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1 Species identification guide to sea turtles found in U.S. territorial waters. Prefrontal scales are those located between the eyes. Lateral scutes lie on each side of the vertebral (center) scutes. Drawing courtesy of Dawn Witherington and Jeanette Wyneken.

1 Species identification guide to sea turtles found in U.S. territorial waters. Prefrontal scales are those located between the eyes. Lateral scutes lie on each side of the vertebral (center) scutes. Drawing courtesy of Dawn Witherington and Jeanette Wyneken.

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a brief literature reiew of the conservation biology of sea turtles, with notes on the turtle conservation strategy in Bintan Resorts. In Indonesian language.

Citations

... In Montana, spiny softshell turtles initiate nesting just after peak flows (Tornabene 2014;Tornabene et al. 2018), so nesting probably occurred on oil-coated sites. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure affects both embryonic development and juvenile survival (Milton et al. 2003;Bell 2005;Van Meter et al. 2006;Mitchelmore et al. 2017). We are unaware of other large-scale factors resulting in significant nesting failure or juvenile mortality. ...
Article
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To conserve or restore riverine turtles, managers need baseline information on subpopulation structure and abundance in multiple rivers across large geographic areas. Assessing the demographics and morphological characteristics of different subpopulations can increase our understanding of how anthropogenic factors influence mortality and reproduction. We examined spiny softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in 5 rivers at the western edge of the species' range in southcentral Montana, where no commercial harvest is allowed. Over 4 yrs, we captured 637 spiny softshell turtles with fish-baited hoop traps. Our objective was to compare the subpopulation demographics in the Yellowstone Riverconsidered one of the most intact rivers in the conterminous United Statesto 3 Yellowstone River tributaries (Bighorn and Clarks Fork rivers and Pryor Creek) and the adjacent Musselshell River. Subpopulations differed significantly based on the demographic metrics we examined (e.g., mean sizes and sex ratios), and we documented limited numbers of males (4%15%). Reproductive potential and mortality of adults among rivers appeared distinct based on juvenile and size class distribution of length-frequency histograms. This information from unharvested populations illustrates the variability in subpopulation demographics of riverine turtles.
... It can be retained for several days, increasing the internal contact and the likelihood of the absorption of toxic compounds. The internal effects of oil exposure include significant changes in the blood haematological and biochemical profile (Milton et al. 2010). Prolonged exposure to oil can worsen the body condition of the animals, interrupting the feeding and increasing the susceptibility to diseases, and the subsequent mortality (Mitchelmore et al. 2017). ...
... It was only used in the first three days, in a preventive way, being associated with antitoxins and liver protectors which were both administered intravenously. Considering https://doi.org/10.17221/81/2020-VETMED that the liver is the main site of the chemical detoxification, it is expected that the toxic effects cause changes in the serum levels of several liver enzymes (Milton et al. 2010). ...
... Histological changes were observed on the skin, and mucosa surface of the oiled turtles, including acute inflammatory cell infiltrates, dysplasia of the epidermal epithelium and loss of cellular architecture of the skin layers. Cellular changes in the epidermis are of particular concern, as they may increase susceptibility to secondary infectious conditions (Milton et al. 2010). Thus, the administration of antibiotics in this report is justified as a preventive approach. ...
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The standardisation of protocols and discussion of therapeutic procedures in the rehabilitation of turtles affected by oil spills are necessary to optimise the recovery time and increase the chances of survival of these animals. This study aimed at reporting the processes adopted for the stabilisation, decontamination, rehabilitation and release of an oiled olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), rescued alive on September 23, 2019, at Santa Rita Beach, Extremoz municipality, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Its entire body was covered by oil. At first, the animal was mechanically dry cleaned using a gauze soaked in mineral oil in the keratinised regions (carapace and plastron) and a gauze soaked in vegetable oil was used on the oral, nasal, ocular, and cloacal mucous membranes. The second stage of the oil removal consisted of washing the animal with heated pressurised water (39 °C) and a neutral detergent using a soft foam sponge. The animal received treatment with antitoxins, antibiotics, analgesics, gastrointestinal protectors, and fluid therapy. After 7 days of treatment, the blood count showed that all the parameters were within the normal range. The oil cleaning process and the therapeutic protocol used in the rehabilitation of the olive ridley sea turtle were efficient.
