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| Strength centrality plot of the full-size regularized networks showing standardized z-score values of strength centrality. Strength measures the sum of all the regularized partial correlation coefficients for each node.

| Strength centrality plot of the full-size regularized networks showing standardized z-score values of strength centrality. Strength measures the sum of all the regularized partial correlation coefficients for each node.

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Article
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The Roma have been and still are a target of prejudice, marginalization, and social exclusion across Europe, especially in East-Central European countries. This paper focuses on a set of stereotypical, emotional, and behavioral evaluative responses toward Roma people selected as representing the underlying components of anti-Roma bias. Employing ne...

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... centrality values and network stabilities were also similar to the networks estimated by EBICglasso. Figure 2 shows the strength centrality values of all the items of the full-size networks (see the Supplementary Material for further details of the centrality values of all the full-size as well as high-and low-attitude networks). On average, the most central values were found to be empathy in Hungary, perceived threat to national identity in Romania, and sympathy in Slovakia, France, and Ireland. ...

Citations

... It was later developed into a psychometric model, [10]. Empirical applications of the CAN model are predominantly based on cross-sectional data [e.g., [11][12][13]. This enables computing undirected networks: networks in which edges represent associations and do not provide information on directions of these relations. ...
Article
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This study examines how broad attitude networks are affected by tailored interventions aimed at variables selected based on their connectiveness with other variables. We first computed a broad attitude network based on a large-scale cross-sectional COVID-19 survey (N = 6,093). Over a period of approximately 10 weeks, participants were invited five times to complete this survey, with the third and fifth wave including interventions aimed at manipulating specific variables in the broad COVID-19 attitude network. Results suggest that targeted interventions that yield relatively strong effects on variables central to a broad attitude network have downstream effects on connected variables, which can be partially explained by the variables the interventions were aimed at. We conclude that broad attitude network structures can reveal important relations between variables that can help to design new interventions.
... Of the many frameworks used in the study of attitudes, recently, a new approach is gaining significant interest: the psychological networks [7,[29][30][31]. This approach has led to a new way of looking at the concept of attitude and a new measurement model to apply to empirical data [7]. ...
... These results are in line with the BIAS Map [5,6], the IET [19] and research derived from these models [22] and confirming our second hypothesis (H2). The central role of emotions has also been found by Nariman et al. [30] from a network approach. In their study, they focused on stereotypical, emotional and behavioral evaluative responses toward Roma people (one of the main minority groups in Spain and in many European countries, associated with the stereotype of begging and delinquency, and characterized as a target group for discrimination, hate crimes and social exclusion [54][55][56]) and they observed that the central nodes are those of an affective nature (national identity, sympathy, and empathy). ...
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This study aimed to analyze the relationship among different evaluative reactions of the intergroup attitudes and contact in Spanish adolescents evaluating different ethnic minorities and in immigrant-background adolescents evaluating Spanish youth. This study was based on psychosocial models of great impact in the study of intergroup relations such as the Stereotype Content Model and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes Map, and incorporated a new approach to the study of attitudes: psychological networks. In total, 1122 Spanish adolescents and 683 adolescents with an immigrant background (Moroccan, Romanian or Ecuadorian origin) participated in the study, aged from 12 to 19 years. They answered a questionnaire with measures of stereotype dimensions (morality, immorality, sociability and competence), emotions (positives and negative), behavioral tendencies (facilitation and harm) and contact (quantity and quality). The results show similar structural patterns in the six studied groups, with emotions acting as links between stereotypes and behavioral tendencies. Moreover, positive and negative stereotype dimensions appeared as independent dimensions that were part of different processes: sociability and morality, and competence to a lesser extent, were related to facilitation behaviors through positive emotions, while immorality was related to harm behaviors through negative emotions. This could indicate that, to achieve successful intergroup relations involving cooperation and the development of friendly relationships, it would be appropriate to intervene in parallel in these two pathways. Due to the centrality of positive emotions (and sociability and immorality) and, therefore, their capacity to affect the entire network, focusing interventions on these variables could be an appropriate strategy to achieve overall positive attitudes.
