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Solar Radiation map of Pakistan 

Solar Radiation map of Pakistan 

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Pakistan is suffering from acute shortage of electricity and fuel that has adversely affected its industrial and agricultural progress in-spite of having ~2.9 million MW power potential can be harnessed from solar radiations. This paper aims on the study of technical and economic feasibility of stand-alone PV system in major cities of Pakistan. Cur...

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... plays a vital role in improving the living standard of a nation and to strengthen all economy concerned matters. Nature has gifted this world with several abundant and non – replenish-able sources of energy that are large enough to accomplish current overall energy requirements. Within past few years mankind has encountered various challenges related to energy and environment. Depletion of conventional energy resources associated with environmental concerns has urged people living on this planet to exploit renewable and non - conventional resources. International Energy Agency predicted an increase of~53% in global primary energy consumption up to 2030 and 70% of this value is expected to come from developing nations [1]. Pakistan is also one of the developing nations where gap of~3GW exists between electric power supply and demand [2] due to which people are facing severe blackout problems. Pakistan is naturally benefited part of world map where natural resources are in much excess that can be utilized to produce electricity. In Pakistan, daily solar radiations value 2 2 ranges from 4.68kWh/m /d to 5.54kWh/m /d [3] and annual 2 global solar irradiance value is~1900-2200 kWh/m [2] that can be harnessed in form of electrical energy. Figure 1 shows the solar radiation map of Pakistan [4]. PV technology has proved itself as a useful way of harnessing solar irradiance energy to generate electric power [5]. It can be used to supply electricity to remote areas as 45% people of Pakistan don't have access to electricity [6]. PV technology can also be used for utility peak load shaving, oil fields and gas oil separation plants located in remote locations, highway telephones and billboards, telecommunication towers, catholic protection in pipelines, water pumping in irrigation, park lighting, exterior home lighting and many other purposes [5]. Optimum electric power output value of PV array is largely affected by module operating temperature, solar irradiance conditions and azimuth angle of module [7]. In this comparative study, stand-alone solar PV system using NASA reported climate conditions is modeled in RET Screen software for three major cities of Pakistan named; Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. Simulated system is evaluated on the basis of economic determinants like NPV, IRR and payback period and also analyzed that how much base case fuel saving is possible and GHG emissions can be reduced? RET Screen international software developed by Canadian Energy Center has algorithms to evaluate different types of energy especially renewable energy projects using software calculated information like energy sources and their availability, initial project cost calculations, base case credits, on-going project costs, periodic costs, possible avoided cost of energy, income and finance taxes, GHG emissions effect on environment, cost effectiveness [8]. These embedded informative algorithms can be used for simulating different energy project models to calculate their output production, GHG emissions, fuel savings and their feasibility on the basis of financial parameters [9]. Canadian Energy Center has embedded recorded climatic conditions of almost all cities of the world map in form of location latitude, longitude, elevation, heating and cooling design temperatures, monthly and annual averaged daily solar radiations-horizontal, air temperature and wind speed reported by NASA. Climatic and geographical information of project location sare mentioned in Table 1. Purpose of current study is to evaluate the viability of stand- alone PV system for different climatic conditions of Pakistan as revealed by climatic information like daily solar 2 radiations-horizontal vary from 4.02kWh/m /d for 2 Islamabad to 5.34kWh/m /d for Karachi. RETScreen international software can simulate stand-alone systems for different PV technologies like mono-Si, poly-Si, a-Si, CdTe, CIS and spherical-Si fabricated by different manufacturers. Selection of PV model depends upon its PV technology type, optimum efficiency, nominal output temperature and solar collector area. PV models embedded in RETScreen databases are characterized on the basis of their optimum efficiency primarily can be calculated by using formula ...

