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Stratigraphic matrix of the archaeological features of the Gumelnița tell settlement (Zone 1, 2018-2019).

Stratigraphic matrix of the archaeological features of the Gumelnița tell settlement (Zone 1, 2018-2019).

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The tell settlement from “Măgura Gumelnița” is the eponymous site of the Eneolithic civilization with the same name. It is probably the most significant tell settlement north of the Danube, and it belonged to the Kodjadermen ‐ Gumelnița ‐ Karanovo VI cultural complex that occupied the Balkan area in the second half of 5th millennium BC. During 2018...

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Context 1
... relative chronology of the tell excavation of 2018 and 2019 is illustrated by the stratigraphic matrix (Fig. ...
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... as secondary refuse 83 . The same situation was observed at two other pits with pottery characteristic to Gumelnița A2 (pit C6) (Fig. 6) or Cernavoda II (pit C9) (Fig. 5) traditions. These assumptions were based on the high fragmentation, the lack of conjoins, the small dimensions and the reduced weight per fragment of the potshards (Tab. 7; Fig. 30 ...
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... was found in pit infills, abandonment layers, debris of unburnt houses and waste areas (Tab. 7). There are only few cases (SU 1053; SU 1058) with some conjoins between fragments. Also, a percentage between 17% and 72% of the potsherds in every SU had eroded margins and/or surfaces. The sherds size (Tab. 7) and the mean values of the sherds weight (Fig. 30) show a little variation from one feature to another. All together, these are indicative of pottery fragments discarded as secondary or tertiary ...
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... observations (Fig. 34) The firing types were homogenous in the three groups analysed here. The majority of the sherds in each group came from vessels fired in an oxidizing atmosphere, resulting in a reddish to yellowish colour of the surfaces. When the core and the surfaces of the same potsherd had different colours (usually the core being grey, black or ...
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... discovered in 2018-2019 is in its vast majority concentrated in the tell area -Zone 1, while only 12 artifacts were recovered from the Terrace area -Zone 3 (Tab. 13). One important note to make is that a fairly large number of lithic artifacts was recovered during the 2018 field season in what was designated as the 'Colluvium' (SU 1011, see Fig. 3). However, those lithics are not considered in this report, because they lack secured contextual information. Of the entire assemblage, only a very small proportion of artifacts was recovered from "sealed" complexes or dwelling structures, as shown in Table 14, most of the lithics being scattered over the currently excavated site's ...
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... of a large mammal. The piece is fractured longitudinally and transversally. Debitage edges were not regularized. For the shaping of the active end, distal abrasion ( Fig. 35.2) was carried out. This is affected by the use-wear, acquiring a rounded and emoussé morphology. On the inferior side we were able to identify fine longitudinal striations (Fig. 35.3), resulting from the use of the item in a movement parallel to the main axis. The morphometric data are the following: length -undeterminable; width -14 mm, thickness -6 ...
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... second piece (Fig. 35.4) was also made from the diaphysis of a long bone from a large mammal. The blank is flat, obtained by longitudinal debitage bipartition by percussion. The debitage edges were subsequently shaped by longitudinal scraping (Fig. 35.5), including the proximal level, to create the convergence of the edges. The inferior side was flattened by ...
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... second piece (Fig. 35.4) was also made from the diaphysis of a long bone from a large mammal. The blank is flat, obtained by longitudinal debitage bipartition by percussion. The debitage edges were subsequently shaped by longitudinal scraping (Fig. 35.5), including the proximal level, to create the convergence of the edges. The inferior side was flattened by abrasion ( Fig. 35.6). A peripheral area of the active end is preserved, illustrating its shaping by abrasion (Fig. 35.7-8). The proximal extremity is also fractured, an argument for using this item as an intermediate piece in ...
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... was also made from the diaphysis of a long bone from a large mammal. The blank is flat, obtained by longitudinal debitage bipartition by percussion. The debitage edges were subsequently shaped by longitudinal scraping (Fig. 35.5), including the proximal level, to create the convergence of the edges. The inferior side was flattened by abrasion ( Fig. 35.6). A peripheral area of the active end is preserved, illustrating its shaping by abrasion (Fig. 35.7-8). The proximal extremity is also fractured, an argument for using this item as an intermediate piece in indirect percussion (as wedge). The actual length of the item is 78 mm, the width is 25 mm, and the thickness is 8 mm. Fig. 35. 1, ...