... Roma cultural heritage includes a rich oral tradition, art forms such as flamenco, an emphasis on family, and Romanës, the Roma language. The Roma are among the most disenfranchised, socially unaccepted, and morally vilified ethnic minority groups in Europe and especially in East-Central European countries [31,32]. As a culturally and linguistically diverse group, Roma people are portrayed as beggars, criminals, profiteers, and lazy, being a target of marginalization and social exclusion, as well as perpetual discriminatory and violent practices on an interpersonal, institutional, and national level [33]. ...
... Roma cultural heritage includes a rich oral tradition, art forms such as flamenco, an emphasis on family, and Romanës, the Roma language. The Roma are among the most disenfranchised, socially unaccepted, and morally vilified ethnic minority groups in Europe and especially in East-Central European countries [31,32]. As a culturally and linguistically diverse group, Roma people are portrayed as beggars, criminals, profiteers, and lazy, being a target of marginalization and social exclusion, as well as perpetual discriminatory and violent practices on an interpersonal, institutional, and national level [33]. ...
Article
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Background: Attitude is a relatively permanent inclination towards a positive or negative evaluation of a given social or physical object, which determines a person's disposition towards their surrounding social reality and informs his/her behavior. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of nursing staff, in terms of the emotional and behavioral components, in relation to selected social groups: a Roma person, a hearing-impaired person, a Muslim, and a person of a homosexual orientation. Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted by means of an Internet questionnaire. Methods: This study included 3900 nurses from Poland who were participants in social networking sites and discussion groups for nurses. The study data were collected by using a self-constructed survey questionnaire. The results were reported using the STROBE Checklist. Results: The following scale was adopted: mean 1.0-3.5-positive attitude, 3.6-6.0-negative attitude. Respondents showed positive attitudes towards patient groups (1.67-2.30), the least positive being towards Muslims (2.30) and Roma (2.21). The respondents predicted that during the performance of professional activities, they would have the biggest problem with a person of homosexual orientation (22.1%) or a Muslim person (19.0%). The results show that the age and length of service most often influence attitudes towards patients from different social groups. Conclusions: Respondents with a longer period of work experience and respondents with lower education, despite declaring positive attitudes towards the surveyed social groups, expressed negative statements towards Muslims and homosexuals. Cultural education during the undergraduate and postgraduate studies of nursing staff is essential. Impact Statement: This research indicates that the lesser the need for direct involvement in interactions with patients from other groups, the greater the willingness to accept the situation in which care is provided.
... In other words, the connectivity between an attitude's underlying components (i.e., cognitive, affective, and behavioral) predicts attitude strength towards the attitude object (see the Causal Attitude Network (CAN) model, [63]). For example, the connectivity between a set of anti-Roma evaluations was found to be stronger for those who held stronger attitude towards the Roma people [64]. Moreover, a group of nodes being strongly interconnected, manifests their belonging to a similar state [62]. ...
Article
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Using the 9 th round of European Social Survey (ESS), we explored the relationship between Europeans’ basic values and their attitudes towards immigrants. Employing a latent class analysis (LCA), we classified the respondents based on three items capturing the extent to which participants would support allowing three groups of immigrants to enter and live in their countries: immigrants of same ethnic groups, immigrants of different ethnic groups, and immigrants from poorer countries outside Europe. Four classes of Europeans with mutually exclusive response patterns with respect to their inclusive attitudes towards immigrants were found. The classes were named Inclusive (highly inclusive), Some (selective), Few (highly selective), and Exclusive (highly exclusive). Next, using a network technique, a partial correlation network of 10 basic human values was estimated for each class of participants. The four networks were compared to each other based on three network properties namely: global connectivity , community detection , and assortativity coefficient . The global connectivity (the overall level of interconnections) between the 10 basic values was found to be mostly invariant across the four networks. However, results of the community detection analysis revealed a more complex value structure among the most inclusive class of Europeans. Further, according to the assortativity analysis, as expected, for the most inclusive Europeans, values with similar motivational backgrounds were found to be interconnected most strongly to one another. We further discussed the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
... He argued that the quality of homes and housing depends on a mix of physical, spatial, social, political, economic, and symbolic factors, and nothing reveals the racial stratification of a society as well as housing conditions. In all European countries, Roma are the most hated and stigmatised ethnic group, racialised and considered as 'others' by local and national societies (Sam Nariman et al., 2020). In the past four decades, an increased level of housing commodification combined with the residualization of public housing might have put poor people in situations of greater difficulties. ...
