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Soviet poster of 1930: religion is toxic, protect children!

Soviet poster of 1930: religion is toxic, protect children!

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This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to sp...

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... Creationists often claim that there is a lack of intermediate forms within the fossil record and that the theory of evolution must therefore be incorrect (Graf, 2011). Intelligent design proponents make similar Strand 13 arguments using different terminology such as 'information problems' (Watts, Hossfeld, Tolstikova, & Levit, 2016). ...
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Despite the centrality of evolution within the biosciences, it remains a 'controversial' topic among the general public, meaning that it is not uncommon for students to enter the classroom with misconceptions about the validity of evolutionary theory. The complexity of evolution, coupled together with the perceived debate around it, makes teaching evolution that much more challenging for teachers. To support students' ability to understand the validity of evolution and the general nature of science a lesson plan was created that allows students to take on the role of the scientific investigator as they create and 'test' their own hypotheses regarding the existence and possible location of intermediary fossils. To test the applicability of this lesson plan, we conducted a trial run with a group of pre-service teachers at a German university. In addition to testing the usability and applicability of the lesson plan, we also asked the participants a series of questions before and after the lesson. Results from the questionnaire showed that the participants had an increased understanding of the validity of evolution following the lesson and also saw themselves as more capable of dealing with future anti-evolution challenges in the classroom. Post-lesson interviews also showed that the participants found the lesson material to be challenging but engaging and thus very applicable to the classroom.
... anti-vaccination movements have had discernible impact on public health (Gangarosa et al., 1998;Smith, Yarwood, & Salisbury, 2007) and organizations that oppose evolution have undermined science curricula in many American school districts (Watts, Hossfeld, Tolstikova, & Levit, 2017). ...
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Some issues that have been settled by the scientific community, such as evolution, the effectiveness of vaccinations, and the role of CO2 emissions in climate change, continue to be rejected by segments of the public. This rejection is typically driven by people's worldviews, and to date most research has found that conservatives are uniformly more likely to reject scientific findings than liberals across a number of domains. We report a large (N>1,000) preregistered study that addresses two questions: First, can we find science denial on the left?Endorsement of pseudoscientific complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has been anecdotally cited as being more consonant with liberals than conservatives. Against this claim, we found more support for CAM among conservatives than liberals. Second, we asked how liberals and conservatives resolve dilemmas in which an issue triggers two opposing facets of their worldviews. We probed attitudes on gender equality and the evolution of sex differences---two constructs that may create conflicts for liberals (who endorse evolution but also equality) and conservatives (who endorse gender differences but are sceptical of evolution). We find that many conservatives reject both gender equality and evolution of sex differences, and instead embrace ``naturally occurring'' gender differences. Many liberals, by contrast, reject evolved gender differences, as well as naturally occurring gender differences, while nonetheless strongly endorsing evolution.
... Genauso wie es schwer fällt, die deutschen Worte Erziehung oder Bildung sinngemäß ins Englische zu übersetzen (Koerrenz et al. in press) in der allgemeinen Bevölkerung existieren und persistieren Watts, Hoßfeld, et al. 2016;Watts 2018;Watts et al. 2018;Watts 2019aWatts , 2019b ...
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Biologiedidaktik ist die Wissenschaft von der Vermittlung biologischen Wissens und biologischer Arbeitsweisen. Auch in der Arbeitsgruppe Biologiedidaktik in Jena werden das Lehren und Lernen biologischer Inhalte erforscht sowie die daraus resultierenden Erkenntnisse als zentrale Komponenten der akademischen Lehramtsausbildung an zukünftige Biologielehrkräfte für Gymnasien und Regelschulen weitergegeben. Um die Qualität und Effektivität der Vermittlung biologischen Wissens zu sichern und zu verbessern, ist Forschung unerlässlich. Erst auf dieser Basis kann eine exzellente akademische Biologielehramtsausbildung erreicht werden. Arbeitsschwerpunkte der Arbeitsgruppe sind beispielsweise Unterrichtsmittel im Biologieunterricht, Science Education, Forschendes Lernen (Mikroskopie, Bionik etc.) sowie außerschulische Lernorte. Deren Einsatz im Unterricht wird dabei auch in der Lehre thematisiert und durch Studierende selbst erprobt. Weitere Arbeitsbereiche bilden die Geschichte des Biologieunterrichts, Biologische Anthropologie, Evolutions- und Entwicklungsbiologie, das Zusammenspiel von Biologie, Religion und Schule sowie die Umstände und Ursachen von Fremdenfeindlichkeit, Rassismus und Antisemitismus, welche auch Teil wissenschaftlicher Qualifikationsarbeiten sind.
... It was during this time that public schooling and the idea of compulsory schooling really took hold in the USA. The theory of evolution and many of the concepts associated with evolution first entered the classroom in the 1910s and after its brief appearance, anti-evolution bills were soon passed in multiple states across the country (Watts et al. 2016). Following the infamous Scopes trial (1925), many publishers chose to diminish the coverage of evolution and ideas related to evolution. ...
... By 1959, the BSCS had decided to target high school biology at the tenth-grade level and during the summer of 1960 new textbooks were developed for this purpose that went out for commercial publication in 1963 (Engelman 2001). As a result of this new emphasis on evolution as a key component of biology education, new textbooks were published that placed particular focus on evolution as a major scientific theory (Watts et al. 2016). ...
