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Source apportionment results for wintertime PM 10 in 

Source apportionment results for wintertime PM 10 in 

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The sentiment that woodsmoke, being a natural substance, must be benign to humans is still sometimes heard. It is now well established, however, that wood-burning stoves and fireplaces as well as wildland and agricultural fires emit significant quantities of known health-damaging pollutants, including several carcinogenic compounds. Two of the prin...

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... apportionment studies indicate that woodsmoke is a major source of ambient PM during winter months in several parts of the United States. Figure 2 shows data from San Jose, CA, that indicate that 42% of the PM 10 during winter months could be attributed to wood burning (Fairley, 1990). Chemical mass balance receptor modeling of fine particles in Fresno and Bakersfield, CA during wintertime identified both hardwood and softwood as sources of PM and organic compounds (Schauer & Cass, 2000), which were likely to have been due to residential woodburning. ...
Context 2
... reviewers have come to similar conclusions (McGowan et al., 2002). Boman et al reviewed the literature relating to ad- verse health effects from ambient exposure to woodsmoke and, comparing the results of studies of acute exposure to those done in areas without much woodsmoke, concluded that there was no reason to think that the adverse impacts of acute woodsmoke exposure would be less than those associated with other sources of ambient PM (Boman et al., 2003). ...

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... Various studies [41,42] have shown that solid fuels are extensively used for cooking and home heating in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Further, studies also show that in sub-Saharan Africa, wood fuel is acknowledged as the main source of energy in most rural communities [43], with an estimated daily fuel wood consumption of 500,000 tons per day in Africa. ...
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Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) remains a major global public health hazard more so in developing countries where use of fossil fuels is still very common. However, despite the popularity of kerosene and fuelwood as energy sources among many households in the Sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about their health effects and the predisposing factors particularly on those with direct exposure. This study sought to relate indoor air pollution exposure to self-reported prevalence of respiratory outcomes including (sputum production, congestion, breathing difficulties, eye problems, fatigue, and headaches and wheezing) among women and children of Trans Nzoia County, in the rural villages of western Kenya. Methods In this cross-sectional survey, simple random technique was used to select 251 households from 14 villages. Households were the sampling units, while the woman of the household with/or in custody of a child aged less than 5 years old were the unit of analysis. A total of 251 women with/or in custody of a child aged less than 5 years old took part in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on cause and effects of IAP among women and children. Data was analyzed descriptively and inferentially. We used Poisson generalized linear models with IAP symptoms and indoor cooking as dependent variables and household profiles and other socio-demographics as independent variables to identify the factors that affect health outcome. Results Mean age of respondents was 36.49 years, (95% CI [35.5, 37.5]). Most (64.5%) houses were semi-permanent, with 58.6% having an average kitchen size (5.6 m ² ). Wood and kerosene were the most preferred fuel types for cooking (96.8%) and lighting (97.4%), respectively. Smoke from the wood was identified as the dominant (96.8%) source of IAP. Most women (92.0%) and children (95.4%) had coughs of varying intensities during the year, while 31.5% of the women reported wheezing. About 98% of them experienced fatigued and headaches. Use of wood fuel was associated with increased coughing ( p = 0.03), phlegm ( p = 0.02), wheezing ( p = 0.04), eye problems ( p = 0.03) and headaches ( p = 0.01) among women and children in the previous 24 h. Education level, ventilation, main fuel source used in 24 h, indoor cooking and house type were significantly associated with IAP health effects ( p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Supporting the impoverished households and increasing their level of awareness on health-effects of IAP occasioned by use of biomass fuel while cooking indoors may be the first step in implementing a programme aimed at reducing exposure among rural households in Trans Nzoia County, in rural parts of Western Kenya.
... 14 Other sources of furans include waste incineration, fuel and biofuel combustion, temperature-based industrial processes, 16 and natural sediment and water samples, 17 and are toxic species and have direct adverse effects on human health. 18 Moreover, being promising future alternative biofuels, 2-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran are expected to highly increase in the upcoming years. 19,20 They are highly reactive compounds rapidly removed from the atmosphere due to their gas-phase oxidation. ...
