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Structure of a coconut fruit  

Structure of a coconut fruit  

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A coconut dehusking machine comprising of two rollers with spikes, screw conveyor, barrier plates, conveyor belt, two spur gears and a handle was developed for small scale production in the rural areas. Performance test analysis conducted shows that the machine dehusks coconut fruits without nut breakage and distortion of the extracted fibre length...

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... (cocos nucifera) is one of the world most useful and important perennial plants [1]. An individual coconut fruit shown in Figure 1 is made up of an outer exocarp, a thick fibrous fruit coat known as husk; underneath is the hard protective endocarp or shell [2]. The nut varies from 147 to196mm in diameter and 245 to 294mm long. ...

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... Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important and useful perennial fruit crop in Africa sub-region. In Nigeria, coconut is a cash crop that is grown in 22 states with plantations that spread across the humid tropical forest of the south (Nwankwojike et al, 2012). Nigeria produces about 250,000 tons of coconut annually and is ranked eighteenth in the world (FDC, 2018). ...
... Coconut has high economic prospect if well annexed, both for industrial use, and food consumption. It is interesting to note that every part of coconut is useful (Nwankwojike et al, 2012). The outer exocarp better known as husk is gaining economic importance in automobile, plastic rubber, and cosmetic industries as natural fibber for reinforced composite, in products such as coir, asbestos, and carpets (Chandra, 1987;Thampan, 1981;Franco and Gonzalez, 2004;Shamsudin et al, 2018). ...
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... Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important and useful perennial fruit crop in Africa sub-region. In Nigeria, coconut is a cash crop that is grown in 22 states with plantations that spread across the humid tropical forest of the south (Nwankwojike et al, 2012). Nigeria produces about 250,000 tons of coconut annually and is ranked eighteenth in the world (FDC, 2018). ...
... Coconut has high economic prospect if well annexed, both for industrial use, and food consumption. It is interesting to note that every part of coconut is useful (Nwankwojike et al, 2012). The outer exocarp better known as husk is gaining economic importance in automobile, plastic rubber, and cosmetic industries as natural fibber for reinforced composite, in products such as coir, asbestos, and carpets (Chandra, 1987;Thampan, 1981;Franco and Gonzalez, 2004;Shamsudin et al, 2018). ...
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... Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important and useful perennial fruit crop in Africa sub-region. In Nigeria, coconut is a cash crop that is grown in 22 states with plantations that spread across the humid tropical forest of the south (Nwankwojike et al, 2012). Nigeria produces about 250,000 tons of coconut annually and is ranked eighteenth in the world (FDC, 2018). ...
... Coconut has high economic prospect if well annexed, both for industrial use, and food consumption. It is interesting to note that every part of coconut is useful (Nwankwojike et al, 2012). The outer exocarp better known as husk is gaining economic importance in automobile, plastic rubber, and cosmetic industries as natural fibber for reinforced composite, in products such as coir, asbestos, and carpets (Chandra, 1987;Thampan, 1981;Franco and Gonzalez, 2004;Shamsudin et al, 2018). ...
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... The process of dehusking requires a few impaling strokes using a sharp metal stake mounted on a platform [89]. Dehusking is also carried out using a cutlass [90]. According to Suharto [91], one has to be physically strong and has to be expert to prevent accidents or injury. ...
... The process of dehusking requires a few impaling strokes using a sharp metal stake mounted on a platform [89]. Dehusking is also carried out using a cutlass [90]. According to Suharto [91], one has to be physically strong and has to be expert to prevent accidents or injury. ...
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: The removal of shells of coconut and nut has been a problem for lots of years. Foot-operated and hand-operated systems are very inefficient and in countries like India where large coconut farms are available, it is difficult to employ manpower alone. Efficient methods are necessary for the de-husking of coconut. This paper proposes Double spiked roller arrangement over traditional Dehusking tools and the modern dehuskers. This method employs the use of Single-phase motors instead of conventional three-phase motors. It helps in the reduction of price. The Machine dimensions are designed after various Averages of Coconut dimensions and torque calculations of the Single Phase Induction motor. The machine makes use of the Gear shaft-Pulley powered Single Phase motor which powers the spiked rollers. The rollers dehusk the coconut which when placed on it. It also possesses an adjustable base frame which helps in changing the speed and adjustment of the position of the motor in case Electrical speed varying methods are not available. This machine is extremely useful for small scale farmers because it's a very low cost, high operating efficiency.
