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Structural characteristics of Warsaw and Ghent. 

Structural characteristics of Warsaw and Ghent. 

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Article
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This article explores the role of local particularism in relation to the global interest in urban agriculture (UA). A growing movement is advocating UA, but future prospects are limited by variability, unclear expectations, vague responsibilities and leadership in the UA movement. We wonder whether the poor understanding of UA governance is associa...

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Context 1
... introduce the cases, we outline a number of structural differ- ences between Warsaw and Ghent (See Table 1). The capital city of Warsaw comprises 18 districts. ...
Context 2
... should also be noted that the number of novel UA initiatives in Ghent is relatively higher than in Warsaw. 5 In Warsaw, in addition to the wealth of community gardens (See Table 1) -which, in the case of Poland, can be best described as individual plots of green open space on public land assigned to citizens or groups -we predominantly find artistic and experi- mental projects, examples of which are rather scarce and whose goals are often not made explicit. Examples are seasonal projects in a museum or other cultural institutions and dropping of seed bombs in neighborhoods. ...
Context 3
... gardens represent a major land-use category. Table 1 illustrates that the amount of farmland is fairly comparable between Warsaw and Ghent, but the amount of land dedicated to allotment gardens in urban areas shows a stark dif- ference. Allotment gardens have been very popular in Warsaw because they served as a major source of food under the Com- munist regime (Bellows, 2004). ...
Context 4
... citizens are not motivated to promote the production of food in (the immediate surroundings of) Warsaw to establish a truly local food system. Table 1 shows that Ghent currently provides little official phys- ical space for UA initiatives such as gardens or new farms. Similar to Warsaw, allotment gardens thrived during and after WWII, but their relevance waned earlier than in Warsaw, as the citizens' eco- nomic status quickly rose and suburban housing provided private gardens. ...

Citations

... In recent years, urban agriculture has attracted many scholars, authorities, media, and even citizens (Dimitri et al., 2015;Mansfield and Mendes, 2012;Morgan, 2014;Prové et al., 2016;Hearn et al., 2020). Urban agriculture can respond to a wide range of urban community issues and problems and help achieve sustainable cities plans (Lovell, 2010;Mendes et al., 2008;Mougeot, 2006). ...
... Urban agriculture can respond to a wide range of urban community issues and problems and help achieve sustainable cities plans (Lovell, 2010;Mendes et al., 2008;Mougeot, 2006). This approach can help in food production and also increase per capita urban green space, modifiy the effects of thermal islands, manages runoff, increases health through increased physical activity of individuals, increases consumption of fruits and vegetables, increases popular participation and interactions among different groups of people, and encourages the development of material and resource cycling in cities (e.g., Draper and Freedman, 2010;Hodgson et al., 2011;Lovell, 2010;Prové et al., 2016;Wielemaker et al., 2019;Nadal et al., 2018;Skar et al., 2020). For example, a study in two community gardens in Utah found that urban farming was a good physical activity to prevent obesity because farmers had low BMIs in the survey (Zick et al., 2013). ...
... It seems the health concerns for the development of urban agriculture due to the presence of urban pollution have affected the citizens' perceptions and attitudes, as well as the belief of some researchers towards using these crops in some cities around the world. For example, in the study by Prové et al. (2016) in Warsaw, the public did not agree with this attitude due to soil and air pollution in the cities. It refused to use urban products in another study. ...
Article
With recent increases in urban population and development, agricultural lands have been changed to residential areas and industrial settlements. Such urban population growth increases necessitate emerging relatively new strategies and forms in urban parks and landscape designs to meet today's economic, social, and ecological needs toward sustainable development. Urban agriculture is one of the strategies for achieving sustainable development and creating multi-purpose landscapes. Such an approach appears to partially solve the problem of agricultural land reduction and degradation. However, urban pollutants seem to hinder the development of such a sustainable concept in the cities. This research aimed to identify suitable locations for urban agriculture in urban green spaces according to various contamination criteria and the uniform distribution of the green spaces in Mashhad, Iran. In this research, using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and a Geographic Information System (GIS) facilitated the decision-making process. It also determined the importance of the land use criteria for urban agricultural development. The results showed that the most suitable areas for urban agricultural development with the least impact of pollutants in Mashhad were the suburbs, especially in the northeast and southeast parts. These research results have practical implications for planning urban agricultural development at the city level across the world.
