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Sorted pattern matrix for the three key dimensions of participants' perceptions (n = 1411) emerging from principal components analysis with a varimax rotation. Item loading values >0.5 are shown.

Sorted pattern matrix for the three key dimensions of participants' perceptions (n = 1411) emerging from principal components analysis with a varimax rotation. Item loading values >0.5 are shown.

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Urban populations experience the multiple health and well-being benefits of nature predominantly via urban green infrastructure. If this is to be designed and managed optimally for both nature and people, there is an urgent need for greater understanding of the complex relationships between human aesthetic experience, well-being and actual or perce...

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... questionnaire data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) with a varimax rotation was applied to the data for all vegetation communities to identify ques- tionnaire items that varied in a consistent pattern and loaded onto single components, each measuring specific dimension of participants' perceptions (Table 3). Meaningful components were extracted via parallel analysis ( Watkins, 2005). ...
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... principal components analysis of questionnaire items extracted five components, together accounting for 65.33% variabil- ity in our participants' responses ( Table 3). The three components relevant to this study were interpretable as: Aesthetic effect; Restorative effect; and Perceived native plant and invertebrate biodiversity. ...
Context 3
... three components relevant to this study were interpretable as: Aesthetic effect; Restorative effect; and Perceived native plant and invertebrate biodiversity. Individual questionnaire items loading onto these components are indicated (Table 3). ...
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... the case of all woodland, shrub and herbaceous walks, the questionnaire results indicate a positive relationship between how attractive our participants perceived the planting to be and their perception of its benefits for butterflies, bees and other insects (Table 10). Individual questionnaire items relating to perceived colourfulness, attractiveness and the attractiveness of colour com- binations loaded onto the same component as the item relating to perceived invertebrate benefit ( Table 3), confirming that plant- ing perceived as attractive and colourful, with attractive colour combinations, was also perceived as beneficial to insects. Cam- paigns in the media to halt the decline of pollinators by providing more flowers, for example, http://www.sarahraven.com/articles/ ...

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... The form and composition of plants and water in landscapes were defined as the recent researches on the field of landscape aesthetic [9,48,49,30,13,7,16] To quantify the variables on the photos, we used a network with 100 rectangles to calculate the percentage coverage of each variable in the photos as independent variables of modeling. The most coverage of a rectangle was considered as a percentage for the variable on that point. ...
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Assessing the aesthetic quality of the landscape, especially in natural ecosystems of urban areas, with the aim of utilization management, can be an effective step towards optimal and sustainable use of the urban parks’ environment and services. The lack of studies on the form of landscape elements and combination of natural attributes in landscape beauty is a main shortcoming in this field. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop an artificial neural network model and tool to predict the aesthetic quality of the landscape containing water and plants in different forms and volume. Therefore, we recorded 6 landscape characteristics in 100 landscapes in 10 urban parks. Multi-layer perceptron model (MLP) represented the highest value of R² in training (0.98) and test (0.94) data set. According to the sensitivity analysis, the values of trees planting form, water, hedge, grass, water body form and trees were determined respectively as the inputs influencing the MLP model outputs. The urban park landscapes with more trees in the form of strip or group and water bodies and less hedge and grass would likely attract park visitors’ attraction. The designed graphical user interface in MATLAB software, makes MLP an environmental decision support system tool for landscape designers and it is a platform to predict the quality of environment and the future researches should be on discussing or the relationship between spatial for of landscape attributes. In practice, the designed environmental decision support system tool is applied by landscape managers to predict the aesthetic quality of landscape in designing new parks.
... Presenting examples of 'research into action', we advocate greenspace management to maximise benefits for people and wildlife. We draw on research from UK to consider how and why different people react to landscapes of varying aesthetic and biodiversity quality (Hoyle et al. 2017a), proposing an alternative approach to biodiversity-friendly greenspace management under austerity. Next, we emphasise the urgency of 'futureproofing' places to adapt to changing climate, demonstrating the public acceptability of climate-ready urban GI (Hoyle, 2021). ...
... Through years of practising as a designer, he understood that colour and flower cover in the urban landscape have a particular impact on human emotion. This intuition was confirmed by research conducted with 1411 members of the public who walked through woodland, shrub and herbaceous planting in public greenspaces and institutional gardens in the UK (Hoyle et al. 2017a). Findings from our research highlight that there is a critical threshold flower cover of 27%, over which people perceive planting as significantly more attractive. ...