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... by longitudinal debitage bipartition by percussion. The debitage edges were subsequently shaped by longitudinal scraping (Fig. 35.5), including the proximal level, to create the convergence of the edges. The inferior side was flattened by abrasion ( Fig. 35.6). A peripheral area of the active end is preserved, illustrating its shaping by abrasion (Fig. 35.7-8). The proximal extremity is also fractured, an argument for using this item as an intermediate piece in indirect percussion (as wedge). The actual length of the item is 78 mm, the width is 25 mm, and the thickness is 8 mm. Fig. 35. 1, 4, 9. bevelled tools (scale=1 cm); 2, 6, 7, 10. abrasion ...
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... last bevelled tool (Fig. 35.9) is made from an ulna of Cervus elaphus and preserves the anatomical volume of the bone. At the proximal level, the epiphysis was eliminated by percussion, without continuing with the abrasion of the debitage plan. The active extremity was also created by percussion, followed by unifacial abrasion (Fig. 35.10). Along the fil du ...
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... was applied to ensure the convergence of edges. They have remained largely unshaped. Only at the level of the distal extremity it was intervened by bilateral scraping (Fig. 36.2) to create the pointed morphology of the active end. The piece is fractured proximally, so we do not know if the end was shaped. The active extremity is emoussé (Fig. 36.3), with fine striations, so it assumes that the piece has been used to drill. The length is undeterminable, due to the fracture, the width is 19.2 mm and the thickness is 5.2 ...
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... double point ( Fig. 36.4) was obtained from the diaphyseal wall of a long bone. We do not know the procedures for obtaining the flat blank, because the debitage edges have been rigorously abraded ( Fig. 36.5). Both extremities were also sharpened by bilateral abrasion to ensure the convergence of the edges. The functional end looks strongly worn, with fine ...
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... double point ( Fig. 36.4) was obtained from the diaphyseal wall of a long bone. We do not know the procedures for obtaining the flat blank, because the debitage edges have been rigorously abraded ( Fig. 36.5). Both extremities were also sharpened by bilateral abrasion to ensure the convergence of the edges. The functional end looks strongly worn, with fine striations developed parallel to the axis of the item (Fig. 36.6). The morphometric data are as follows: length -50.45 mm, width -4.39 mm, thickness -3.46 ...
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... of a long bone. We do not know the procedures for obtaining the flat blank, because the debitage edges have been rigorously abraded ( Fig. 36.5). Both extremities were also sharpened by bilateral abrasion to ensure the convergence of the edges. The functional end looks strongly worn, with fine striations developed parallel to the axis of the item (Fig. 36.6). The morphometric data are as follows: length -50.45 mm, width -4.39 mm, thickness -3.46 ...
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... (n=1) A tibia (Fig. 36.7) of a medium-sized mammal was used to make a hafting piece. The piece is fractured, but it can be seen that the blank was in volume and that the epiphysis was segmented by sawing ( Fig. 36.8), with the segmentation plane shaped (Fig. 36.9). The medullary canal was probably used for hafting. The diameter of the piece is 13 ...
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... (n=1) A tibia (Fig. 36.7) of a medium-sized mammal was used to make a hafting piece. The piece is fractured, but it can be seen that the blank was in volume and that the epiphysis was segmented by sawing ( Fig. 36.8), with the segmentation plane shaped (Fig. 36.9). The medullary canal was probably used for hafting. The diameter of the piece is 13 ...
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... (n=1) A tibia (Fig. 36.7) of a medium-sized mammal was used to make a hafting piece. The piece is fractured, but it can be seen that the blank was in volume and that the epiphysis was segmented by sawing ( Fig. 36.8), with the segmentation plane shaped (Fig. 36.9). The medullary canal was probably used for hafting. The diameter of the piece is 13 ...
