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Stages of the composting process (own sources)

Stages of the composting process (own sources)

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The article presents the results of the research related to the decomposition of polylactic acid (PLA)/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) biocomposites into a simple organic form. After manufacturing the nanocomposites, the evaluation of the composting process simulation was conducted using the biodegradation method. First, the selected properties of PLA/H...

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... During the composting process, changes in the temperature of the pile reaching a temperature of 72°C were observed, mostly in the first month of the process. The composting process was carried out at an average temperature of 52°C, relative humidity of 55%, and pH of 6.7. The time of accelerated composting in the compost pile lasted 3 months (Fig. ...
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... the chemical bonds of the nanoparticle -matrix are not broken; therefore, the observation of the surface of the samples before and after the water absorption test shows no significant changes in the color and texture of the observed samples (Fig. 12). This tendency is also confirmed by the results of the water diffusion coefficient (Fig. 10), which is caused by capillary flow to the nanotube/matrix boundary layer and possibly an increase in the microporosity of the material in the presence of the nanotubes. It is also impacted by the hydrophilic nature of the nanotubes [48,49]. ...
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... the chemical bonds of the nanoparticle -matrix are not broken; therefore, the observation of the surface of the samples before and after the water absorption test shows no significant changes in the color and texture of the observed samples (Fig. 12). This tendency is also confirmed by the results of the water diffusion coefficient (Fig. 10), which is caused by capillary flow to the nanotube/matrix boundary layer and possibly an increase in the microporosity of the material in the presence of the nanotubes. It is also impacted by the hydrophilic nature of the nanotubes [48,49]. HNTs are characterized by a large, developed surface and a high proportion of hydroxyl groups ...
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... observing the change in mass increase related to water absorption of the tested material over time, it can be noticed that for all tested materials the greatest changes (Fig. 11) take place in the first stage of the process and then in the saturation stage. This indicates that the water absorption behavior of the PLA composites is consistent with Fick's second law defining the prediction of the effect of diffusion on the change in the In order to determine the leaching range of the HNT nanotubes of the PLA + ...
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... of the PLA composites is consistent with Fick's second law defining the prediction of the effect of diffusion on the change in the In order to determine the leaching range of the HNT nanotubes of the PLA + HNT composites, during the assessment of water absorption the samples were dried again, and the weight loss of the composites was determined (Fig. 13). In all cases, a slight weight loss of the PLA composites (max. 0.08%) was observed. The loss of mass is most likely caused by the leaching of the HNT particles on the surface of the sample, which nonetheless was not conf irmed by the macroscopic ...
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... composting. An assessment of the weight loss of the tested nanocomposites after the composting process was carried out after 1, 2, and 3 months, as presented in Fig. ...
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... using the Shore method before the composting process and after the composting process carried out after 1, 2, and 3 months is presented in Fig. 15. Figure 15 presents the Shore hardness results of all composites, as compared to the pure PLA before the composting process. The research shows that adding HNT to the PLA matrix increased the hardness for all PLA + HNT composites from 83°Sh to about 87°Sh. In the case of 1 wt.% HNT, the hardness increased by approx. 2.5%, and for the 5 ...
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... using the Shore method before the composting process and after the composting process carried out after 1, 2, and 3 months is presented in Fig. 15. Figure 15 presents the Shore hardness results of all composites, as compared to the pure PLA before the composting process. The research shows that adding HNT to the PLA matrix increased the hardness for all PLA + HNT composites from 83°Sh to about 87°Sh. ...
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... 1 month of degradation, there was a slight decrease in the hardness of all composites. Figure 15 shows that in the case of the PLA matrix, the hardness dropped by 4.3% after 3 months of composting. In the case of hardness after 3 months of composting, it can be observed that for the PLA + 5 wt.% ...
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... In order to assess the degree of the biodegradation, the structure of the pure PLA and its PLA composites of various HNT content was observed using the SEM technique. Figs. 16 and 17 present the surface of the biopolymers before and after 3 months of composting of the pure PLA and its PLA + 5 wt.% HNT, respectively. Figure 17 shows the clear differences in the surface morphology of the composites depending on the nanotube content in ...
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... respectively. Figure 17 shows the clear differences in the surface morphology of the composites depending on the nanotube content in PLA. ...
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... that, Fig. 18 also illustrates the effect of composting period (1, 2, and 3 months) on the surface morphology of composites with 1 wt.% and 5 wt.% HNT ...
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... in the brittleness of the material is visible, as compared to the composite with less HNT. Moreover, the composting time significantly influences the decomposition process of the composites. After 90 days of composting, there was a significant disintegration of the sample surface, especially in the case of the PLA with 5 wt.% HNT composites (Fig. 18f). Additionally, Figs. 19 and 20 shows the significant changes of these surfaces for the PLA composite with 5% nanotube content subjected to the composting process, with clearly marked effects of partial biopolymer ...
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... the material is visible, as compared to the composite with less HNT. Moreover, the composting time significantly influences the decomposition process of the composites. After 90 days of composting, there was a significant disintegration of the sample surface, especially in the case of the PLA with 5 wt.% HNT composites (Fig. 18f). Additionally, Figs. 19 and 20 shows the significant changes of these surfaces for the PLA composite with 5% nanotube content subjected to the composting process, with clearly marked effects of partial biopolymer ...
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... presented research on the microstructure clearly shows that the composite materials degraded in the composting process (Figs. 16-20). The biodegradation initially manifests as an increase in the fragility of the sample, then in the form of transverse cracks, delamination visible on the sample surface, as well as the separation of the surface layer from the sample substrate (Fig. 19). In the case of nanocomposites, the formation of crack propagation was observed in ...
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... clearly shows that the composite materials degraded in the composting process (Figs. 16-20). The biodegradation initially manifests as an increase in the fragility of the sample, then in the form of transverse cracks, delamination visible on the sample surface, as well as the separation of the surface layer from the sample substrate (Fig. 19). In the case of nanocomposites, the formation of crack propagation was observed in the presence of agglomerates or the HNT nanotubes themselves (Fig. 20), which promotes faster destruction of the material by disturbing the nanocomposite substrate and creates a greater possibility of depositing bacteria, microorganisms contained in the ...

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Citations

... They observed that the composite material, especially with a content of 5 wt% showed a loss of mass and a decrease of viscosity, increased fragility and cracks, and even delamination aer 30 days. 21 The degradation process of the PLA : carbon nanotube composites, as a potential biomedical material, has been investigated only in an aqueous environment. During the incubation of the composite material, swelling and partial degradation were noted due to the penetration of water into the polymer matrix. ...
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