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Sternal recumbency position of a camel during ultrasonographic examination of the right (A) and left (B) sides of the thorax. The situation of the lungs compared to other adjacent anatomical landmarks is apparent

Sternal recumbency position of a camel during ultrasonographic examination of the right (A) and left (B) sides of the thorax. The situation of the lungs compared to other adjacent anatomical landmarks is apparent

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Article
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This study describes ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura in healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). The different layers of the thoracic wall appeared as narrow bands of variable echogenicity. Reverberation artefacts appeared as lines of variable echogenicity that ran parallel to the pulmonary surface medial to the pleura. Because of its air cont...

Citations

... Thoracic ultrasonography is applicable in camel medicine and provides valuable diagnostic information on various cardiopulmonary affections (Tharwat et al, 2012;Tharwat, 2013;Tharwat and Al-Sobayil, 2016). Echocardiography has also been carried out recently showing the normal cardiac chamber appearance and quantitative dimensions in adult dromedary camels (Tharwat et al, 2012). ...
... The camel should be firstly slightly sedated, if necessary, using an intravenous xylazine injection (0.02 mg/kg) (Tharwat, 2013). Both sides of the thorax are then clipped and the skin shaved. ...
... Visualisation of the pleura and lungs can be assessed. The pleural space is examined for possible fluid accumulation (Tharwat, 2013). ...
... In camels, hepatic diseases are relatively common [2,8,10]. In an abattoir-based study carried out in Egypt on 44 livers with hepatic disorders, lesions included hepatic lipidosis (47.7%), hepatitis and cirrhosis (27.2%), hepatic necrosis (18.1%), and choleostasis and hyperplasia of biliary epithelium (6.8%) [13]. Another large-scale, abattoir-based study conducted in Iran on the prevalence of hepatic lesions in dromedary camels showed that out of 150 examined livers, 40 had hepatic lesions (26.7%). ...
... In camel medicine, ultrasonography was rarely used with the exception in the reproduction field. Recently, in healthy camels, our research group has used ultrasound for scanning of the lungs and pleura [13,14], echocardiography [14,15], ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) [16,17], hepatic and renal imaging [17,18], and abdominal ultrasonography [19]. Ultrasound-guided hepatic and renal biopsy and portocentesis have also been carried out in camels [17,20,21]. ...
... It has been used extensively in cattle and can be used as a prognostic tool in some diseases since the extension and importance of the disease are better assessed [9][10][11][12]. The procedure is a non-invasive, straightforward method for assessment of the bovine heart [13]. It has been used extensively in cattle and can be used as a prognostic tool in some diseases since the extension and importance of the disease are better assessed [10,14]. ...
... Over the past decade, ultrasonography for the detection of the health and diseased status in camels has been reported extensively by our research group (Tharwat et al. 2012a(Tharwat et al. , b, c, d, e, f, g, 2017(Tharwat et al. , 2018aTharwat 2013aTharwat , b, 2019aTharwat , b, c, 2020aTharwat and Al-Sobayil 2016a, b, c). In human medicine, high-resolution ultrasound has proven to be a useful diagnostic method for the detection of exogenous material, its characterization, and evaluation of its complications (Young et al. 2008;Wortsman and Wortsman 2011;Wortsman 2013). ...
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This study was carried out in Saudi Arabia during the events of the 4th King Abdulaziz Camel Festival, Saudi Arabia. It was designed to describe the most frequent locations of injected cosmetic fillers in the head region as well as the ultrasound features of the injected material. Apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) (n = 11,626) were thoroughly examined for injection of cosmetic fillers in the head region. In parallel, 30 non-injected camels were used as controls. The lips of camels suspected of having been injected with fillers were subjected to high-resolution ultrasound examination. Of the 11,626 camels, 58 were found to have been injected with cosmetic fillers, 45 in the upper lip and 13 in both the upper and lower lip. None of the injected camels had a history of recent illness. In addition, in all the injected camels, no dermal lip lesions were seen by the naked eye. Swelling of the upper and/or lower lips was visually inspected and palpated by hand in 52 of the camels. Drooping and swinging of the injected lips were observed in all injected camels. Hardness was detected in the tip of the upper lips of 26 of the injected camels and multiple hard nodules were palpated in the injected lips of 44 camels. Swelling of the edges of the upper and lower lips was detected in 41 of the injected camels. Ultrasonographic features of the injected lips are described in detail. Blood samples were collected from both groups. In none of the injected camels did the hemato-biochemical profiles differ significantly than the control group. In conclusion, results clearly indicate the usefulness and convenience of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool to locate the presence of injected fillers and to help monitor the extension and complications of the deposits.
... In bovines, ultrasonography has been described as a useful tool for the diagnosis of many hepatic disorders [1,4,5,7,16,17]. During the last 10 years, ultrasonography has been used for scanning of the lungs and pleura [19], echocardiography of the normal camel heart [22], ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal viscera [23] and hepatic and renal imaging [24]. Ultrasound-guidance in biopsy of hepatic and renal specimens [29] and in portocentesis [28] has also been reported in camels. ...
