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Simulations of global land surface temperature changes at different land surface boundary layer depths during 1965-2019. NASA's annual mean of observed anomalies (i.e., NASA_Land_Annual) and 5-year moving Lowess smoothing (i.e., NASA_Land_Lowess (5)) [33] are also shown for comparison.

Simulations of global land surface temperature changes at different land surface boundary layer depths during 1965-2019. NASA's annual mean of observed anomalies (i.e., NASA_Land_Annual) and 5-year moving Lowess smoothing (i.e., NASA_Land_Lowess (5)) [33] are also shown for comparison.

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Context 1
... of land surface temperature changes by using Equation (3) and the energy entered the land in Table 5 are shown in Figure 5, in which NASA's annual mean and 5-year Lowess smoothing of observed land temperature anomalies [33] are exhibited as well. ...
Context 2
... Figure 5 shows the similar trends to surface air temperature changes as seen in Figure 3. Before late 1970s the observed anomalies deviate obviously from the simulations, with more negative anomalies; during the 1980s and 1990s the observed anomalies fluctuate between the simulations at a boundary layer depth of 0.015 and 0.15 meters, while in the last two decades the observed anomalies fall within the simulations between boundary layer depths of 0.0175 and 0.03 meters, and a depth of 0.025 meters can be a good representative since 1980. These variations may have reflected the changes in methods and technologies of measurements as well as in natural conditions on the land surface such as vegetation covers as well as the effect of ice melting (the land is the most susceptible to any heat changes because of its smallest SHC among the components). ...
Context 3
... suggest that the globe has experienced a change from a "cold" era to a warm one as the warming proceeds. These changes are generally consistent with the changes in sea surface temperatures as shown in Figure 15 [29], where, similarly, the temperature was declining before 1904 and thereafter turning to an increasing trend journey, which coincides with Figure 1. This can be attributed to the industrialization that has consumed increasingly more fossil fuels and dissipated more waste heat into the climate system, driving the warming. ...

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