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... (n=2) The first piece (Fig. 37.4) was made from the rib of a large mammal. The rib was processed by longitudinal and transversal debitage in percussion, with the edges of debitage remaining unshaped (Fig. 37.5). A bifacial rotation perforation, initiated from the inferior side, was made centrally (Fig. 37.6). The preform has a lenght of 37.5 mm, width -18.3 mm, ...
Context 20
... (n=2) The first piece (Fig. 37.4) was made from the rib of a large mammal. The rib was processed by longitudinal and transversal debitage in percussion, with the edges of debitage remaining unshaped (Fig. 37.5). A bifacial rotation perforation, initiated from the inferior side, was made centrally (Fig. 37.6). The preform has a lenght of 37.5 mm, width -18.3 mm, thickness -2.9 mm, perforation diameter -4 ...
Context 21
... (n=2) The first piece (Fig. 37.4) was made from the rib of a large mammal. The rib was processed by longitudinal and transversal debitage in percussion, with the edges of debitage remaining unshaped (Fig. 37.5). A bifacial rotation perforation, initiated from the inferior side, was made centrally (Fig. 37.6). The preform has a lenght of 37.5 mm, width -18.3 mm, thickness -2.9 mm, perforation diameter -4 ...
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... fragment of femur ( Fig. 37.7) was perforated by bifacial rotation, initiated from the inferior side. Its length is 126 mm, its width is 3.4 mm, its thickness is 6.2 mm and its diameter is 8 ...
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... object (n=1) A Sus scrofa metapod was used to manufacture an implement (Fig. 37.8) with an obscure functionality. We could not determine whether it was a by-product or a finished item. The bone was longitudinally cut by quadri-partition, and the inferior side was regularized by abrasion ( Fig. 37.9). Segmentation at one end was carried out by sawing, and at the other by percussion, followed by the regularization of ...
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... object (n=1) A Sus scrofa metapod was used to manufacture an implement (Fig. 37.8) with an obscure functionality. We could not determine whether it was a by-product or a finished item. The bone was longitudinally cut by quadri-partition, and the inferior side was regularized by abrasion ( Fig. 37.9). Segmentation at one end was carried out by sawing, and at the other by percussion, followed by the regularization of the segmentation edges (Fig. 37.10). The morphometric data are the following: length -43.5 mm; width -9 mm, thickness -3.5 ...
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... an appliqué piece. We do not know how the blank was obtained, because the surface of the piece was rigorously abraded (Fig. 38.2). In the middle, a groove was created by the use-wear technique as indicated by the presence of a polished wall with a slightly concave morphology and fine striations located transversally to the long axis of the piece (Fig. 38.3). The maximum diameter of the piece is 9.2 mm and the height is 7.5 ...
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... whole pieces and fragments of cylindrical stone beads (Fig. 38.4) were recovered during the 2017-2018 archaeological excavations. The blanks obtained from the raw material have been rigorously abraded (Fig. 38.5-7) to acquire the circular section. We could not identify any debitage marks on the specimens, due to subsequent interventions to the shaping operation. All items have a circular perforation ...
Context 27
... whole pieces and fragments of cylindrical stone beads (Fig. 38.4) were recovered during the 2017-2018 archaeological excavations. The blanks obtained from the raw material have been rigorously abraded (Fig. 38.5-7) to acquire the circular section. We could not identify any debitage marks on the specimens, due to subsequent interventions to the shaping operation. All items have a circular perforation in the center (Fig. 38.8). The beads show usewear marks confirming they had been worn. The perforations have small depressions (Fig. 38.9-10) ...
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... recovered during the 2017-2018 archaeological excavations. The blanks obtained from the raw material have been rigorously abraded (Fig. 38.5-7) to acquire the circular section. We could not identify any debitage marks on the specimens, due to subsequent interventions to the shaping operation. All items have a circular perforation in the center (Fig. 38.8). The beads show usewear marks confirming they had been worn. The perforations have small depressions (Fig. 38.9-10) characterized by wall deformation, the disappearance of the rotation striations and macroscopic polish. This type of use-wear appeared as a result of the stringing of several pieces on a thread in the shape of necklaces ...
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... was also applied to the superior side ( Fig. 39.4-5), in order to thin the piece. The central perforation was made by bifacial rotation (Fig. 39.6-7) initiated from the inferior side. However, the items do not appear to have been used and the perforation does not show any traces of use-wear/deformation. The diameter of the pieces range between 9.2 mm and 8 mm; thickness of 2.1 mm and ...
