Some examples of radiation plant breeding. (A) Nishina Otome cherry blossom tree (R) and the parent (L), created at RIKEN. In the absence of vernalization (exposure to winter temperatures) it is still able to flower, and will produce flowers in all four seasons. If exposed to winter temperatures, it produces three-times more flowers than the parent (B) The commercial cultivar Todd's Mitcham mint (Mentha x piperita), which was bred at Brookhaven National Lab and has resistance to Verticillium wilt. (A) RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (B) Colonial Creek Farm (www.colonialcreekfarm.com). (A color version of this figure is available in the online journal.)

Some examples of radiation plant breeding. (A) Nishina Otome cherry blossom tree (R) and the parent (L), created at RIKEN. In the absence of vernalization (exposure to winter temperatures) it is still able to flower, and will produce flowers in all four seasons. If exposed to winter temperatures, it produces three-times more flowers than the parent (B) The commercial cultivar Todd's Mitcham mint (Mentha x piperita), which was bred at Brookhaven National Lab and has resistance to Verticillium wilt. (A) RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (B) Colonial Creek Farm (www.colonialcreekfarm.com). (A color version of this figure is available in the online journal.)

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Population growth, climate change, and dwindling finite resources are amongst the major challenges which are facing the planet. Requirements for food, materials, water, and energy will soon exceed capacity. Green biotechnology, fueled by recent plant synthetic biology breakthroughs, may offer solutions. This review summarizes current progress towar...

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... example, much of the world's mint oil is produced from a disease-resistant cultivar "Todd's Mitcham" developed from a gamma irradiation breeding program started at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1955. 14 In the long-term, however, these methods have been most successful for producing new ornamental plants, such as petunias 15 and cherry blossom 16 (Figure 2), and the number of agriculturally important traits identified this way is relatively low, as compared to conventional breeding. ...

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