... In the UK, a related stimulus for the increase in popularity of urban meadows was the media attention paid to annual and perennial meadows introduced within the London 2012 Olympic Park (now the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park). Following the 2012 Olympics some forward-thinking local authorities started to manage greenspaces to recreate the human delight associated with the Olympic meadows, whilst supporting biodiversity and lowering costs via reduced cutting frequencies (Hoyle et al. 2017a) Yet how are people reacting to very different landscape aesthetics? We collaborated with local authorities in Bedfordshire (2012-17) to translate the learning from the Olympics to urban greenspaces previously managed as amenity mown grassland (Fig. 2). ...
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Covid-19 and COP26 both amplified calls from the environment sector for greater support for greenspace management globally. As the future of our planet and population is threatened by a global pandemic, escalating mental health challenges and the interrelated climate and biodiversity crises, there is a growing awareness of the potential for the intersecting roles of greenspace (GS), green infrastructure (GI) and nature-based solutions (NBS) to meet the myriad socio-economic and ecological of modern society (Frantzeskaki, 2019; Venkataramanan et al., 2020). Unfortunately, their potential to address these challenges remains undervalued by many, and thus underfunded, (Mell, 2021). Presenting examples of ‘research into action’, we advocate greenspace management to maximise benefits for people and wildlife. We draw on research from UK to consider how and why different people react to landscapes of varying aesthetic and biodiversity quality (Hoyle et al. 2017a), proposing an alternative approach to biodiversity-friendly greenspace management under austerity. Next, we emphasise the urgency of ‘futureproofing’ places to adapt to changing climate, demonstrating the public acceptability of climate-ready urban GI (Hoyle, 2021). Finally, we discuss how socio-cultural variables and values impact on preferences. We illustrate the benefits of co-creating local NBS with reference to ‘Futureproofing Luton’, a live project engaging diverse partners in the co-production of an educational arboretum-meadow. We propose alternative options open to all natural and built environment and public health professionals to support knowledge exchange promoting more sustainable forms of urban development. Although framed within a UK context, the processes of engagement, best practice exchange, and more effective dialogue, are meaningful across Europe and beyond.
... Recent Global North studies that compared native and non-native plantings in urban environments in terms of insect habitat show that native plants support greater abundance [38] and species richness [39]. Yet, both social and ecological studies agree that non-native plants offer ecological value in urban settings [38,40], for example, extended flowering periods [31]. A new emphasis on native species has resulted from a greater uptake of "wilder" urban spaces. ...
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Progress is required in response to how cities can support greater biodiversity. This calls for more research on how landscape designers can actively shape urban ecologies to deliver contextspecific empirical bases for green space intervention decisions. Design experiments offer opportunities for implemented projects within real-world settings to serve as learning sites. This paper explores preliminary ecological outcomes from a multidisciplinary team on whether purposefully engineered native grassland gardens provide more habitat functions for insects than mainstream gardens in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. Six different sites were sampled: two recently installed native grassland garden interventions (young native), two contemporary non-native control gardens (young non-native) on the same premises and of the same ages as the interventions, one remnant of a more pristine native grassland reference area (old native), and one long-established, non-native reference garden (old non-native). Plant and insect diversity were sampled over one year. The short-term findings suggest that higher plant beta diversity (species turnover indicating heterogeneity in a site) supports greater insect richness and evenness in richness. Garden size, age, and connectivity were not clear factors mediating urban habitat enhancement. Based on the preliminary results, the researchers recommend high native grassland species composition and diversity, avoiding individual species dominance, but increasing beta diversity and functional types when selecting garden plants for urban insect biodiversity conservation in grassland biomes.
... Urban greenspaces can provide refugia for species whose habitats have otherwise been destroyed (Beninde, Veith and Hochkirch, 2015;Theodorou et al., 2020;Knapp et al., 2021), as well as contributing to the liveability of cities with rapidly growing urban populations. Urban greenspaces provide space for recreation and relaxation, improve air quality (Haase et al., 2017;Fischer et al., 2018), and allow contact with nature, which has restorative effects (Hoyle, Hitchmough and Jorgensen, 2017;Fischer et al., 2018). The multifunctionality of urban greenspaces, however, can lead to competing interests within the space, as well as competing for land with other urban land uses, such as schools, health centres and housing (Smith et al., 2012;Mäntymaa et al., 2021). ...