Article
The atmospheric reaction of a series of furan compounds (furan (F), 2-methylfuran (2-MF), 3-methylfuran (3-MF), 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF), and 2,3,5-trimethylfuran (2,3,5-TMF)) with nitrate radical (NO3) has been investigated using the relative rate kinetic method in the CHamber for the Atmospheric Reactivity and the Metrology of the Environment (CHARME) simulation chamber at the laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l'Atmosphere (LPCA) laboratory (Dunkerque, France). The experiments were performed at (294 ± 2) K atmospheric pressure and under dry conditions (relative humidity, RH < 2%) with proton transfer mass reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) for the chemical analysis. The following rate coefficients (in units cm3 molecule-1 s-1) were determined: furan, k(F) = (1.51 ± 0.38) × 10-12, 2-methylfuran, k(2-MF) = (1.91 ± 0.32) × 10-11, 3-methylfuran, k(3-MF) = (1.49 ± 0.33) × 10-11, 2,5-dimethylfuran, k(2,5-DMF) = (5.82 ± 1.21) × 10-11, and 2,3,5-trimethylfuran, k(2,3,5-TMF) = (1.66 ± 0.69) × 10-10. The uncertainty on the measured rate coefficient (ΔkFC) includes both the uncertainty on the measurement and that on the rate coefficient of the reference molecule. To our knowledge, this work represents the first determination for the rate coefficient of the 2,3,5-TMF reaction with NO3. This work shows that the reaction between furan and methylated furan compounds with nitrate radical (NO3) is the dominant removal pathway during the night with lifetimes between 0.5 and 55 min for the studied molecules.
... PAHs), and levoglucosan39 , it does not appear to offer sustainable measures against smoke haze events. In fact, we observed increases in fire-originated PM 10 concentration as well as the number of hospital visits attributable to PM 10 in 2018 (i.e., after ban enforcement).In addition to the policy, global climate factors may have influenced PM 10 emission from vegetation fires. ...
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The air quality in Upper Northern Thailand (UNT) deteriorates during seasonal vegetation fire events, causing adverse effects especially on respiratory health outcomes. This study aimed to quantitatively estimate respiratory morbidity from vegetation fire smoke exposure, and to assess the impact of a burning ban enforced in 2016 on morbidity burden in UNT. We computed daily population exposure to fire-originated PM10 and estimated its health burden during a 5-year period from 2014 to 2018 using daily fire-originated PM10 concentration and the concentration–response function for short-term exposure to PM10 from vegetation fire smoke and respiratory morbidity. In subgroups classified as children and older adults, the health burden of respiratory morbidity was estimated using specific effect coefficients from previous studies conducted in UNT. Finally, we compared the health burden of respiratory morbidity before and after burning ban enforcement. Approximately 130,000 hospital visits for respiratory diseases were estimated to be attributable to fire-originated PM10 in UNT from 2014 to 2018. This estimation accounted for 1.3% of total hospital visits for respiratory diseases during the 5-year period, and 20% of those during burning events. Age-specific estimates revealed a larger impact of PM10 in the older adult group. The number of hospital visits for respiratory diseases attributable to fire-originated PM10 decreased from 1.8% to 0.5% after the burning ban policy was implemented in the area. Our findings suggest that PM10 released from vegetation fires is a health burden in UNT. The prohibition of the burning using regulatory measure had a positive impact on respiratory morbidity in this area.
... The leakage of these pollutant gases will not only pollute the environment, but also have a detrimental effect on human body [24][25][26][27]. For instance, emissions of NO x from coal fired power stations lead to ozone holes, acid rain and severe haze in metropolitan areas, causing serious damage to human health, the ecological environment and the national economy [28][29][30]. In particular, serious air pollution can damage the lungs of humans, facilitating the transmission and infection of COVID-19 [31][32][33][34]. ...