... Due to its salience and the fact that many of those dwellings are not legalized and might stand on someone else's property, this problem has also been the source of controversies, ethnic and territorial stigmatisation and outright animosity towards Roma. Furthermore, literature on antigypsyism and racist attitudes highlights for the majority of population Roma are seen as undeserving, with widespread claims that investments in housing infrastructure benefitting Roma is unfair, since other (meaning non-Roma) people do not receive this special treatment (Gagnon 2020;Sam Nariman et al. 2020). ...
Technical Report
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This research report presents the main findings of a qualitative survey on the problems of access to adequate housing for people who identify themselves as Roma. The survey is based on 128 qualitative in-depth interviews and 10 focus groups. 101 in-depth interviews were conducted with Roma living in difficult, deprived and segregated contexts. 27 interviews were carried out with policy makers, administrators, and activists, both locally and at regional and national levels. We studied in France the metropolitan area of Paris, in Italy the metropolitan area of Milan, in Spain the metropolitan area of Barcelona, in Hungary the cities of Gyöngyös and Miskolc, in Romania two municipalities in the historical region of Transylvania, in Singeorgiu de Mures (Mures County) and in Sfântu Gheorghe (Covasna County), in the Orko neighbourhood. This research report is not aimed at comparing and analysing the urban and territorial specificities of the different cases. It analyses them together in order to highlight the main issues facing Roma in very precarious housing situations. Interviews and focus group dialogues with experts and policymakers who discussed the importance of producing a renewed supply of social housing and of improving existing residential units, as well as the urban quality of more marginal neighbourhoods, were also analysed. This is is structured in three main sections, one related to housing conditions, the second one on housing discrimination, and the third one on policies and policies instruments. The conclusions highlight several design and implementation principles that emerge from the research. Among the others, one of the major points that emerges is the importance of the incentive function of multi-level policy (local, regional and national) to contrast antigypsyism while producing a quality supply of housing and urban services. Changing racist attitudes towards Roma is seen as an essential lever of a housing policy. The fight against antigypsyism emerges as a forward-looking, policy-oriented objective. A second point that emerges strongly is the importance of local knowledge, of listening to the people concerned, of dialogue and social consultation with them in order to recognise the problems of social marginality but also the social capital of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, and to enable public authorities to build on this social capital to improve the economic condition of these neighbourhoods through participatory and consultative processes, without going through community representatives with little legitimacy and low recognition, but directly through citizens. The research highlighted an important aspect related to the political dynamics of the implementation of housing policy, notably related to communication and information biases, with a strong convergence on the importance of clearer and more transparent allocation and assignment rules that are known and recognised. It is also in this context that activists, stakeholders, social workers and policy-makers have insisted on the lack of systematic evaluation of housing policies, in terms of quality housing provision as well as in terms of access and support to community services: in order to prospect and formulate public policies, a system of indicators may consult civil society on the public policies it promotes to take into account the specific needs of the community it serves and the challenges of its local context. It is within this framework that research shows strong evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination against Roma, and the importance of equity measures and identifying not only practical and political solutions to specific issues at different levels of governance, but also recognising Roma as competent and qualified actors for their implementation. And again, the importance of evaluation procedures of housing assignments and housing improvement instruments for equity purposes, to take into account local specificities, territorial disparity and inequity in spatial distribution of resources, in order not to 'forget' the most deprived and to have adequate levers of contrast to discrimination, and to be able to clearly communicate the results. While the political will and attitude - including the intellectual posture - of public authorities and policymakers towards Roma clearly emerge as central factors, the research highlights other dimensions beyond the mere political will to average and complete housing policies. In particular, the importance of training and skills of implementation staff and social workers emerges as an issue of great importance, requiring specific attention. The European anti-discrimination legal framework also helps to mobilise political resources for the continuation of a housing policy adequate to the challenges, through the commitment of the different actors involved, both public and private, and not being subject to the uncertainties of political alternations and rotations of mandates. In addition, much emphasis emerges on the need not to privilege a single public policy instrument, but to have available a large variety of housing inclusion instruments, so as to avoid mass interventions on an ethnic-categorical basis, but to be able to personalise intervention on the basis of people's needs and capacities in the context of their family attachments and commitments. Equally, a strong emphasis on social support in dealing with banks, and more generally with financial tensions and difficulties, emerges as a central field. Although most of the experiences analysed are on the whole quite negative, often episodic, aleatory and sometimes punitive in nature, what emerges is a serious reflection by the actors we met on how people could be better supported. Finally, a common point that emerges both in the analysis of the housing policy instruments, strong indications emerge to pay more attention to the most disadvantaged. On the contrary, many interventions seem to privilege only the best-equipped and most competent people, albeit in housing hardship, i.e. those who seem to succeed best in terms of housing integration and financial autonomy. The people most in difficulty are penalised, because they are considered less reliable and more at risk with respect to the objectives of full contributory autonomy. In the face of this situation, the report shows the importance that the people we interviewed attribute to the design and concrete implementation of supporting and more inclusive measures, explicitly addressed to the people most in difficulty.