... Se sugiere una estrategia de formulación de políticas para la AU que se expanda más allá del ámbito de la producción de alimentos únicamente. Se recomienda evitar evaluar (y criticar) la AU únicamente en el contexto de estos factores genéricos de éxito (Prové et al., 2016). ...
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Objetivo: contribuir en la búsqueda de elementos que ayuden a consolidar sistemas alimentarios sostenibles. Metodología: revisión sistemática basada en metasíntesis, se exploró en siete bases de datos y se obtuvieron 237 resultados de los cuales, debido a criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron 133 artículos científicos. Resultados: se encontró que nueve artículos abordan dicho problema manteniendo los sistemas alimentarios industrializados, pero haciendo mejoras técnicas (tecnológicas) o haciendo más eficientes las cadenas de producción y suministros. Mientras que cuatro artículos lo abordan desde la reducción en las distancias que recorren los alimentos, pero enfocada en una producción rural; cinco investigaciones desde lo local; tres desde lo periurbano y uno en lo regional. El mayor número de investigaciones (73) sugiere un sistema alimentario basado en un tipo de producción urbana; sin mencionar que hay sistemas que pueden ser considerados híbridos (16). Además de emplear algún tipo de nexo entre distintos elementos. Limitaciones: La revisión sistemática se limita al material contenido en las bases de datos seleccionadas y en la fecha establecida para la búsqueda. Conclusiones: se concluye que las características de los sistemas alimentarios sostenibles varían en función del contexto de las ciudades, lo que no impide el aprendizaje entre experiencias similares.
... Literatür incelendiğinde yönetişimin birçok farklı alan tarafından da kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Örneğin çevre yönetişimi (Lemos & Agrawal, 2006), kurumsal/şirket yönetişimi (Shleifer & Vishny, 1997) ya da tarım yönetişimi (Prové, Dessein & De Krom, 2016) gibi yönetişim nosyonu içinde yönetim barındıran tüm alanlarda bir yer edinmiştir. ...
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Chapter
“OECD Çerçevesinden Su Yönetişimi: Etkililik, Verimlilik ve Güven ve Bağlılık” başlıklı bölümünde OECD çerçevesinden su yönetişimi kavramı ele alınmaktadır. Su yönetişimi, odağında tamamen suyun bulunduğu, içerisinde sosyal ve ekonomik sistemleri de bulunduran ve doğrudan sürdürülebilir bir su gelişimi ve güvenliği tahsisi için ihtiyaç duyulan bir nosyondur. Çalışmada sürdürülebilir bir su gelişimi ve güvenliğinin tahsis edilebilmesi adına OECD’nin, su yönetişimi çerçevesini üç ana başlık hâlinde ele aldığı vurgulanmaktadır. Bölümün içeriği bu ana başlıkların sunumu şeklinde yapılmaktadır.
... The research literature is very rich for the policy analysis of UA (Mansfield & Mendes, 2013;Pothukuchi, 2015;Prové et al., 2016;Thibert, 2012) and the collective action of civil society in regard to UA (Cohen & Reynolds, 2014;McIvor & Hale, 2015;Torres-Lima & Rodrigues-Sanchez, 2008). However, what is lacking in this literature is a model that encompasses both policy analysis and collective action in terms of UA, considering both its subjective and objective aspects. ...