... Specific evidence -accidental release (grounding/collision/sinking) -Oiled sea turtles (still living) have been documented following oil spills that resulted from a collision (between two tugs and the barge Bouchard B155 in Tampa Bay, Florida) and also a grounding (oil tanker Alvenus in 1984 in Texas) (Shigenaka et al. 2010). It is expected that many more individuals were affected that were not located. ...
... Specific evidence -accidental release -(grounding/collision/sinking) -After the Deepwater Horizon spill, fouled turtles would die unless rescued and cleaned (NOAA 2016). Sea turtle deaths have been attributed to oil spills resulting from ship collisions; sea turtle mortality was documented as a result of oiling after the barge Bouchard B155 collided with two tugs, releasing oil from the cargo hold, in the Tampa Bay area of Florida, The individual turtles affected were hatchlings (Shigenaka et al. 2010). ...
Technical Report
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Vessels involved in commercial marine shipping in Canada engage in the movement of goods or people by sea on the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific oceans. To explore the ways that the activities associated with commercial shipping can impact the marine environment, a suite of activity-based Pathways of Effects (PoE) conceptual models were developed. PoE conceptual models describe the pathways (linkages) between human activities, associated stressors, and their effects on endpoints, based on current knowledge. A visual representation of each PoE model is supported by text describing each pathway linkage based on scientific literature or expert opinion. Indigenous and local knowledge were not used in the current work. PoE models are useful tools for the scoping phase of a variety of environmental assessment, such as ecological risk assessment, environmental impact assessment, and cumulative effect assessments as they clearly outline activities and stressors and clarify connections between human activities and potential effects on ecological endpoints, and provide a science-based foundation for decision-making. The objective of these models and their supporting evidence is to provide a systematic review of the effects of shipping-associated activities on marine ecosystems. PoE models have been developed for five activities associated with commercial marine shipping in Canada: 1) anchoring and mooring, 2) vessel at rest, 3) grounding and sinking, 4) movement underway, and 5) discharge (divided into two PoE models: ‘debris’ and ‘other’). The PoEs were developed to be broad enough to be adapted for application in a range of environments and locations and detail the potential stressors and effects that could be considered in an assessment. The activity-based PoE models contain fourteen stressors (e.g., substrate disturbance, vessel strikes) and are related to three effects (change in fitness, mortality, and change in habitat) on ten generic endpoints (e.g., marine mammals, physical habitat). The models only include activities related to the commercial movement of goods and people by vessels, not included in this document are other vessel activities such as fishing, seismic surveying, dredging, port operations (e.g., when at-berth and while berthing). Non-commercial vessels (e.g., recreational vessels) are also not specifically included in these models. Though endpoints have been identified for illustrative purposes here, ultimately the assessor is responsible for comprehensively scoping the specific endpoints (e.g., valued components) and stressors to be considered in any assessment. PoE models do not include any evaluation of the relative or absolute impact from these activities on specific endpoints; this would occur in a subsequent assessment step, such as risk assessment.
... The risk of an offshore petroleum spill is low likelihood, but with severe consequences (Lutcavage et. al. 1997), and the risk increases with rising levels of shipping activity related or unrelated to oil and gas industries (Shigenaka 2010). The offshore petroleum industry has combined hazards of rigs, drilling platforms, wells, off-loads and pipeline corridors. ...
... A major benefit of linking tracking data of this and previous studies would be to increase confidence in applied conservation. The present study has provided new insight into overlaps of foraging areas and trawl fields in the Exmouth Gulf (Kangas and Thomson 2004) and spatial information to assess coastal developments, such as the light pollution pressures (Kamrowski et al. 2012), increased shipping activity (Shigenaka 2010) and port infrastructure that are common to all resource production facilities (oil and gas, iron ore and salt). The tracked turtles revealed that Ningaloo rookeries are mostly distant from international harvests outside Australia's Exclusive Economic Zones but still exposed to take if foraging grounds are near traditional Indigenous harvest areas. ...