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In our era of computers and computer models, the importance of physical or graphical models for both research and education in developmental biology (embryology) is often forgotten or at least underappreciated. Still, one important aspect of embryology is the (evolutionary) developmental anatomy of both human and animal embryos. Here, we present a short history of the visualization of Ernst Haeckel’s “biogenetic law” and his “gastraea theory” in biology textbooks from the German Democratic Republic (GDR) between 1951 and 1988. Our analysis of GDR textbooks showed embryology was integrated into different disciplines and remained an educational constant within the school textbooks throughout the GDR despite various educational reforms. While the majority of these textbooks failed to reference either Ernst Haeckel or his contributions to embryology, they often did mention Haeckel in sections dedicated to the theory of evolution and the promotion of Soviet ideals such as materialism.
... Together with those who accept naturalistic (Darwinian) descent with modification (ca. 19 %), about 57 % of American adults "believe in some form of evolution", the authors of Gallup May 22/2017 argued in their announcement (Silva, 2017;Watts et al., 2017). ...
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يتكون هذا الكتاب من أبواب ثلاثة رئيسية: أولها يعرض النموذج (الباراديم) التطوري، فيبين منهج الدارونية المتأسلمة وظهورها، وثانيها يعرض النموذج التطوري في بعض صوره العملية، وقد اخترت الفيلوجيني والباليوأنثروبوجي تحديدا، وأعرض في ختامه للاستخدامات العملية لهذه النماذج في بناء الحجاج الداروني المتأسلم، ثم الثالث، وأعرض فيه النقاش الشرعي لحجج الدارونية المتأسلمة، وكذلك كتاب أبي آدم للدكتور عبد الصبور شاهين، وأخيرا، فصل الختام، وأعرض فيه ملامح النظرية الإسلامية للخلق والتطور، كي تكتمل الصورة تماما عند القارئ، إذ أنه قد يشعر في مرحلة ما أن المسألة فوضوية، وأن الجميع لا يملك صورة عن الخلق من الأساس، وذاك خطأ.
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The ongoing humanitarian crisis in Venezuela has made it difficult to satisfactorily manage the COVID-19 pandemic in that nation. A vaccination program has begun, but its pace has been slow, as compared to vaccination in other countries. One considerable obstacle faced by vaccination efforts in Venezuela is vaccine hesitancy. Differences across religious groups regarding vaccine hesitancy in Venezuela have not been sufficiently explored. The present study consists of a sample of 230 university students in Venezuela, assessing their intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Their responses are compared across religious affiliations, and correlated with three variables: belief in vaccine conspiracy theories, religiosity, and acceptance of the theory of evolution. Results come out showing that Protestants are the religious group most hesitant to get the COVID-19 vaccine, followed by Catholics and the non-religious. Results also show that vaccine hesitancy is correlated with vaccine conspiracy theories and acceptance of the theory of evolution, but not with religiosity itself.
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A Dorpat philosopher Gustav Teichmüller (1832–1888) was among those who introduced and developed epistemological arguments against Darwin’s evolutionary theory. Being a close friend of K. E. von Baer in his last period of life, Teichmüller was deeply influenced by Baer’s thoughts concerning Darwin’s doctrine and Darwinism, and published his pamphlet against Darwinism as a certain testament of the great embryologist. Many ideas, which he implied in his pamphlet, were elaborated or coined in in his earlier books of purely philosophical content. The paper is the first attempt to discuss the historical and philosophical background of Teichmüller’s anti-Darwinian argument and scrutinize it as an essential part of his metaphysical investigations. The main argument is two-fold: the first, or negative part, concerns the Darwinists’ fallacies (which Teichmüller observes from the logical viewpoints); the second, or positive part, concerns his own view on nature and teleological principle in it. Thus, the paper demonstrates, that Teichmüller’s interest in Darwinism is not occasional, rather Darwinism is considered as a battlefield, on which the philosophical meditations are well-employed.
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As detailed in a Letter published in Science in 2017, the adherents of creationism and intelligent design are still active in promoting their biblical-literalist views of the origin and evolution of life on Earth. In this contribution, we take a look at this ideological phenomenon in the USA and analyze the philosophical roots of this ongoing movement. Specifically, we discuss Vernon Kellogg’s book entitled Headquarters Nights (1917) with reference to the German ‘Allmacht’ (English—omnipotence) and Darwinian evolution to demonstrate how this publication bolstered the development of active anti-evolutionism in the USA among American fundamentalist Christians, inclusive of the Intelligent Design (ID)-agenda. The current activities of creationist associations in the USA and Germany are summarized, with reference to a new pro-ID-group established in Austria in 2019 that is sponsored by the Discovery Institute in Seattle, Washington (USA).
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The emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolutionary mechanisms has led to a number of misconceptions about the validity of the theory of evolution and the societal dangers of the theory of evolution. Natural selection is often falsely and categorically translated as a “struggle for survival” or “survival of the fittest” allowing many antievolution groups to grab ahold of the concept of natural selection like the perceived Achilles’ heel of evolution. General antievolution arguments claim that evolution—seen synonymously with the concept of natural selection—teaches us to be selfish and that accepting the theory of evolution causes people to abandon their morals and develop callous, narcissistic or even inhuman behavioral patterns. It is clear that none of these claims reflect a true understanding of evolution, nor do they reflect the intent of educational institutions. It is thus imperative to rethink the means by which we teach students about the concept of natural selection—particularly with respect to human evolution. This paper will look at concrete misconceptions about the theory of evolution with a particular focus on the misinterpretation of natural selection and how these might be amended.