... Thibert (2012) analyzes UA governance and institutional arrangements in North America, especially municipal land-use policies for UA and their marginal place in urban planning. Mansfield and Mendes (2013) and Prové et al. (2016) analyze what enables UA policy implementation in three different cities: Toronto (Canada), London (United Kingdom), and San Francisco (USA). Prové et al. (2016) evaluate UA governance in Warsaw (Poland) and Ghent (Belgium), especially the government's perceptions and attitudes toward promoting land access for UA. ...
... Mansfield and Mendes (2013) and Prové et al. (2016) analyze what enables UA policy implementation in three different cities: Toronto (Canada), London (United Kingdom), and San Francisco (USA). Prové et al. (2016) evaluate UA governance in Warsaw (Poland) and Ghent (Belgium), especially the government's perceptions and attitudes toward promoting land access for UA. ...
Article
How can one analyze the public actions of organizations and actors from different sectors? Studies using a policy analysis perspective have shed light on the role of the state in making and implementing urban agriculture (UA) policy. However, this perspective has limitations when it comes to explaining the interactions between the state, civil society, and the business organizations that support it. This article provides an analytical framework derived from the sociology of public action (SPA) to understand how multiple organizations support UA. We have applied the SPA framework to the city of São Paulo and our analysis indicates that civil society has mobilized significant meanings, ideas, and networks to reinforce the importance of UA. As a result, there has been a paradigm shift in terms of UA: it has gone from a state of invisibility within an institutional void to an improved state of policy planning. However, civil society organizations still lead the delivery of services for farmers with intermittent state support, which indicates that there has been a paradigm shift in UA policy planning, but not in policy implementation.
... Land use planning of AGs is encoded in the planning system [9,10]. Typically, plots are sited collectively and administered by the municipality, city, or organization, although there is also private provision [11,12]. AGs' spaces are semi-public, the paths through the site and other facilities are public, and the single plots are private [9]. ...
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Article
Allotment gardens (AGs) are widely used in metropolitan areas around the world to offer agricultural opportunities to urban residents. However, there are not enough individual plots for residents to rent for urban gardening, and research on AGs from a city-wide perspective is ongoing. In addition, AGs have a long history in Tokyo, yet few international studies on the current situation of AGs have addressed Asian cities. Thus, this study intends to analyze the provision of AGs and its influencing factors in Tokyo. Using ArcGIS combined the 472-points dataset created by geo-coordinate mapping with urban GIS data to reveal spatial characteristics in four dimensions. Results demonstrate that most AGs are in the urbanization promotion area; most municipalities have AGs; AGs are concentrated within 20 to 30 km from the center of Tokyo; the AGs’ clusters are located at the municipal boundaries. We conducted multiple regressions to determine the influencing factors at the municipal level, with the provision that AGs are related to population density, land price, and the ratio of productive green space. The policy implication of this study is that policymakers need to consider the siting strategy of AGs based on spatial characteristics of AGs.
... Not surprisingly, there is not a single initiative or program, from production to consumption, that includes access to land. In line with authors as Angotti (2015), and Prové et al. (2016), we argue that the lack of a coherent and integrated food strategy that considers land access as a starting point deserves attention. In summary, to explore our argument and research question, we will use Torres Vedras municipality as a study case and a stakeholder approach as methodology. ...