Citations

... Footnotes: Hospital area: 8.0E+04 m 2 . 1. Daily solar insolation in Gujranwala: 5.1 kWh/m 2 /day (Mehmood et al., 2013); albedo of urban roof and pavement mix: 0.1 (Wolf & Lundholm, 2008). 2. Local heat flow: 70 mW/m 2 (Tao & Shen, 2008). ...
Article
Pakistan is a resource-constrained country, poor in municipal and healthcare facilities. Existing healthcare structures in the country are often overcrowded, and an effective monitoring and assessment of their sustainability is therefore crucial. In this study, a systemic approach is outlined to evaluate the environmental sustainability of the largest and sole public hospital in the major city of Gujranwala, in the Punjab region of Pakistan. The Emergy (spelled with “m”) Accounting (EMA) method is applied. Its operationalization allows to keep track of the amount of energy that was consumed in direct and indirect transformations to make a product or service. Relevant data include the hospital requirements in terms of energy, water, products, labor, and services. The EMA results offer a supply-side geobiosphereoriented perspective. Emergy indicators show that the hospital is indirectly responsible for a significant stress on the environment, that might be decreased by an increased efficiency in the resource use. On the other hand, a hospital is a complex system, depending on skilled laborforce as well as on several fine imported medical products and related services, making it dependent on external socio-economic systems. The presented results address the geography dependent characteristics of the hospital, and can be used for benchmarking and future evaluation of similar hospitals within and across the region.
... Mehmood et al., [49] performed the techno-economic-environmental assessment of standalone PV system for three major cities of Pakistan, and concluded in terms of possible diesel fuel savings and GHG emissions reduction. Albadi et al., [50] assessed a 50 kW solar power unit to be installed at the rooftop of an office in Oman, and concluded its viability in terms of technical and economic parameters. ...
Article
United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) is a solar-rich region aiming to achieve 44% clean energy portion in the total energy mix by 2050. Harnessing the available infinite solar renewable energy source and integrating it with the existing power infrastructure is necessary. In this context, a comprehensive technical, economic, and environmental assessment of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system for the domestic sector is presented considering U.A.E case study. The central and off-grid photovoltaic systems’ configurations are modeled to evaluate its comparative viability for six selected latitude positions of U.A.E. Further, three different photovoltaic technologies (i.e., mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, and thin-film) are analyzed to conclude the optimum selection. Climatic conditions like incident solar radiations, humidity, air temperature, and cooling degree-days are used to conduct the feasibility assessment using the RETScreen software, where the capacity factor, the number of PV units required, base case fuel savings, net present value, payback period, and benefit-cost ratio are evaluated. Effect of reducing the battery bank size from 24 hrs to 12 hrs backup is also elaborated. The central-grid photovoltaic system configuration is concluded comparatively more viable than off-grid PV system supported by all techno-economic aspects and more environment friendly reducing 229–237 tCO2 greenhouse gas emissions during the project life.
... The latitude, longitude, and altitude of the location are 31.42ºN, 73.083ºE and 184 m above sea level respectively (Mehmood, Waqas, and Mahmood 2013). The sun radiates at an average of two calories of heat per sq. ...
Article
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In this paper, a brief study of small scale solar parabolic trough collector design, simulation, fabrication, and analyzed for heating water as a domestic purpose in the backward regions of developing countries are studied. During the designing phase, the solar parabolic trough collector aperture area was set as 1.5 m² with 1 m wide and 1.5 m length. The design was done by using red laser light (631 nm) and stainless steel ruler template technique, then verified this design template with parabolic equation. After that, optimize the proposed design through Matlab simulation. Then fabricated the proposed design with different manufacturing techniques. Different experiments were conducted to analyze and evaluate the overall thermal performance of 1.5 m² solar parabolic trough collector by placing it in two orientations i.e. East-West and North-South with respect to the sun tracking. The data were recorded and analyzed to check the overall efficiency and thermal performance of the system. The experimental results evaluated that efficiency and thermal performance of the solar parabolic trough collector was more when the focal line of the designed trough collector was placed in the East-West (61.66%) direction as compared to North-South direction (48.28%). Moreover, the designed collector raised the temperature of 100 liter water up-to 60°C within 5 hours of sunshine which is enough for four to five persons for bathing and laundry purposes in the winter season of backward and rural areas where there is a shortage of electricity and fossil fuels for domestic applications.
... First, we collected data of solar radiation intensity and wind speed every month for a period of one year in four major cities of Pakistan, namely Karachi, Lahore, Bahawalpur and Faisalabad. To ensure accurate locations for maximum solar radiation and wind speed, the NASA solar map of Pakistan and wind map of Pakistan were utilized [48,49]. Data was then calculated and plotted against the 1 kW solar PV and wind turbines by using MAT LAB and RT screen to compare the efficiency of solar PV and wind turbines (Figures 8-11). ...
Article
