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Statistical results of combined effect of salinity and [Fe] by two-way ANOVA

Statistical results of combined effect of salinity and [Fe] by two-way ANOVA

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The quality of Artemia cysts size can be determined by biometrical characterization. In this study, the combined effects of salinity and ferric citrate were studied on the biometric characterization of Artemia by single clonal reproduction under the laboratory condition. Results of control treatment showed increasing of the salinity correlates...

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... mean values of biometrical characters of Artemia cysts were represented in Table 1 [Fe] (5.11 μm), followed by in 35 ppt-5 mg/L *Fe+ (5.6 μm). The result of the two-way ANOVA documented the salinity level, concentration of ferric and interaction of them (salinity × *Fe+) have significant effects on untreated and decapsulated cysts size (Table 2). ...

Citations

... From a reproductive point of view, this organism is characterized by two reproductive modes, oviparous and ovoviviparous, enabling it to adapt to these extreme environments. The first breeding mode is a diapause process driven by environmental factors related to variations in salinity, temperature, photoperiod, iron concentration, and diet (Versichele and Sorgeloos, 1980;Wang et al., 2017, Wang et al., 2019. The result is the production of a cyst that contains a gastrulae embryo in the diapause stage and is coated with a rigid chitinous shell (Jackson and Clegg, 1996;Liang and MacRae, 1999;MacRae 2003). ...
... In addition, we determined the diameter of hydrated (DHC) or decapsulated (DDC) cysts (µm), together with chorion thickness (CT). This parameter was analyzed due to it varying as a function of salinity, iron concentration, and diet availability (Wang et al., 2019), and therefore, its analysis may have an applied value. Decapsulation of the cysts was performed according to the Sorgeloos et al. (1986) protocol. ...
... This result is not rare given that available data in Artemia indicate that there is wide interpopulation variation in the chorion thickness (Sorgeloos et al., 1986). There is little information on factors that affect the chorion thickness in Artemia (Wang et al., 2019). In this work, we provide evidence on the significant effect of salinity and iron concentration on the chorion thickness in two A. franciscana populations. ...
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Artemia franciscana inhabits hypersaline environments in the Americas and has a well-adapted reproductive system that allows it to survive in these extreme conditions, represented by the production of diapause cysts (oviparous reproduction). This reproduction mode is controlled by numerous genes that are expressed in response to different environmental stressors, enabling this species to avoid population extinction. However, to date, the expression of these genes has not been sufficiently studied to clarify their levels in response to a combination of different environmental factors under controlled conditions. We analyzed the expression of eight genes related to oviparous reproduction (SGEG, Arp-CBP, artemin, BRCA1, p8, ArHsp21, ArHsp22, and p26) to determine their association with cyst production in two populations of A. franciscana with contrasting phenotypes, one with high (Barro Negro, BNE, Chile) and one with low (San Francisco Bay, SFB, United States) cyst production. Populations were cultured under controlled conditions of salinity (SAL, 35 and 75 ppt), photoperiod (PHO, 12L:12D and 24L:00D), iron concentration (IC, 0[Fe] and 5[Fe]), and microalgae diet (DIE; Dunaliella tertiolecta (DUN) and Tetraselmis suecica (TETRA)). Sixteen treatments were performed by combining the two conditions of each of the four factors. Data on nine reproductive parameters per female were recorded, including the percent of offspring encysted (%) (POE). The gene expression levels were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The mean POE was significantly greater in BNE than in SFB (32.40 versus 12.74%, Mann–Whitney’s test, p < 0.05). Significantly upregulated expression of seven genes in BNE (more than twofold, p < 0.05) was observed in 38.28% of the treatments (e.g., DUN-75ppt-12L:12D-5[Fe] and TETRA-35ppt-12L:12D-5[Fe]). In SFB, seven genes showed significant differential expression, but most were downregulated in 29.69% of the treatments (e.g., DUN-75ppt-12L:12D-0[Fe] and DUN-75ppt-24L:00D-0[Fe]). Multiple regression analyses indicated that in BNE, five genes (SGEG, artemin, Arp-CBP, p8, and BRCA1) and three environmental factors (DIE, SAL, and IC) were important predictor variables for the POE response variable given that all of them were included in the highest-ranking models. In SFB, only two genes (ArHsp21 and artemin) and one environmental factor (SAL) were important explanatory variables in the highest-ranking models. It was concluded that the BNE population presented a characteristic gene expression pattern that differed from that of the SFB population. This pattern might be related to the marked oviparous reproduction of the BNE population. This gene expression pattern could be useful for monitoring the reproductive mode leading to diapause in Artemia and to assist with intensive cyst production in pond systems.