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With the rapid development of the Internet of Things, there is a great demand for portable gas sensors. Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are one of the most traditional and well-studied gas sensing materials and have been widely used to prepare various commercial gas sensors. However, it is limited by high operating temperature. The current research works are directed towards fabricating high-performance flexible room-temperature (FRT) gas sensors, which are effective in simplifying the structure of MOS-based sensors, reducing power consumption, and expanding the application of portable devices. This article presents the recent research progress of MOS-based FRT gas sensors in terms of sensing mechanism, performance, flexibility characteristics, and applications. This review comprehensively summarizes and discusses five types of MOS-based FRT gas sensors, including pristine MOS, noble metal nanoparticles modified MOS, organic polymers modified MOS, carbon-based materials (carbon nanotubes and graphene derivatives) modified MOS, and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides materials modified MOS. The effect of light-illuminated to improve gas sensing performance is further discussed. Furthermore, the applications and future perspectives of FRT gas sensors are also discussed.
... Still in Zimbabwe, a report suggested that exposure to biomass fuels smoke in young children contributed to chronic nutritional deficiencies including anemia and stunted growth (Mishra & Retherford, 2007). Major concern of particulate matter is the free radicals, hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzene, and styrene), aldehydes, and phenols, specifically carcinogenic or toxic compounds, that these particles can carry into an individual's lungs and blood stream because they are proven to cause cancer (Naeher et al., 2007). It is important to note that while these chemicals are proven to cause cancer, both in human and animal models, very little research has been done to study the health effects and levels of exposure of these compounds when exposed via wood smoke (EPA, 2008). ...
Article
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Purpose: The use of biomass fuels poses great threats to environmental degradation and public health risk accounting for 32% of the total attributable burden of diseases due to indoor air pollution (IAP) in especially Africa. Heavy reliance on biomass fuels for household energy in Kenya makes the country more vulnerable with 90% of the rural population relying on biomass fuels for domestic purposes. The objective of this study was to assess cooking fuel types and efficiency of improved biomass stoves in fuel consumption in Western, Kenya. Methodology: The data were collected through continuous real-time monitoring of kitchen Particulate Matter and Carbon II Oxide concentration for a period of 24 hours using UCB-PATS and CO monitors, questionnaires and time activity budgets. The total target population was 383 households and 204 households were selected as the sample size for HH survey. The sample size was determined using sample size algorithm by Boyd et al. (2014) where a sample size is determined by the sample population size. Selection of households for indoor air monitoring was done through quasi system where there was a predefined criterion from survey data. Tables and means were used to present results. Findings: The study found that Hazard quotients (HQ) for both long-term and short-term PM exposure using all stoves were all above 1 implying that health risk is real. During 24-hour cooking duration, three-stone stove using crop residues produced 145.8 times higher PM2.5 compared to RfD (Reference Dose) value while Cheprocket produced 26.4 times higher than PM2.5 RfD. People using solid biomass fuels are likely to experience headaches and running nose by the end of 24-hour period as a result of CO exposure when mud rocket stove, three stone stove and Cheprocket stoves were used. However cooks who use Chepkube stoves are not likely to experience any adverse health effects from CO exposures since the HQs were less than 1 using both wood and crop residues as fuel. The study concluded that, improved biomass stoves provided an overall reduction in pollutant concentration compared to three-stone fire but the local innovation Chepkube stove that has been classified as ungraded stove had the highest pollutant reduction. There is no health risk associated with exposure to peak CO within the 1-hour duration from all biomass stoves monitored in the study area. Recommendation: The study recommended that user education is necessary on kitchen practices to reduce overall exposure from improved stove utilization.
... Around 2.4 people million currently depend on polluting solid fuels (e.g., wood and coal) and kerosene for cooking, heating, and lighting, predominately in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) (IEA, IRENA et al. 2022). The use of polluting fuels results in high levels of exposure to household air pollution (HAP), through generation of particulates and gasses from incomplete combustion (Naeher, Brauer et al. 2007, Apple, Vicente R et al. 2010. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates exposure to HAP causes millions of deaths per year (WHO 2021a), as air pollutants penetrate deep into the lungs and enter the blood stream, causing systemic respiratory and cardiovascular impacts (Yu, Qiu et al. 2018, Lee, Bing et al. 2020). ...