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Energy generation is heavily dependent on fossil fuels in Pakistan. Due to the huge population and current progress in industrialization, these sources are not fulfilling the existing energy needs of the country. Meanwhile, they have adverse environmental impacts and are economically unsuitable to electrify remote areas. Consequently, there is a need to look for alternate energy sources. The aim of this paper is to find out the best renewable energy option for Pakistan. For this purpose, we have collected data for solar radiation and wind speed for a period of one year in four major cities of Pakistan. Results indicate that solar energy is the best renewable energy option for Pakistan in terms of price, life span, operation and maintenance cost. Key barriers have been identified over the whole solar energy spectrum through semi-structured interviews with industry professionals. And finally, important policy recommendations have been proposed for institutions and government to overcome these barriers and utilize maximum solar energy in the country.
... State bank of Pakistan is providing loan for adopters on very easy conditions however, loan is only given to those users whose energy requirements are 4 KW-50 MW [20]. Moreover, Study conducted in Pakistan energy context revealed that PV system of 5-KW can minimize the annual greenhouse gas by 2.9t to 3t of CO2 [21]. High initial cost of PV systems, unawareness of local community and inadequate availability of technical expertise are some of barriers identified in [22]. ...
Conference Paper
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Pakistan energy situation is gradually troubling due to lack of planning in energy sector. All sectors get affected due to long hours power outage which can be minimized by adopting PV solar system in individual capacity. PV solar is secondary source of energy in many countries as it contributes its part in national grid but in Pakistan it is not yet drawn out at household level. Pakistan has an average solar global insolation of 5-7 KWh/m 2 /day. This paper identifies factors that usually influence the household's decision regarding Solar energy adoption for their homes in Peshawar, Pakistan. A generic list of factors is developed by extracting analysis and different views from literature. Both adopters and non-adopters were interviewed (by following cogency attributes of Roger's theory of Innovation Diffusion) to rank factors on the basis of significance of solar energy adoption for their homes. Adoption of PV solar as a primary electricity source at household level faced many barriers despite knowing the fact that its advantages are more than conventional electricity sources. The installation cost of PV solar system seemed to be the main barrier in adoption. Other barriers included difficulty of using all appliances at same time and shortage of reliable technicians. The solution to current load shedding and environmental friendly features appeared as determinants for adoption at house hold level.
... It is evident from a study [9] that the total electricity demand of Pakistan can be met by just installing solar PV of 20% efficiency on one percent of Baluchistan land. The annual average mean daily solar irradiation in Lahore ranges from 5.1 kWh/m 2 to 5.4 kWh/ m 2 which is also promising for solar energy utilization [10]. ...
... Since adoption of solar PV is also geared up by environmental concerns, however accumulative impact of solar PV utilization over environment is minor due to limited usage of solar PV [25]. However, a study conducted in the Pakistan context identified that a 5 kW standalone solar PV system can minimize the net annual Greenhouse Gases (GHG) by 2.9 t to 3 t of CO 2 [10]. ...
Article
The crisis in electricity generation sector of Pakistan is causing load shedding. All sectors including household-domestic, commercial and industrial activities get severely affected by such power outages which could be minimized by adopting modern technologies such as solar PV. The use of solar PV system in many countries has become a promising solution to meet energy needs but in Pakistan its usage at household level still remains largely untapped despite huge potential. This study identifies the determinants that influence the household's decisions regarding solar PV adoption in Lahore, Pakistan. For this, initially, a generic list of significant determinants was extracted from literature. Later, detailed interviews (based on persuasion attributes of Roger's theory of Innovation Diffusion) of both adopters and non-adopters of solar PV system were conducted at household level to rank the determinants on the basis of their significance in solar PV adoption decision. The household's adoption of solar PV system faced many barriers regardless of the fact that it exceeds in advantages as compared to other conventional sources of electricity. The cost of solar PV system appeared to be the most significant barrier in the diffusion of solar PV system. Additionally, the absence of adequate financial support by government for the installation of small solar PV systems at household level further intensified the adoption decisions. Other important barriers included difficulty of using all appliances at the same time and shortage of reliable vendors as well the technicians. While, environment friendly feature of solar PV system along with its availability in local market appeared as significant driver of diffusion at household level.
... is the module operating temperature varies according to global solar irradiance, 3 and mean monthly ambient temperature, * are related as in Eq.(9),[23,24]: ...
Article
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The present study investigated the impact of weather conditions on the production performance of the photovoltaic (PV) module. The experiments have been conducted by using two identical PV module of 75 Watt each and they were placed in the same weather conditions in the summer season in Kirkuk city-Iraq. One of them was used as a conventional module as a reference panel and the other unit which has been used in all required tests. Water circulation has been used for cooling of the PV module to and very fine soil used to estimate the effect of each of hot weather and dust deposition on the performance of PV respectively. The results show that the fill factor (FF) and PV efficiency affected inversely with increasing in temperature, on the other hand cooling process contributed to increase the voltage generation across PV panel by 11.8%, while the reduction in voltage generation by unclean panel due to natural pollution deposition on the front of the panel for a period of three months was about 3.8% compared with clean panel and 13.8% if it has been compared with voltage production by panel when it has been cooled by water.