Article
Urban greenspaces are multifunctional spaces, providing services to people and biodiversity. With space in urban areas being limited creation and maintenance of urban greenspaces relies on understanding the preferences of urban residents for their characteristics. Such preferences are expected to vary with current availability, and the availability of alternatives to greenspaces such as gardens or gyms. We carried out a nationwide discrete choice experiment with Scottish urban residents to estimate values associated with greenspace attributes of: recreational features; plants and natural features; trees; accessibility; time to walk from home and size, to test the hypotheses that: (i) people are willing to pay to maintain greenspace, (ii) people have willingness to pay for greenspaces with multiple functions, including features for direct use (e.g. play equipment) and biodiversity (e.g. wildflowers), (iii) willingness to pay for individual greenspace will vary according to socioeconomic characteristics and (iv) vary with the amount of greenspace or substitute facilities available. We find a positive willingness to pay to maintain greenspace in general, and higher willingness to pay for larger greenspaces closer to home, which are multifunctional and contain both direct use features (e.g. children’s play park) and biodiversity features. Although we find significant heterogeneity in willingness to pay for maintaining greenspace, this is not well explained by either socioeconomic characteristics or the availability of substitute facilities. Our results have relevance for urban natural capital accounting, and demonstrate to urban planners the importance of the design and maintenance of multi-functional greenspaces for urban populations and would benefit from future research that further explores heterogeneity, including perceptions of greenspace access and substitutes, and greenspace quality.
... Weil [61] considered complexity as the diversity of five attributes, and in a study of natural environments and artworks to measure complexity, color was one of the factors found to influence diversity. Many studies have suggested that the color diversity of plants affects individuals' aesthetic preferences [62][63][64] and that plants covered with colorful flowers are attractive and stimulating for most people and provide high levels of aesthetic preference [65]. In a study of regenerated industrial landscapes, the results showed that color diversity is an important factor in people's preferences [66]. ...
... Color diversity in vegetation and flowers is an important factor that affects the complexity of parks. Previous studies have shown that color diversity has significant relationships with preferences and aesthetic preferences [21,39,63,65], and the greater the color diversity the greater the preference [57,58]. Furthermore, researchers have stated that scenes with more color diversity improve psychological well-being and have restorative potential [39,64]. ...
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A significant majority of the literature on natural environments and urban green spaces justifies the preferences that people have for natural environments using four predictors defined by Kaplan’s preference matrix theory, namely coherence, legibility, complexity, and mystery. However, there are no studies implicitly focusing on the visual attributes assigned to each of these four predictors. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of nine visual attributes derived from the four predictors of Kaplan’s matrix on people’s preferences in the context of urban parks. A discrete choice experiment was used to obtain responses from a sample of 396 students of Golestan University. Students randomly evaluated their preferences towards a set of potential scenarios with urban park images. The results of a random parameter logit analysis showed that all of the attributes of complexity (variety of elements, number of colors, and organization of elements) and one attribute each of coherence (uniformity), mystery (visual access), and legibility (distinctive elements) affect students’ choices for urban parks, while one attribute each of mystery (physical access) and legibility (wayfinding) did not affect the choices. Furthermore, the results indicated a preference for heterogeneity of the attributes. The findings of this study can provide instructions for designing parks.
... In foreign countries, research was actively conducted to secure green areas such as land and forests and to establish spaces for ecological diversity, and many studies were conducted on ecosystem services (ESs), ecosystem-based adaptations (EbAs), frameworks [15,[51][52][53][54][55][56][57], and nature-based solutions (NbSs) [58][59][60][61], plans for securing green space and ecological diversity and policies [62][63][64][65][66], street trees, agricultural environment, and the effects provided by natural capital [67,68]. In addition, plans and models for adaptation to climate change [69][70][71][72][73], urban heat island mitigation [74][75][76][77], and green infrastructure utilization plans for air pollution reduction [78][79][80] were studied. ...