... Here the labor efforts and the time consumption for the de husking are reduced. Nwankwojike et al (2012) [2] studied on "Development of a Coconut Dehusking Machine for Rural Small Scale Farm Holders" and found that a coconut dehusking machine comprising of two rollers with spikes, screw conveyor, barrier plates, conveyor belt, two spur gears and a handle was developed for small scale production in the rural areas. Performance test analysis conducted shows that the machine dehusks coconut fruits without nut breakage and distortion of the extracted fibre length and also that its average dehusking efficiency and capacity are 93.45% and 79 coconuts per hour. ...
... As shown in Figure 2, the mesocarp is composed of a fibre, called coir, while the white fleshy layer under the shell is the 'coconut meat'. The interior of the nut is partially filled with a liquid, the so-called 'coconut milk', which is gradually absorbed as the fruit ripens (Nduka et al., 2012). ...
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... Thus, separation of the husk using matchet remained the common means of dehusking coconut fruits among our rural dwellers in Nigeria despite the risk associated with this method. Therefore, a coconut dehusking machine that will enable the extraction of the coir fibre with its full length without any damage to the nut and also affordable by our low income earners is required in this sector for effective processing of coconut in our rural and urban communities [23]. Thus the existing coconut dehusking machine is associated with the following problems: 1. ...
... σ yt is the tensile yield strength =175N/mm 2 for coconut fruit [24] and [23]. ...
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Contrary to the immense economic importance of coconut for both industrial and domestic uses, dehusking of the fruits after harvesting constitutes the most difficult and dangerous operations during processing. Performance evaluation of coconut dehusking machine was carried out. The machine was designed and fabricated using locally sourced materials. It consists of the supporting frame where the machine components were mounted. The de-husking unit consists of two galvanized steel pipe rollers with spikes and shafts. The driving and driven roller shafts are mild steel rods supported at both ends by ball bearings. Six spur gears were used with various pitch circle diameters and number of teeth respectively, and were attached proportionally to the driving and driven roller based on their functions in the machine. The flywheel is driven by a pinion which is attached to pulley and connected with a V-belt to the pulley of the electric motor, and rotates at the same speed with the driving gear. Two middle gears mounted on the same shaft with the flywheel were also incorporated to produce high torque. When the motor is switch on, power is transmitted through the gearing arrangement to the rollers with plurality of spikes and rotate them in opposite directions towards the center there by causing both the gripping and tearing of the husk when coconut is placed in between the rollers. While the rollers rotate, a feeding clamp welded to the frame is used to feed coconut fruit in the de-husking unit and a spring is attached to enable relative motion between the coconut fruit and the rollers during de-husking. Different sizes of coconut fruits were loaded at different times on the machine and the time taken for each fruit to be dehusked was recorded. A total of 80 fresh nuts were tested. The performance evaluation shows that the average efficiency of the machine was 92.50% while the average capacity is 120.6 coconuts per hour. On the other hand, the percentage number of distorted and broken coconuts were 7.5% and 3.75%. These figures are however infinitesimal Compare to the existing coconut dehusking machines. Hence it is recommended for use by farmers.
... Dehusking machine has been implemented in the field of agriculture to increase the productivity and reduce the requirement of skilled man power. The cost has been a barrier for small scale farmer in adapting to this technology [9]. A Simple mechanism to dehusk the coconut has been implemented in this machine to overcome the high cost barrier and make it affordable for small scale farmers. ...
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A coconut is the fruit of a coconut palm belonging to arecaceae family and it is used by one third of the population in the world. The coconut needs to be dehusked before it could be utilized for any of the purpose it serves. The husk of the coconut can be removed by various techniques. Manual dehusking is the conventional process followed widely among farmers. The labour cost incurred and the time consumed can be considerably decreased by increasing the usage of machines. All the coconut growers cannot afford to own an automated machines used in developed countries because of high cost. This project attempts in making a dehusker which is affordable and also has higher productivity. The cost of the dehusking machine is also affordable which makes it better than hydraulic dehusking machine. The machine has two rotating shafts with spikes mounted on a frame. The shafts are rotated by a three phase motor. The output speed is reduced to 30 rpm by using gear box. When the coconut is placed between the spiked shafts rotating in opposite directions, the husk is peeled off from the coconut Keywords: Dehusking, Machine, Affordable, Productivity