, socioeconomic considerations and the potential of insect-based sustainable crustacean aquaculture for the global market.