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Background Exposure to household air pollution results in a substantial global health burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Household Fuel Combustion stipulate emission rates for household energy devices should meet air quality guidelines and protect health. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, natural gas, and alcohol fuels are considered clean for health due to their low emissions at the point of use. In light of the ongoing energy transition and increasing emphasis on these fuels, it is imperative to provide an updated synthesis of the impacts of these fuels on health. Methods A systematic review was completed on the health effects of liquid and gaseous fuels for household energy use for cooking, heating, and lighting across high-, middle- and low-income countries. Comprehensive searches were undertaken in twelve international databases and selected studies were compiled into a new publicly available WHO Health Effects of Household Liquid & Gaseous Fuels Database, containing key study characteristics including pollutants and/or health outcomes measured. This database was then mapped to understand the breadth of evidence and potential gaps. Results From 48,130 search results, 587 studies were extracted for inclusion in the database on completion of the full-text review. Studies represented low-, middle- and high-income countries over several decades – there has been a substantial increase in evidence from low-and-middle income countries (LMICs) published in the last decade, particularly in Asia. Most evidence focused on LPG for cooking in LMICs or natural gas used in high-income countries for cooking and heating. Women were the most studied demographic, with self-reported health outcomes and symptoms being the most common assessment method. Particulate matter and nitrogen oxides were the most monitored pollutants. A wide array of health symptoms and disease and injury outcomes were assessed, and most concerned respiratory health. Conclusion This is the first time that evidence on the health effects of liquid and gaseous fuels for household energy use has been systematically appraised. Most evidence concerned cooking and heating, with a paucity of information on the health effects from lighting. Limited evidence was available on the health effects of liquid fuels (such as alcohol fuels), with most studies concerning gaseous fuels. The WHO Health Effects of Household Liquid & Gaseous Fuels Database represents a valuable resource to examine both the positive and negative health effects from these fuels.
... Worldwide, around 40% of the population relies on burning solid fuel (e.g., biomass fuel, coal, and related fuel) for their household life, and the primary purpose is cooking and heating [1,2]. Incomplete burning of these kinds of traditional fuels could release a great number of air pollutants, such as particulate matter of varying sizes, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, etc., which could lead to household air pollution (HAP) [3,4]. In contrast, the combustion products from clean fuels (e.g., natural gas, electricity, and solar energy) are just water and carbon dioxide. ...
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Background Our study aimed to explore the associations between solid fuels burning for either heating or cooking and all-cause mortality based on 2859 participants from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study during 2011–2018. Methods Logistic regression models were performed to estimate the risk for all-cause mortality between different types of fuels in the current longitudinal study. Furthermore, the combined impacts of applying solid fuels for both cooking and heating and the effect among those who switched types of fuels in cooking or heating during follow-up were also analyzed. Interaction and stratification analysis by covariables was applied further to explore the relationship between fuel burning and all-cause mortality. Results After full-adjustment, usage of solid fuels was associated with higher all-cause mortality (for heating: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.25, 3.00; for cooking: OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.82). Using solid fuels for both cooking and heating (OR = 2.36; 95% CI, 1.38, 4.03) was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, while using solid fuels with a single purpose was not (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.90, 2.55). Protective tendencies were detected in switching solid to clean fuel for cooking (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.32, 1.17) and heating (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.35, 1.10). Conclusion Either cooking or heating with solid fuels increases the risk of all-cause mortality among Chinese mid-aged and aging people in the urban area of China.
... The multilevel modeling on primary cooking fuel by Bonjour et al. (2013) estimated a decreased proportion of households relying on solid fuels, yet, the number of people exposed remained stable within three decades . Lim et al. (2012) had the highest citation bursts, followed by Naeher et al. (2007) and Smith et al. (2011). All the clusters had numerous red rings of citation bursts. ...
... The relationship was not significant; however, the exposure-response analysis showed a substantial reduction in the same outcome. Naeher et al. (2007) is a review paper related to wood smoke and its health effects. ...