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Government-level ESG (environmental, social, and governance) institutionalization and active ESG activation in the private sector are being discussed for the first time this year in Korea, spurred by increased national interest since the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the declaration of a carbon-neutral society by 2050, and ESG discussion in many fields is spreading rapidly. In addition, global awareness of the crisis caused by environmental pollution and natural disasters has highlighted the importance of green infrastructure (GI) as a new conceptual alternative to improve public value. Based on sustainability, which is a common goal of ESG and green infrastructure, this study aimed to examine the research targets and techniques of green infrastructure from the perspective of ESG. This study selected and analyzed 98 domestic and international academic journal papers published over the past 10 years in the Web of Science academic journal database literature collection. Focusing on the research subjects, the focus on green infrastructure, and research keywords, we examined the aspects of the green infrastructure plan that have been focused on from the ESG perspective and compared domestic and international research trends. In addition, implications for how each research topic is connected to the concept of ESG according to its function and purpose were derived. By examining the domestic and international research trends of green infrastructure from the ESG perspective, we identified the need for a wider range of research on the diversity and relationship between humans and the ecological environment; policies and systems; and technical research that does not focus only on a specific field. In this regard, we intend to increase the contribution to ESG management in the public sector through the establishment of green infrastructure plans and policies in the future, as they account for a large portion of public capital.
... Some studies find no relationship between reported species richness and psychological well-being, while others suggest that such a relation does exist and further argue that biodiversity and human values may coexist beneficially (Dallimer et al., 2012;Grilli et al., 2021;Gul et al., 2022). Several studies have found that the relationship between naturalness and wellbeing seems to be greater than previously believed (Dallimer et al., 2012;Boll et al., 2014;Hoyle et al., 2017). ...
Article
Nature-based tourism has an influence on ecosystem functioning around watercourses, but this influence lacks scientific evidence. Additionally, strategic and operational management of streams necessitates trade-offs between the recreational activities and values of tourists and riparian zone hospitality services. This paper aims to assist environmentalists and planners by exploring the effects of tourism-based recreational activities on ecosystem functioning along the drawdown zone. The study uses multivariate statistical techniques to delineate the relevant global tourism issues for planners. Kruskal-Wallis tests (p < 0.01) were conducted using quantitative data from 284 transects within the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir in China. The results revealed higher ecosystem function indices than tourism indices. Indicators of tourism contributed both positively and negatively to ecological indicators, with the Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from minor to moderate (r = ̶ 0.24 to 0.38, p < 0.05). Principal component analysis revealed that the critical variables of ecosystem functioning and tourism activities explained 72.26 % of the overall variance. Nevertheless, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that these indicators responded differently in the upstream, midstream, and downstream sections. Our findings suggest that policymakers should consider the different characteristics of riparian zones in future planning, as doing so will improve both national and global strategic and operational management.
... Despite the evidence that urban publics are becoming increasingly biocentric, social acceptance and social sustainability may largely depend on the clarity of the cues for ecological value (Lindemann-Matthies et al., 2010;Garbuzov et al., 2015;Hoyle et al., 2017aHoyle et al., , 2017b. To adequately deliver these essential cues (Nassauer, 1995;Hoyle et al., 2017a), a good level of forb species coexistence in the longer term is required in meadow communities. ...
... Despite the evidence that urban publics are becoming increasingly biocentric, social acceptance and social sustainability may largely depend on the clarity of the cues for ecological value (Lindemann-Matthies et al., 2010;Garbuzov et al., 2015;Hoyle et al., 2017aHoyle et al., , 2017b. To adequately deliver these essential cues (Nassauer, 1995;Hoyle et al., 2017a), a good level of forb species coexistence in the longer term is required in meadow communities. It also requires individuals of forb species to have sufficient biomass to have significant floral visual impact, rather than be present as subordinates. ...
... Research in rural herbaceous communities in British Colombia, shows that doubling sowing density shortens the time taken to reach a forb biomass ceiling (Burton et al., 2006). Higher cover values in spring reduce potential weed invasion and deliver visual evidence of 'ecological value' that is of both social and ecological importance (Bergelson et al., 1993;Hoyle et al., 2017a). Increasing sowing density is unlikely to affect grassland community biomass in the long term as it is not possible to override ecological processes such as self-thinning, by adding more seeds. ...