Article
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In camels, hepatic diseases are relatively common and most of them are misdiagnosed as a cause of illness because signs may be subtle. In addition, diagnostic laboratory methods are insufficient as hepatic enzymes can also be elevated in camels with cardiac or skeletal muscle damage. Examples of liver diseases in camels are hepatic lipidosis, hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic necrosis, choleostasis, hyperplasia of biliary epithelium, hydatid cysts, glycogen deposition, cholangitis, cholangiohepatitis, calcified hydatid cyst and hepatic abscesses. When the liver is examined by ultrasonography, the clinician gets sufficient information about the size, position, echopatterns of the hepatic parenchyma, bile ducts and outlines of the hepatic blood vessels. Ultrasonography has been used previously in camels only for reproductive purposes. However, during the past decade, it has been used for scanning of the healthy organs as well as evaluation and determining the diagnosis and prognosis of non-reproductive disorders. Examples of diseases evaluated by ultrasonography in camels are paratuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, abdominal and urinary disorders, thoracic diseases, renal tumors, pyelonephritis, renal abscessation, gastrointestinal tumors, chronic peritonitis and splenic abscessation. Ultrasound-guidance in biopsy of hepatic lesions and in portocentesis has also been reported in camels. This mini review article is written to shed light on ultrasonography of the liver and its blood vessels in healthy camels as well as finding in camels with hepatic disorders such as fatty infiltration of the liver, hepatic abscesses and calcification of the bile ducts.
... The length of ventral lung border is largest at the 4 th ICS and smallest at the 11 th ICS. Moreover, the coastal and the parietal pleurae appear as echogenic line of 1-4mm thickness on the surface of the lung (Tharwat, 2013). ...
Article
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Ultrasound is widely accepted as a safe noninvasive diagnostic imaging technique in animals and human. This review aims to shed light on the current applications and future prospect of ultrasonography in camels. To date, ultrasonography has been used efficiently to study the ovarian status in she camels such as; follicular wave, spontaneous ovulation, optimum time for mating, ovarian vasculature, superovulatory response, ovarian follicular dynamics, ovarian follicular wave synchronisation and follicular deviation. Moreover, it has been applied for collection of cumulus oocyte complexes, pregnancy diagnosis, foetometry, foetal sexing, embryo transfer programmes, assessment of somatic cell nuclear transfer and evaluation of the quality and developmental ability of dromedary embryos. Uterine involution and various reproductive disorders such as; early embryonic death, endometritis, vaginal adhesions, ovarian cysts and ovarian hydrobursitis have been diagnosed by ultrasound. In male camels, ultrasonography is a useful tool in studying the developmental changes of testes and pelvic genitalia including; bulbourethral gland, prostate, and pelvic urethra and predicting puberty and future fertility. Normal pleura, heart, fore stomach, liver, small and large intestines, kidney, eye, udder and teat, foot, carpal and tarsal joints have been successfully imaged. However, very limited affections of these structures including; infectious pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, trypanosomiasis, John’s disease, intestinal obstruction and ruptured urinary bladder have been diagnosed ultrasonographically in camels. Therefore, ultrasonographic application in camels, compared to other farm animals, is still limited. In conclusion, ultrasonography is untapped in camel practice however, it can offer veterinarians the opportunity for more precise diagnosis and treatment of numerous disorders.
... Noninvasive methods include auscultation of the lungs before and after interruption of breathing by manual occlusion of mouth and nostril percussion of the thoracic wall, lung function tests, radiography, ultrasonography and endoscopy. Pulmonary biopsy and thoracocentesis are examples of invasive methods (Braun et al, 1996;Köhler-Rollefson et al, 2001;Al-Ani, 2004;Fowler, 2010;Tharwat, 2013). ...
... Pulmonary diseases in camels, i.e. atelectasis, bronchiectasis, pneumoconiosis, pneumonia, hydatidosis, pleuritis, emphysema, pneumothorax, hydrothorax, haemothorax, empyema and pulmonary tumours have been reported (Köhler-Rollefson et al, 2001;Al-Ani, 2004;Fowler, 2010;Tharwat, 2013). In a study carried out recently on the lungs of 387 slaughtered camels, one or more gross lesions were encountered on 300 lungs (77.5%). ...
... In cattle, ultrasonography of lungs and pleura is particularly useful for detection and characterisation of pleural effusion, especially small amounts, detection of superficial pulmonary lesions or consolidation, pulmonary atelectasia and pneumothorax (Braun et al, 1996;Rabeling et al, 1998;Reinhold et al, 2002;Floeck, 2004;Jung and Bostedt, 2004;Bakkine and Blond, 2009;Tharwat and Oikawa, 2011). Ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura and its dimensions in healthy camels were reported recently (Tharwat, 2013). This study was carried out to obtain the ultrasonographic findings of thoracic affections in camel calves. ...