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... was also applied to the superior side ( Fig. 39.4-5), in order to thin the piece. The central perforation was made by bifacial rotation (Fig. 39.6-7) initiated from the inferior side. However, the items do not appear to have been used and the perforation does not show any traces of use-wear/deformation. The diameter of the pieces range between 9.2 mm and 8 mm; thickness of 2.1 mm and 2 mm, the perforation diameter of 4 mm and 3.5 mm ...
Context 31
... valves of the Unio sp. (Fig 39.8) have been perforated, perhaps to be transformed into ornaments. A third fragment of the valve preserves red pigment spots (Fig. 39.14) on the inside. ...
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... this tomb there were 2 tubular ornaments made of the Antalis shell. One of them is composed of 2 pieces attached to each other ( Fig. 43.1, 2) indicating the manner they were strung. We were able to identify elements that demonstrate the previously described situation: small concavities at the extremities (Fig. 43.3). The dimensions of the ornaments are: 1. lenght -12 mm, maximum diameter -2 mm, perforation maximum diameter -1.8 mm; 2. lenght -5 mm, maximum diameter -2 mm, perforation maximum diameter -1.4 ...
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... this grave came two biconvex beads made of Spondylus valves (Fig. 43.4, 7) and a tubular bead made of the Antalis shell. At the first Spondylus specimen, the perforation was performed by bilateral rotation (Fig. 43.5, 8). The rotation striations are almost absent due to suspension and wear. The first specimen, although with a degraded surface, has a strongly flattened wear facet (Fig. 43.6). At the second ...
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... this grave came two biconvex beads made of Spondylus valves (Fig. 43.4, 7) and a tubular bead made of the Antalis shell. At the first Spondylus specimen, the perforation was performed by bilateral rotation (Fig. 43.5, 8). The rotation striations are almost absent due to suspension and wear. The first specimen, although with a degraded surface, has a strongly flattened wear facet (Fig. 43.6). At the second specimen the facet is not so visible, but it shows spots of red pigment on its surface (Fig. 43.9). The lengths of the pieces are 15.26 mm, ...
Context 35
... made of Spondylus valves (Fig. 43.4, 7) and a tubular bead made of the Antalis shell. At the first Spondylus specimen, the perforation was performed by bilateral rotation (Fig. 43.5, 8). The rotation striations are almost absent due to suspension and wear. The first specimen, although with a degraded surface, has a strongly flattened wear facet (Fig. 43.6). At the second specimen the facet is not so visible, but it shows spots of red pigment on its surface (Fig. 43.9). The lengths of the pieces are 15.26 mm, respectively 15.98 mm; diameter of 10.37 mm and 6.49 mm, respectively, and the perforation diameter of 4.50 mm and 3.28 mm. The Antalis bead has the same technological metrics as ...
Context 36
... the perforation was performed by bilateral rotation (Fig. 43.5, 8). The rotation striations are almost absent due to suspension and wear. The first specimen, although with a degraded surface, has a strongly flattened wear facet (Fig. 43.6). At the second specimen the facet is not so visible, but it shows spots of red pigment on its surface (Fig. 43.9). The lengths of the pieces are 15.26 mm, respectively 15.98 mm; diameter of 10.37 mm and 6.49 mm, respectively, and the perforation diameter of 4.50 mm and 3.28 mm. The Antalis bead has the same technological metrics as described above. Its length is 2.8 mm, the maximum diameter of 2 mm and the perforation maximum diameter of 1.2 ...
Context 37
... lateral perforations (height -4.7 cm, length -4.6 cm, weight -31.8 g) (Fig. 45.1a-b). The face was schematically modelled by finger-pinching; the nose is represented by a vertical ridge. In the area of C5 -C6 features a miniature table was identified, preserved in a fragmentary state of conservation (height -3.8 cm; length -4 cm, weight -44.6 g) (Fig. ...
