Table 1 - uploaded by Arison Arihafa
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Size classes of trees for both live and dead-standing trees measured within the circular nested plot design adapted from Walker et al. (2012)

Size classes of trees for both live and dead-standing trees measured within the circular nested plot design adapted from Walker et al. (2012)

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Forest carbon emission mitigation schemes seek to protect tropical forest, combat effects of climate change, and offer potential cash and development opportunities. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+) projects based on a foundation of accurate carbon stock assessment provide such an opportunity for Papua New Guinea. The ob...

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... opening or .10% of the plot covered by grassland, bamboo or scrambling fern (Dicranopteris linearis) were not sampled. A variable-radius nested plot (each consisting of three concentric circular plots) design was employed to take measurements (diameter at breast height (DBH) and height) for both live and dead standing trees, as in Table 1. Within each plot, we recorded DBH at 1.3 m above ground for all stems $5 cm, the location (distance and bearing) of each tree from the plot centre, slope and elevation. ...

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... The large decrease in the area of primary forest, as reported in these official figures, is of key importance for the context of REDD+ in PNG because these areas will have held considerably higher carbon stocks than the regenerating forest areas that have replaced them. This is the case even for relatively old (>40 years) secondary forest which contain on average 60% of the above ground biomass (ABG) of comparable primary forest areas (see Table 6 of Arihafa et al. 2015 for this and other studies). These reported decreases in the extent of primary forest (and their replacement with regenerating forest) will have resulted in a substantial reduction in forest biomass (degradation) in PNG's forest over the last 25 years. ...
... According to Bryan and Shearman (2015) this forest area is declining at a rate of around 0.5% per year, although this is contradicted by FAO (2015) figures for PNG. While the FAO (2015b) report no major change in forest area, their data does indicate a decrease of 2.3% per year in the area of primary forest (see Annex 4) which will have caused an overall degradation of forest biomass due to the lower carbon biomass in secondary forests (Arihafa et al. 2015) that have replaced them. Bryan and Shearman (2015) report that deforestation and forest degradation are occurring as a result of large-scale industrial logging, large-scale clearance to produce agricultural commodities, and small-scale clearance for gardens and subsistence agriculture ( Figure 8). ...