Technical Report
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... The trapping of intra-coelomic gas can be a cause of a buoyancy disorder. Gases can also accumulate in a number of areas in the body (Shigenaka 2010). The appropriate treatment will vary based on the location of the trapped gas inside the turtle. ...
... On these turtles, the carapaces, plastrons and beaks were infested with barnacles and their carapaces were decolorized. If all the barnacles present on a turtle are of a similar size and species, it may be an indication that the turtle was inactive for a period of time (Shigenaka 2010). Barnacle infestation can reduce the speed and hydrodynamic shape of turtles. ...
... Coastal development leads to the use of areas that are important for these animals in terms of foraging and reproduction [26]. Examples of anthropogenic interferences considered threats to sea turtles include activities such as oceanfront housing, vehicular traic, and artiicial lighting on beaches in nesting areas, real estate development, the discarding of solid waste and chemical pollutants into the sea, the construction of ports, and, especially, ishing operations [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. ...
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Beach monitoring programs provide important information on spatial and temporal patterns of occurrence, mortality, age structure, sex ratio, and variations associated with climatic and anthropogenic events as well as for the assessment of the health of marine organisms. The purpose of the Santos Basin Beach Monitoring Project is to evaluate the possible effects of oil and gas production and transport activities at Santos Basin on marine turtles, birds, and mammals by monitoring beaches and veterinary care facilities for live and dead animals. Five species of sea turtles occur in Brazil: the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), olive turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), all of which are endangered and are fragile organisms that suffer from the impact of human activities during their long lifecycle. This chapter reports monitoring strategy activities and preliminary results after 1 year since the implementation the monitoring project to provide an important overview of sea turtles found in the Santos Basin.
... Concern has arisen that increasing incidents of oil exposure have the potential to further diminish populations [4][5][6][7]. While the direct effects of oil exposure are probably underreported, particularly sublethal and subclinical effects, sea turtles are thought to be sensitive to petroleum exposure at all life stages [8]. ...
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We used proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) to evaluate metabolic impacts of environmentally relevant crude oil and Corexit exposures on the physiology of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Sample extraction and data acquisition methods for very small volume whole blood samples and sources of variation between individual hatchlings were assessed. Sixteen unclotted, whole blood samples were obtained from 7-day-old hatchlings after a 4-day cutaneous exposure to either control seawater, crude oil, Corexit 9500A or a combination of crude oil and Corexit 9500A. After extraction, one- and two-dimensional ¹H-NMR spectra of the samples were obtained, and 17 metabolites were identified and confirmed in the whole blood spectra. Variation among samples due to the concentrations of metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, trimethylamine oxide and propylene glycol did not statistically correlate with treatment group. However, the characterization of the hatchling loggerhead whole blood metabolome provides a foundation for future metabolomic research with sea turtles and a basis for the study of tissues from exposed hatchling sea turtles.
... That they are at risk from oil spills was not a recent epiphany; their risk has been explored, in a largely speculative way, for many years. In 2003, NOAA produced a response-oriented planning guide [72] that consolidated information about features of sea turtle biology and behaviors that intersected with oil spills. Review of oil spill case histories revealed few reported impacts to exposed sea turtles, and a single laboratory effects study [73]. ...
... The option of nest relocation was portrayed in the 2003 NOAA guidance document on oil and sea turtles [72] as a spill response measure of last resort. Perhaps as a measure of how serious the potential for widespread shoreline oiling was judged to be in 2010, nest relocation was the action chosen for 278 sea turtle nests from Alabama and Florida Panhandle beaches, representing 28,568 eggs. ...