... En todos los países europeos, las personas gitanas son el grupo étnico más odiado y estigmatizado, racializado y considerado como "otros" por las sociedades locales y nacionales (Sam Nariman et al., 2020). En las últimas cuatro décadas, un mayor nivel de mercantilización de la vivienda combinado con la residualización de la vivienda pública podría haber puesto a las personas en situación de exclusión social en situaciones de mayores dificultades. ...
Research
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Este informe de investigación presenta los principales resultados de la encuesta cualitativa sobre los problemas de acceso a una vivienda adecuada por personas que se identifican como gitanas. La encuesta se basa en 128 entrevistas cualitativas en profundidad y en 10 grupos focales. De estas entrevistas, 101 se realizaron a personas gitanas que viven en contextos difíciles, desfavorecidos y segregados. 27 se realizaron a políticos, administradores, activistas, tanto a nivel local, como regional y nacional. Hemos estudiado las áreas metropolitanas de Paris en Francia, de Milán en Italia, de Barcelona en España, las ciudades húngaras de Gyöngyös y Miskolc, en Romania las dos municipalidades de la histórica región de Transilvania en Singeorgiu de Mures (Contado de Mures) y en Sfântu Gheorghe (Contado de Covasna), en el barrio de Orko. Este informe de investigación no mira a comparar y analizar las diferencias territoriales y urbanas de los casos. Se hace un análisis conjunto para resaltar las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrentan las personas gitanas en situaciones muy precarias de vivienda. Han sido también analizadas las entrevistas y los grupos focales con expertos y políticos que han debatido sobre la importancia de producir una nueva oferta de vivienda social y de mejorar las viviendas sociales existentes, así como la calidad urbana de los barrios más marginales. Este informe está dividido en tres secciones principales, la primera relacionada con las condiciones de la vivienda, la segunda sobre la discriminación padecida en tema de vivienda y una tercera acerca de las políticas y herramientas públicas. Las conclusiones evidencian diversos principios de diseño e implementación que surgen desde la investigación. Entre otros, uno de los resultados principales es la importancia de la función incentivadora de la política multinivel (local, regional y nacional) para contrastar el antigitanismo, mientras se construyen viviendas de calidad y servicios públicos. Cambiar las actitudes racistas hacía las personas gitanas es esencial para una política de vivienda. La lucha contra el antigitanismo emerge como un objetivo orientado a las políticas y con visión de futuro. Un segundo punto que emerge con fuerza es la importancia del conocimiento local, de escuchar a las personas interesadas, del dialogo y consultas públicas con las personas interesadas para reconocer los problemas de la marginalidad social, pero también el capital social de los barrios marginalizados, y dotar a las autoridades públicas para construir sobre este capital social para mejorar las condiciones económicas de estos barrios a través de procesos participativos y consultativos, sin pasar por representantes comunitarios con poca legitimación y bajo reconocimientos, sino directamente a través de los y las ciudadanas. La investigación evidencia un aspecto importante relacionado con las dinámicas políticas de implementación de políticas de vivienda, notoriamente relacionadas con sesgos de información y conocimiento, con una fuerte convergencia en la importancia de más claridad y transparencia en las reglas de alojamiento y asignación que son conocidas y reconocidas. Es también en este contexto que activistas, partes interesadas, trabajadores sociales y políticos han insistido en la falta sistemática de evaluación de políticas de vivienda, en términos de provisión de viviendas de calidad, así como en términos de acceso y apoyo a los servicios comunitarios: con el fin de prospectar y formular futuras políticas públicas, un