Article
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This study was carried out to obtain the ultrasonographic findings of thoracic affections in camel calves. Twenty-one diseased calves and 5 healthy controls were examined. Diseased animals had clinical signs, i.e. anorexia, difficult respiration, cough and progressive weight loss. In controls, the different layers of the thoracic wall appeared as narrow bands of variable echogenicity. Medial to the thoracic wall was an echogenic line that represented the costal and pulmonary pleurae. Reverberation artifacts appeared as lines of variable echogenicity that ran parallel to the pulmonary surface medial to the pleura. The pulmonary parenchyma was not visualised because of its air content. Camel calves were diagnosed drenching pneumonia (n=6), lung abscessation (n=4), lung idiopathic consolidation (n=8) and fibrinous pleuropneumonia (n=3). In calves with drenching pneumonia, thoracic ultrasonography showed two areas of consolidation in the apical lung lobes with sub-pleural hyperechoic fluid. In lung abscessations and idiopathic consolidations have exactly similar findings. Ultrasonography of the left lung detected numerous comet-tail artifacts in the form of bright, closely situated echo bands starting at the lung surface and running perpendicular to the pleura in the lung tissue, a picture of pulmonary emphysema. In the camel calves with pleuropneumonia, thoracic ultrasonography revealed anechoic fluid with fibrin net in the right and left pleurae with consolidation of the cranio-ventral lung lobes. In conclusion, ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura is a useful supplement to the existing methods of examination of the thorax of camel calves and can easily be translated in the field.
... In camels, ultrasonographic examination at standing position is not always without danger for the operator [1]. Therefore ultrasonographic examination of the camel is always performed at sitting position in a rather than standing position both in health [22-25] and in diseased status [26,27] requiring in addition to light sedation to slightly sedate the nervous dromedary camels. In the present study, examination of the camels in the recumbent position constituted a further challenge for the examiners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Echocardiography and intra-cardiac dimensions have not previously been reported in adult camels despite its potential application for medical purpose. The aim of this study was to describe the results of a prospective study, aiming to report normal cardiac appearance and normal chamber dimensions in adult camels (Camelus dromedarius). On the right side, when the probe was placed in the 5th or 4th intercostal space (ICS), the caudal long-axis four-chamber view of the ventricles, atria, and the interventricular septum was obtained. Placing the probe slightly more cranially in the 4th ICS, the caudal long-axis four-chamber view and the caudal long-axis view of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) were imaged. In 7 camels, a hybrid view between a "four-chamber" and "LVOT view" was imaged from the same position. The short-axis view of the ventricles was obtained in the 4th ICS where the transducer was rotated between 0° and 25°. Placement of the transducer in the 3rd ICS allowed visualisation of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). On the left side, when the probe was placed in the 5th or 4th ICS, a four-chamber view was obtained. The LVOT is imaged in the 4th ICS and the RVOT was seen from the 3rd ICS. This study showed that it is possible to obtain good-quality echocardiograms in adult camels and provide normal cardiac dimensions. This study could be used as a reference for further studies concerning camels with cardiac diseases.
... In camels, ultrasonographic examination at standing position is not always without danger for the operator [1]. Therefore ultrasonographic examination of the camel is always performed at sitting position in a rather than standing position both in health [22][23][24][25] and in diseased status [26,27] requiring in addition to light sedation to slightly sedate the nervous dromedary camels. In the present study, examination of the camels in the recumbent position constituted a further challenge for the examiners. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review article is written to describe the results of ultrasonography of the kidneys in healthy camels as well as camels with some renal disorders. In the dromedary camel, the physiology of the kidney is of interest in view of the specialization of the camel to hot dry deserts and to prolonged periods without water. It plays an important role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal disorders. Examples of kidney affections in dromedary camels are renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis, and hydatidosis. Congestion, hemorrhage, hydronephrosis, acute glomerulonephritis, subacute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, diffuse interstitial nephritis, focal interstitial nephritis, renal cyst, hyaline degeneration, renal amyloidosis, tubular nephrosis, pyelonephritis, hemosiderosis, and renal toxicity. When the kidney is examined by ultrasonography, the clinician can get sufficient information about the size, position, and echo patterns of the renal cortex and medulla and renal pelvis and outlines of the renal blood vessels. In recent years, ultrasonography has been used in camels for scanning of the healthy status as well as evaluation and determining the diagnosis and prognosis of diseased cases. Examples of diseases evaluated by ultrasonography are paratuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, pneumonia, pleurisy, gastrointestinal neoplasms, chronic peritonitis, splenic abscessation, and hepatic disorders. Of the renal disorders assessed by ultrasonography are nephrolithiasis, hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, renal abscessation, and renal neoplasms. Ultrasound guidance in biopsy of renal specimens has also been reported in dromedary camels.