Chapter
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has stimulated a surge in new research into the effects of oil. Although this new work has largely focused on species, oils, and conditions common to the Gulf of Mexico, many of the lessons can be reasonably extrapolated and applied to other situations and exposure scenarios. A synthesis of the large body of impact studies performed under the Natural Resource Damage Assessment has suggested that many of the effects determined across many levels of biological organization are conserved and common to many different taxa. Because it is not possible to be comprehensive about the effects of oil in a single book chapter, the discussion here will take advantage of new insights emerging from recent and ongoing work related to the Deepwater Horizon incident. While the chapter will focus on the state of knowledge for only three groups of animals (fish, marine mammals, and sea turtles), the background and science for these taxa provide an excellent overview of research and forensic approaches to oil effects, as well as the status of what we currently understand. The chapter opens with a review of the history of oil effects research to provide context for this complicated topic. With new research results continuing to be reported in the literature, we can reasonably expect our understanding of oil effects to progress and expand in the near future. For spill responders, the challenge will be to remain informed and translate the new and improved science into oil spill response guidance.
... In recognizing the potential for PAH exposure following oil spills, the present review offers a distillation of the available literature on that subject. However, a more in-depth treatment of oil Reptiles and PAHs Environ Toxicol Chem 36, 2017 27 exposure scenarios is covered in an NOAA publication [76] that cites several authors whose work is discussed in the following paragraphs. Several additional sources, not directly addressed in the NOAA publication, are also explored in the present review. ...
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Reptiles are an underrepresented taxon in ecotoxicological literature, and the means by which toxicants play a role in population declines are only partially understood. Among the contaminants of interest for reptiles are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of organic compounds that is already a concern for numerous other taxa. The objectives of this review are 1) to summarize the existing literature on reptilian exposure to PAHs and synthesize general conclusions, 2) to identify knowledge gaps within this niche of research, and 3) to suggest future directions for research. Results confirm a relative scarcity of information on reptilian exposure to PAHs, although research continues to grow, particularly after significant contamination events. Orders Testudines and Squamata are better represented than Crocodilia and Rhynchocephalia. For the taxonomic orders with relevant literature (all but Rhynchocephalia), some species are more frequently represented than others. Few studies establish solid cause-effect relationships after reptilian exposure to PAHs, and many more studies are suggestive of effect or increased risk of effect. Despite the scarcity of information in this area, researchers have already employed a wide variety of approaches to address PAH-related questions for reptiles, including molecular techniques, modeling, and field surveys. As more research is completed, a thoughtful interpretation of available and emerging data is necessary to make the most effective use of this information. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Gopher Tortoises submitted to the Zoological Medicine Service, University of Florida, are most commonly hit by a car or traumatized by dogs. Sea turtles worldwide are threatened by a variety of anthropogenic influences including incidental catch and death in fisheries, entanglement, trauma from hooks, exposure to spilled oil and tar, ingestion of plastics, artificial lighting, and habitat degradation (Shigenaka, 2003). Natural occurring mortality events have been reported due to toxicosis from harmful algal blooms and trauma from shark predation. ...
Chapter
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Health and disease form a continuum and are inextricably linked to the ecology of the population(s) being studied. As in other animals, pathogens and resulting infectious diseases have surfaced as inescapable threats to populations of wild non-avian reptiles (hereafter simply called reptiles). Viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases have been identified in all major groups of reptiles, with more being studied in captive reptiles than their wild counterparts. Examples of infectious diseases that have been well studied in wild reptiles are fibropapillomatosis of marine turtles, a worldwide disease, an upper respiratory tract disease of North American and European tortoises, and Ranavirus infection of Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), exotic tortoises, and Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina) (Johnson et al., 2008). A fungal skin disease has been seen at multiple sites in different species of snakes in the eastern half of the USA (Cheatwood et al., 2003; Allender et al., 2013). Non-infectious diseases have also been seen in wild reptiles and include metabolic/ nutritional, endocrine disruptors, traumatic, and neoplastic diseases. For marine turtles, plastic and tar ingestion and oil from spills have caused significant morbidity and mortality. Along with the collection of samples for disease diagnosis, this chapter includes discussion of: (1) ethics and animal welfare considerations; (2) the role of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees; (3) pain; (4) analgesia and anaesthesia; (5) several of the most important diseases