Article
Indoor air pollution (IAP) is one of the leading risk factors for various adverse health outcomes including premature deaths globally. Even though research related to IAP has been carried out, bibliometric studies with particular emphasis on this topic have been lacking. Here, we investigated IAP research from 1990 to 2019 retrieved from the Web of Science database through a comprehensive and systematic scientometric analysis using the CiteSpace 5.7.R2, a powerful tool for visualizing structural, temporal patterns and trends of a scientific field. There was an exponential increase in publications, however, with a stark difference between developed and developing countries. The journals publishing IAP related research had multiple disciplines; ‘Indoor Air’ journal that focuses solely on IAP issues ranked fifth among top-cited journals. The terms like ‘global burden’, ‘comparative risk assessment,’ ‘household air pollution (HAP)', ‘ventilation’, ‘respiratory health’, ‘emission factor’, ‘impact,’ ‘energy’, ‘household’, ‘India’ were the current topical subject where author Kirk R. Smith was identified with a significant contribution. Research related to rural, fossil-fuel toxicity, IAP, and exposure-assessment had the highest citation burst signifying the particular attention of scientific communities to these subjects. Overall, this study examined the evolution of IAP research, identified the gaps and provided future research directions.
... 33,34,[39][40][41] Combustion-generated UFPs can reduce the diversity of the gut microbiome when ingested (via mucociliary clearance) and induce neurotoxicity when coated with gas-phase organics resulting from incomplete combustion. [42][43][44][45] Indoor biomass combustion during use of traditional and improved stoves has been shown to result in PN size distributions that ...
Article
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Indoor air pollution associated with biomass combustion for cooking remains a significant environmental health challenge in rural regions of sub‐Saharan Africa; however, routine monitoring of woodsmoke aerosol concentrations continues to remain sparse. There is a paucity of field data on concentrations of combustion‐generated ultrafine particles, which efficiently deposit in the human respiratory system, in such environments. Field measurements of ultrafine and fine woodsmoke aerosol (diameter range: 10–2500 nm) with field‐portable diffusion chargers were conducted across nine wood‐burning kitchens in Nandi County, Kenya. High time‐resolution measurements (1 Hz) revealed that indoor particle number (PN) and particle surface area (PSA) concentrations of ultrafine and fine woodsmoke aerosol are strongly temporally variant, reach exceedingly high levels (PN > 106/cm3; PSA > 104 μm2/cm3) that are seldom observed in non‐biomass burning environments, are influenced by kitchen architectural features, and are moderately to poorly correlated with carbon monoxide concentrations. In five kitchens, PN concentrations remained above 105/cm3 for more than half of the day due to frequent cooking episodes. Indoor/outdoor ratios of PN and PSA concentrations were greater than 10 in most kitchens and exceeded 100 in several kitchens. Notably, the use of metal chimneys significantly reduced indoor PN and PSA concentrations.
... The use of solid fuel, such as biomass and coal, is a major source of household air pollution in many developing countries. The combustion efficiency of solid fuel is low, and the smoke generated contains a large number of air pollutants such as particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide and a large number of organic compounds including benzene and benzo pyrene (Naeher et al. 2007;Zhou et al. 2021). Globally, the use of solid fuel (including coal and biomass) has become one of the top 10 threats to public health (WHO 2007). ...
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In recent years, many epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between solid fuel combustion and diabetes mellitus (DM). This meta-analysis was performed to explore the potential association between solid fuel combustion and DM. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all relevant studies published prior to January 14, 2022. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the effect of solid fuel combustion on DM. The I square value (I²) was used to assess heterogeneity. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies (I² = 66.70%), a random-effect model was used as the pooling method. A total of 9 articles (10 available datasets) were used for this systematic review and meta-analysis, involving 45,620 study subjects. The results of the meta-analysis showed a statistically positive relationship between household solid fuel combustion and the risk of DM (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97). Subgroup analysis based on fuel type revealed a statistically significant association in the mixed solid fuel group (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.59–2.59), but not in the single biomass group (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.73–1.49). This meta-analysis suggests that solid fuel combustion may be associated with an increased risk of DM.