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Forb species abundance and richness determine both ecological and social values in naturalistic meadows in urban landscapes. However, species loss and dominance through competition are naturally part of meadow ecological processes often leading on productive soils to large grass biomass in the absence of appropriate management. Sowing density is a design tool to manipulate the initial number of emergents of each component species however high sowing densities may not benefit community performance in terms of species richness and diversity in the longer term. This study investigated the effect of sowing density on forb species abundance, biomass and richness. Two sowing densities approximating to 500 and 1,000 emerged seedlings/m² were employed with 29 forb and one grass species. The higher sowing density did not lead to a larger grass biomass that dominated the community, as the grass species used was ultimately less competitive than the forb dominants. Increasing sowing density increased the number of forb seedlings initially but this declined, as did species richness in the longer term. In terms of subordinate forb survival, ability to access light resources to survive intense competition from dominants was key. Tall, and native species were more likely to maintain higher seedling numbers in the longer term. The research suggest that lower sowing rates are likely to be most useful on soils which are either unproductive, do not contain a significant weed seed banks, where weed free sowing mulches are employed or in rural situations where there is less immediate political pressure for rapid development of forb rich meadows.
... Park characteristics are mainly divided into three categories: ecological characteristics, service characteristics, and aesthetic characteristics [21]. Usually, the diversity and spatial distribution of green plants have a greater impact on public behaviour and preferences [22]; therefore, this study analysed the characteristics of urban parks from the scale of the parks, their proportion of blue-green space [23], plant diversity [24], and degree of re-wilding [25]. This study used ArcGIS 10.8 software to obtain the total scale of the study area. ...
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Urban parks can offer a variety of ecosystem services such as beautifying the landscape, ecological regulation, leisure and recreation, and maintaining biodiversity. Understanding how urban parks affect people’s lives can help guide the construction and planning of parks in a direction that is more beneficial to the public. Therefore, it is worth studying the extent to which different urban parks with different characteristics affect public behaviour and preferences. This paper takes five typical urban parks in Chengdu and analyses the relationship between characteristics of the park ecosystem and public behaviour and preferences. The characteristics include the park scale, blue-green space ratio, plant diversity, and degree of re-wilding. Visit frequency, stay time, and park preference characterise public behaviour and preferences. The results show: (1) There are obvious differences in the ecosystem characteristics of the five parks: Qinglong Lake Wetland Park is the largest; the proportion of blue-green space in Jiangjiayiyuan Garden is the highest; the degree of re-wilding in Bailuwan Wetland Park is the highest; the proportion of green space and plant diversity in Guixi Ecological Park is the highest; and the proportion of blue space in Jincheng Lake Wetland Park is the highest. (2) There are differences in public behaviour and preferences for different parks. Tourists visit Qinglong Lake Wetland Park the most in spring and autumn and they choose Guixi Ecological Park instead in summer and winter. The public stays longer in Qinglong Lake Wetland Park and shorter in Jincheng Lake Wetland Park. (3) The scale of urban parks, the proportion of blue-green space, and the degree of re-wilding, especially the proportion of blue space, have a positive impact on the public’s evaluation and promote public visits. The results of the study could help improve public awareness of the relationship between park characteristics and ecological services and well-being.
... Women also perceive and value natural landscapes differently to men. UK research has shown that when walking through the same areas of designed urban woodland, shrub and herbaceous vegetation, women perceived higher levels of 'naturalness' and found the experience significantly more restorative than men (Hoyle et al., 2017a). The same pattern was identified in multicultural cities across Europe, where women valued all park scenes and medium and high forest plant species richness more highly than did men and were more supportive of the conversion of neat, short-mown lawns to tall meadows to support biodiversity conservation (Fischer et al. 2018). ...
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Designing healthy resilient places for people doesn't need to be too challenging or complicated. We might be best to remember that a landscape-led approach works best, where the landscape comes first, and provides the framework within the built environment is nurtured. We should also be aware that human reactions to places depend both on the aesthetics of the designed landscape itself and the people themselves (see Hoyle, 2020 for discussion). Because people's responses and perceptions are driven by values which vary at the individual and community level, working with local stakeholders including residents, site users, local schools and land-managers provides a positive way forward.