Context 38
... analysed material consists of three small copper pieces found in Zone 1. Two of them were found in S1, sector II, grid square A7, stratigraphic unit 1044 (ID 1851/2018 ( Fig. 46.1 2.5 cm; thickness -0.9 cm) (Fig. 46.3). The ED-XRF analyses performed with a handheld Skyray Instruments Genius spectrometer indicate a high percentage of copper (93-95%) suggesting it derived from native copper ores. ...
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... partea adaxială (stânga) și partea abaxială (dreapta). Figure 30. Contextual distribution of the mean values of sherds weight (n=2012). ...
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... între metodele de finisare a suprafețelor exterioare (%). Figure 33. Comparison of internal finishing methods (%). ...
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... între metodele de finisare a suprafețelor interioare (%). Figure 34. Comparison of firing types (%). ...
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... între tipurile de ardere (%). Figure 35. 1, 4, 9. bevelled tools (scale=1 cm); 2, 6, 7, 10. abrasion marks; 3, 8, 11. ...
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... 36. 1, 4. vârfuri (scara=1cm); 2. stigmate de raclage; 3, 6. detalii ale extremităților active; 7. mâner (scara=1cm); 5, 9, 12, 13. stigmate de abraziune; 8. stigmate de sciage; 10. figurină din os (scara=1 cm); 11. detaliu al extremității proximale; 14. detaliu perforație. Figure 37. 1. modified astragalus (scale=1 cm); 2-3, 9. abrasion marks; 4, 7. preforms (scale=1 cm); 5. debitage edge; 6. perforation detail; 8. undetermined bone object (scale=1 cm); 10. sawing marks; 11. undetermined object. Figura 37. 1. astragal prelucrat (scara=1 cm); 2-3, 9. stigmate de abraziune; 4, 7. preforme (scara=1cm); 5. laturi de debitaj; 6. detaliu perforație; 8. obiect indeterminat din os (scara=1cm); 10. stigmate de sciage; 11. obiect indeterminat din corn. ...
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... 37. 1. astragal prelucrat (scara=1 cm); 2-3, 9. stigmate de abraziune; 4, 7. preforme (scara=1cm); 5. laturi de debitaj; 6. detaliu perforație; 8. obiect indeterminat din os (scara=1cm); 10. stigmate de sciage; 11. obiect indeterminat din corn. Figure 38. 1. adornment made from marble (scale=1 cm); 2, 5-7. abrasion marks; 3. detail of the groove; 4. adornments made from stone (scale=1 cm); 8. perforation detail; 9-10. ...
Context 45
... la periferia perforației. Figure 39. 1. Unio sp. beads (scale=1 cm); 2-3. ...
Context 46
... decor; 13. detaliu perforație. Figure 43. 1. Antalis shell bead (scale=1 cm); 2. shells caught in one another; 3. concavity at the periphery of perforation; 4, 7. Spondylus valve beads (scale=1 cm); 5, 8. perforation details; 6. flattened facet; 9. red pigment spots. Figura 43. 1. podoabă din cochilie de Antalis (scara=1 cm); 2. cochilii sudate; 3. concavitate la periferia perforației; 4, 7. mărgele din valvă de Spondylus (scara=1 cm); 5, 8. detalii perforație; 6. fațetă aplatizată; 9. pete de pigment roșu. ...

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At Gumelniţa settlements north of the Danube (second half of the 5th millennium BC and beginning of the 4th millennium BC), barbed points are artefacts constantly present in the archaeological assemblages. They are mainly made on red deer antlers, selected based on their width, particularly adapted to the production of barbed points. Their manufacturing includes three stages: surface regularization following the cutting of the blank, preform shaping and finally, cutting out the specific elements (barbs, protuberances, etc.). The pointed end was shaped by longitudinal scraping, becoming conical or biconvex. The morphology of the proximal end is indicative of several types of hafting. The barbs and protuberances were created using the same procedure (cutting) and the central perforations were carried out by drilling from both sides, resulting in bi-conical perforations. A particular and rare type of barbed point lacks the specific system for the fixation of a thread, as the proximal part continues the shaft. The present study aims to reconstruct the variants of the chaîne opératoire (from raw material to finished pieces), the maintenance/recycling/repair strategies and the possible ways of using the barbed points in the area of interest based on use-wear marks and comparisons with ethnographic examples.