sistema de indicadores puede consultar a la sociedad civil sobre las políticas públicas que promueve para tomar en cuenta las necesidades específicas de la comunidad a la que sirve y los desafíos de su contexto local. Dentro de este marco, la investigación muestra fuertes pruebas de discriminación étnico-racial contra las personas gitanas, y la importancia de medidas equitativas e identificación no solamente de soluciones políticas y prácticas a un problema específicos en diferentes niveles de gobernanza, sino también el reconocimiento de las personas gitanas como actores calificados y competentes para su implementación. Y nuevamente, la importancia de los procedimientos de evaluación de las asignaciones de vivienda y los instrumentos de mejora de la vivienda con fines de equidad, para tener en cuenta las especificidades locales, la disparidad territorial y la inequidad en la distribución espacial de los recursos, para no 'olvidar' a los más desfavorecidos y tener unas adecuadas palancas de contraste con la discriminación, y poder comunicar claramente los resultados. Si bien la voluntad y la actitud política, incluida la postura intelectual, de las autoridades públicas y los responsables políticos hacia las personas gitanas emergen claramente como factores centrales, la investigación destaca otras dimensiones más allá de la mera voluntad política para promediar y completar políticas de vivienda. En particular, la importancia de la capacitación y las habilidades del personal de implementación y los trabajadores sociales surge como un tema de gran importancia, que requiere una atención específica. El marco legal europeo contra la discriminación ayuda a movilizar recursos políticos para la continuación de unas políticas de vivienda adecuada a los desafíos, a través de un compromiso con diferentes actores involucrados, tantos públicos como privados, que no sea sujeto a las incertidumbres de los cambios y rotaciones de los mandatos políticos. Además, se evidencia con mucho énfasis la necesidad de no privilegiar una sola herramienta de política pública, sino de tener a disposición una variedad de herramientas de inclusión en vivienda, así de no caer en intervenciones de masa basadas solamente en una categoría étnica, sino de dotar la intervención de personalización sobre la base de las necesidades y capacidades de las personas, en el contexto de sus lazos y compromisos familiares. Así mismo, emerge como tema central y con fuerte énfasis el apoyo social a la hora de lidiar con los bancos, y en general con las tensiones y dificultades financieras. No obstante, muchas de las experiencias analizadas son bastante negativas, a menudo episódica, aleatoria y a veces hasta punitivas, lo que se percibe es una seria reflexión por los actores que conocimos sobre cómo se podía apoyar mejor a las personas. Finalmente, un punto en común que emerge en ambos análisis de las herramientas de políticas de vivienda, es de prestar más atención a los más desfavorecidos. Por el contrario, muchas intervenciones parecen privilegiar solo a las personas mejor equipadas y más competentes, así que en situaciones difíciles son éstas las que mejor consiguen en término de inclusión de vivienda y autonomía financiera. Se penaliza a las personas más en dificultad, por considerarlas menos fiables y con mayor riesgo respecto a los objetivos de plena autonomía contributiva. En esta situación, el informe muestra la importancia que las personas entrevistadas atribuyen al diseño e implementación concreta de medidas de apoyo y más inclusivas, dirigidas explícitamente a las personas más en dificultad.
... Studies have shown that anti-Roma attitudes are expressions of dominant social norms in Eastern Europe (Kende et al., 2017). Empirical research indicates that Roma awareness varies across countries like Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary, from a threat to national security, to sympathy, and empathy (Sam Nariman et al., 2020). Since the fall of Communism, many of these impressions have been shaped by public institutions and the media. ...