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Article
Portuguese organic food consumption to meet national individual and institutional demand is swiftly increasing. This demand is a missed opportunity due to lack of land access for farmers. We claim that land availability needs to be taken into consideration centrally in the formulation of local and national food policies. In particular, we suggest: 1) inter-cross coherent policy options regarding land needed to achieve goals; 2) mechanisms to strengthen multi-level and cross sectorial food governance, with a focus on land accessibility for organic food production, in particular vegetables and fruit. Based on the Torres Vedras municipality, as a study case, we conclude that local authorities have a key-role to play as facilitators for land access, primarily by identifying and mapping idle land whether communal, public or private. Results from field visits and interviews with local stakeholders suggest that cooperation across city departments and local stakeholders could spearhead an integrated food policy that would turn idle land into the decisive element of a blooming local food system. In conclusion, any municipality can do this, if there is political willingness to start a collaborative process, within municipalities, to think strategically on how to access land for food. RESUMO-ACESSO À TERRA COMUNITÁRIA PARA PRODUÇÃO DE ALIMEN-TOS: POLÍTICAS PROSPETIVAS PARA OS GOVERNOS LOCAIS. A procura de alimen-tos biológicos para abastecer os consumidores individuais e institucionais está a aumentar rapidamente em Portugal. Esta procura pode ser uma oportunidade perdida, dada a falta de acesso dos agricultores à terra. Argumentamos que o acesso à terra deve ser ponderado na formulação de políticas alimentares locais e nacionais. Em particular, sugerimos: 1) políticas intersectoriais coerentes respeitantes à terra necessária para atingir os objetivos propostos
... By contrast, AGs did not include joint meetings. We consider that to some extent these differences mark a significant change compared with previous forms of urban agriculture (Prové et al. 2016;Slavuj Borčić et al. 2016;Szczepańska & Staszewska 2016;Spilková 2017;Bende & Nagy 2020;Sovová & Veen 2020). ...
Article
The aim of the article is to identify the impact of the frequency of visits to community gardens in Slovakia with regard to how people perceived the importance of membership of community garden, how satisfied they were in general with community relations in the gardens, how they perceived improved social relations between people, and the influence of the community gardens on the members’ quality of life. A mixed methods approach was adopted comprising a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews. Relationships were tested using Cramer’s V coefficient, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The analysis of perceptions of the community garden members did not confirm the dependence between the frequency of visits to community gardens and the gardens’ impact on the CG members’ communities. A further finding was that members of community gardens positively rated the relationships in those communities. The authors conclude that there was no evidence of statistical relationships between the variables in their analysed data set. The frequency with which the members visited community garden did not affect the results.
... A much more negative image of the acceptance of UF in Warsaw (Poland) is presented by Prové et al. (2016). In their opinion, "many Warsaw citizens consider growing food in the city unacceptable" (opinion based on 18 questionnaires from "key UA stakeholders" -unfortunately, the respondents were not described in detail). ...
... construction (Gavrilidis et al., 2020). Prové et al. (2016), andSzulczewska et al. (2013), noted that Poland also has a poor "political" climate for the development of UF. Local authorities are mainly investing in the economic development of urban space. ...
... Local authorities are mainly investing in the economic development of urban space. A study by Prové et al. (2016) has also noted that "Projects such as high-rise office buildings and suburban housing developments are popping up all over the (peri-) urban landscape". The lack of decisive acceptance for activities of the public authorities providing support for UF in countries such as Poland and Romania may be a result of their current level of development. ...
Article
The aim of the study is to present residents’ views on the perceived risks and acceptance of the maintenance and development of professional Urban Farming (UF) in selected Polish metropolitan areas. Attention was mainly devoted to exploring factors in the acceptance of UF, including the importance of perceived risks associated with urban farming, physical and social distance and the socio-economic characteristics of residents. We surveyed 577 participants from urban and peri-urban areas. The results obtained show that UF is accepted by residents: over 70% approve lasting maintenance of agriculture in metropolitan areas. The analyses show that acceptance of UF depends on two groups of factors: the perception of the risks of UF and the social distance from agriculture. People perceiving a lot of risks associated with urban farming and being characterized by a large social distance to agriculture, i.e. those who do not know farmers, do not take advantage of the offer of UF. Participants who are not involved in various forms of urban and peri-urban agriculture are skeptical about the development of UF. Conversely, those who see fewer hazards and are more closely related to this sector (low social distance) are advocates of this concept. The study shows that the socio-economic characteristics of residents, including age, education, and financial situation, do not differentiate acceptance of UF significantly. The formulated recommendations, i.e. regarding educational activities or the popularization of short supply channels, can help increase acceptance for the maintenance and development of UF.
