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Spectra of multiple wireless technologies in the 2.4-GHz ISM band. The colors indicate: light-green for WiFi bands; red for BLE's advertising channels 37, 38 and 39; light-blue for BLE's and ZigBee's data channels which overlap with WiFi channels; and dark-blue for BLE's and ZigBee's data channels which do not overlap with WiFi channels (and are free from WiFi interferences).

Spectra of multiple wireless technologies in the 2.4-GHz ISM band. The colors indicate: light-green for WiFi bands; red for BLE's advertising channels 37, 38 and 39; light-blue for BLE's and ZigBee's data channels which overlap with WiFi channels; and dark-blue for BLE's and ZigBee's data channels which do not overlap with WiFi channels (and are free from WiFi interferences).

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The issues of cross-technology interference and coexistence in the unlicensed 2.4-GHz spectrum band among various technologies including WiFi, ZigBee, and classic Bluetooth have been studied extensively. However, it remains relatively understudied for Bluetooth low energy (BLE), especially in densely-deployed scenarios. In this work, we develop a t...

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... data rate and lower latency than ZigBee [4], [5]. Thus, BLE is a very promising technology for BANs. The heterogeneous candidate technologies for BANs above share the same frequency bands, i.e., the 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) radio bands, which is notably home to not only Bluetooth, BLE, ZigBee but also WiFi. As shown in Fig. 1, BLE uses 40 narrow-band channels of 2 MHz bandwidth (advertising channels 37-39 and data channels 0-36). ZigBee also has narrow-band channels of 2 MHz bandwidth with a total of 16 channels spaced by 5 MHz. The WiFi channels are 20 MHz wide; and channels 1, 6 and 11 are non-overlapping channels separated by 5 MHz and commonly used for ...
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... results of the coexistence experiments are shown in Figs. 7 to 10. We look at each individual performance metric as follows. Our first observation is that as the number of BANs in- creases, power consumption also grows in all groups, although the margin is relatively small. On average, each BLE node in the 1-BAN ambient case consumes about 1.291 mW. When the number of BANs goes up to 4, this figure ...
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... BLE Packet Reception Ratio: Fig. 10 displays the PRR results. It first suggests that there are more collisions and packet losses in the link layer than for UDP packets (although the success ratios are still above 99.9%). Collisions seem to oc- cur more often as the spectrum gets congested due to increased number of interfering devices but the PRR degradation is not ...
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... from Fig. 11, introducing the human users does not cause any observable deviation in the power consumption of the BLE nodes from previously recorded results. In fact, the measurements stay consistently within the 1.290-1.310 mW range, which is similar to those in Fig. 7. The overall mean power consumption of a BLE node, averaged over all 24 ...
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... mW range, which is similar to those in Fig. 7. The overall mean power consumption of a BLE node, averaged over all 24 separate experiments, is about 1.302 mW for the static case, while it is 1.300 mW for the on-body case. This is inconclusive of any significant impacts from the human users on the energy usage of nodes. On the other hand, while Fig. 11 shows a slight hint of increasing power as more BANs are simultaneously present, this tendency is masked by fluctuations and anomalies (e.g., the 4-BAN BLE (w/ ZigBee) measurement). If anything, this suggests to some extent that the presence of human bodies and their movements did cause fluctuation in the network performance compared ...
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... PDR results in Fig. 12 supports this claim further. We see that the PDR results for the on-body experiments also lie in the high end of the 99.90-100% range, similar to those in Fig. 9. At the same time, the fluctuations seem to be more visible. Nevertheless, such a high PDR result indicates that even with the human bodies, almost all the UDP packets are ...
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... from four different gateways. Ideally, due to our settings, each BAN wearer should generate 18 UDP packets per second (6 Hz UDP sending rate/node × 3 nodes/BAN). It can indeed be seen from the two figures that all streams are positioned around the 18 packets/s mark, subject to some degree of fluctuations. Under interferences from ZigBee and WiFi (Fig. 14), the gaps between different lines become wider and more uneven, suggesting that interferences can still cause packet loss to occur more frequently at a given point in time. However, BLE retransmission is able to maintain the overall success rate for UDP packets, thus keeping the PDR at a high level regardless of external interferences ...

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