Article
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This article investigates the narratives employed by the Romanian media in covering the development of COVID-19 in Roma communities in Romania. This paper aims to contribute to the academic literature on Romani studies, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe, by adopting as its case study the town of Țăndărei, a small town in the south of Romania, which in early 2020 was widely reported by Romanian media during both the pre- and post-quarantine period. The contributions rest on anchoring the study in post- foundational theory and media studies to understand the performativity of Roma identity and the discursive-performative practices of control employed by the Romania media in the first half of 2020. Aroused by the influx of ethnic Romani returning from Western Europe, the Romanian mainstream media expanded its coverage through sensationalist narratives and depictions of lawlessness and criminality. These branded the ethnic minority as a scapegoat for the spreading of the virus. Relying on critical social theory, this study attempts to understand how Roma have been portrayed during the Coronavirus crisis. Simultaneously, this paper resonates with current Roma theories about media discourses maintaining and reinforcing a sense of marginality for Roma communities. To understand the dynamics of Romanian media discourses, this study employs NVivo software tools and language-in-use discourse analysis to examine the headlines and sub headlines of approximately 300 articles that have covered COVID-19 developments in Roma communities between February and July 2020. The findings from the study indicate that the media first focused on exploiting the sensationalism of the episodes involving Roma. Second, the media employed a logic of polarization to assist the authorities in retaking control of the pandemic and health crisis from Romania. The impact of the current study underlines the need to pay close attention to the dynamics of crises when activating historical patterns of stigma vis-à-vis Roma communities in Eastern Europe.
... The recently developed R package Semi-Automated Dictionary Creation for Analyzing Text [98] is an excellent example to explore and develop stereotype content dictionaries. New data analysis methods (such as network analysis [14,99,100]) would provide novel insights into stereotype content from the traditional data obtained from questionnaires. Implicit stereotype content was found to be different from explicit stereotype content [35,[101][102][103]. ...
Article
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The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) has been validated in multiple countries and regions. However, previous validation studies in China have been limited by small sample size. The current research increased the sample size (n = 184 in the pilot study; n1 = 1315 and n2 = 268 in the formal study) to validate the SCM in mainland China in study 1. Supporting the SCM, 41 social groups were clustered into four quadrants based on warmth and competence dimensions. 35 of the 41 target groups (85.37%) receive ambivalent stereotype. Perceived warmth and competence were positively correlated (r = 0.585, p < 0.001). Status and competence were positively related (r = 0.81, p < 0.001), and competition and warmth were negatively related (r = −0.77, p < 0.001). In addition, 24 typical social groups were selected and a list of stereotype words for these groups was developed in study 2 (n1 = 48, n2 = 52). The implications of the emerging social groups and the applications of this stereotype word list are discussed.
Thesis
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In this thesis, we study the impact of a group’s social and numerical status as well as the level of cultural diversity of the school on the development of social categorization and intergroup attitudes in children aged between 3 and 6 years. In order to study these factors, we use photographs representing children from three racial groups: Caucasian, Black-African, and North African. These photographs are used in a free social categorization task and a cultural distance perception task. The results show an age effect on racial categorization: the older the children, the more successful they are at the racial categorizing task. In addition, there is an effect of the group’s social status: high social status children are more successful in the racial categorizing task than those belonging to a low social status group. Regarding the perception of cultural distance, the results show that participants perceive photographs portraying Black- Africans and North-Africans as more culturally different compared to those portraying Caucasians. However, this effect can vary according (1) the social status of the participants’ group: cross-cultural differences are perceived mostly by high social status children (i.e, Caucasians), (2) the level of a school’s cultural diversity: in medium diversified schools, participants do not perceive a significant difference between the photographs, and (3) the interaction between these factors (the social status of the participants’ group and the diversity of the environment): the perception of intercultural differences between the photographs is stronger among low social status’ participants enrolled in low diversified schools. This work demonstrates the importance of examining the groups’ socio-structural characteristics in the development of social categorization and intergroup attitudes in preschool children in order to develop effective intervention strategies to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This is the first study to adapt the cultural distance scale to children between three and six years of age. Keywords: racial categorization, cultural distance, preschool children, social status, numerical status, schools’ diversity