... In countries such as Germany, Sweden and The Netherlands, there is a strict restriction of sludge use in agriculture as it may cause bioaccumulation of contaminants in the food chain (Rizzardini and Goi, 2014). In Poland, it is mainly disposed in landfills (Prov e et al., 2016); while in Switzerland, there is no priority setup for the reuse of sludge (Pająk, 2013). ...
Chapter
Wastewater treatment plants produce large volumes of sludge on a daily basis as a by-product containing soluble and insoluble impurities. The proper management of sewage sludge is a main issue to control environmental pollution and limit negative impacts on human health. However, sludge is rich in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous and contains valuable organic matter that is useful. Due to this, management of sewage sludge includes its regulated reuse in agriculture in such a way as to prevent any harmful effect on the environment and living beings. Different strategies have emerged for sewage sludge management. These strategies are crucial for the sustainability aspects of sludge management. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of nutrients and energy is elaborated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of these strategies.
... The aim of this paper is to develop a new framework to analyse governance mechanisms, expressed as policy approaches to urban food garden development, which can serve as an analytical tool to enable comparison of cities and to analyse their efforts to achieve urban sustainability. This aim is based on the argument by Sonnino (2009, p. 433) who emphasises the importance of "local solutions and global cooperation" in dealing with urban food systems as well as the claims by Prové et al. (2016) and Sonnino (2009) that cities can, and want to, learn from each other when elaborating urban (food) policies. Although gardening in cities is embedded in different contexts (Prové et al., 2016), we advocate the possibility of developing a common framework based on the comparison of cities, which can potentially support research and policy makers in understanding and reflecting on policy with regard to urban food gardens and their role in sustainable urban development. ...
... This aim is based on the argument by Sonnino (2009, p. 433) who emphasises the importance of "local solutions and global cooperation" in dealing with urban food systems as well as the claims by Prové et al. (2016) and Sonnino (2009) that cities can, and want to, learn from each other when elaborating urban (food) policies. Although gardening in cities is embedded in different contexts (Prové et al., 2016), we advocate the possibility of developing a common framework based on the comparison of cities, which can potentially support research and policy makers in understanding and reflecting on policy with regard to urban food gardens and their role in sustainable urban development. ...
... With "objectives", the aim is to analyse targets defined in policies. In this vein, Prové et al. (2016) refer to various scholars when concluding that UA advocates tend to consider the development of policies and projects as more important than the precise form, objectives and impacts of such initiatives. This often results in generic and instructive plans in the policy field of agriculture and food production to advance UA. ...
Article
In recent years, urban gardens have received increased interest from urban citizens as well as urban planners as a tool to promote sustainable urban development. The increased demand by citizens and planners for different forms of garden areas, however, is at odds with a densifying city and the loss of green spaces. Urban planners are therefore faced with the challenge of rethinking the functions and objectives of city gardens and, in turn, adapting the governance mechanisms with regard to sustainable urban development. The aim of this paper is to develop a new framework to analyse governance mechanisms, expressed as policy approaches to urban food garden development, which can serve as an analytical tool to enable comparison of cities and to analyse their efforts to achieve urban sustainability. The framework is based on case study analysis of public policies towards urban food gardening in the Swiss cities Berne, Lausanne and Zurich. We identified three core dimensions to characterise policy approaches in cities for the further development of city gardening: frames, level of institutionalisation, and policy-society relationship. Frames refer to the perception of gardening which is expressed by the objectives set by the city policy and the contributions gardening should fulfil in urban development. Level of institutionalisation provides information on the extent to which garden support is anchored in urban policy. Policy-society relationship refers to the type of leadership by city politics and the possibility for non-political actors to participate. For the further development of urban food gardening, the challenge for urban planners is to find the best possible combination of the three elements for their cities, adapted to the respective city context, the dominant sustainability goals and the social actors involved.