Simplified tectonic map of the Tethyan orogenic belt showing the main porphyry deposits formed in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times (see square and circle symbols, respectively). Arc/back-arc and arc/collision/post-collision settings occurring along this belt are also evidenced. Detailed map of the Carpathians-Balkans region is shown as inset. Locations and ages of ore deposit are derived from Singer et al. (2008), Cassard et al. (2012), Richards (2014), Delibaş et al., 2016a; Moritz et al. (2016). 

Simplified tectonic map of the Tethyan orogenic belt showing the main porphyry deposits formed in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times (see square and circle symbols, respectively). Arc/back-arc and arc/collision/post-collision settings occurring along this belt are also evidenced. Detailed map of the Carpathians-Balkans region is shown as inset. Locations and ages of ore deposit are derived from Singer et al. (2008), Cassard et al. (2012), Richards (2014), Delibaş et al., 2016a; Moritz et al. (2016). 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The natural variability of geometry and dynamics of subduction zones leads to a variety of mantle and crustal processes that may influence the genesis of ore deposits in the overriding plate. These complex interactions cannot be fully represented by two-dimensional (2D) models but require that the spatial and temporal evolution of ore deposits be e...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... the metallogenic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region discussed above, some comparisons can be done with the whole Tethyan orogenic belt that extends from the Mediterranean region in the west to southeastern Asia (i.e. Papua New Guinea) in the east (Fig. 8). Mesozoic subduction-related deposits and notably porphyry Cu(-Mo-Au) deposits can be tracked all along the belt ( Richards, 2014). This suggests a relatively similar subduction setting along the whole Eurasian margin during this period, although some complexities had to occur in order to explain contrasting tectonic and metallogenic ...
Context 2
... tectonic and metallogenic evolutions in some regions, such as between the Lesser Caucasus and Iran . During the Cenozoic, post- collision-related deposits, and notably porphyry Cu-Mo deposits, formed in the central part of the Tethyan belt where major collision events occurred (including the Arabia-Eurasia and India-Eurasia colli- sion zones; Fig. 8). According to Richards (2014), these deposits are similar to Mesozoic subduction-related deposits. Nonetheless, in order to explain the Mo enrichment observed in post-collisional porphyry deposits (e.g. Moritz et al., 2016), we propose that crustal thickening resulting from these collisional events favored a high degree of differ- ...
Context 3
... generated, thus promoting Mo en- richment of the melt (Audétat, 2010). Coevally, back-arc-related Au- rich deposits, including porphyry Au-Cu deposits, formed during the Cenozoic on the western and eastern terminations of the Tethyan belt (i.e. in the Carpathians and Aegean-western Anatolian region and in southeast Asia, respectively; Fig. 8) (e.g. Sillitoe, 1997;Heinrich and Neubauer, 2002;Garwin et al., 2005). In both regions, active subduc- tion zones display a complex 3D architecture and dynamics involving both slab roll-back and tearing processes (e.g. Neubauer et al., 2005;Hall, 2011) responsible for the opening of back-arc basins where Au mobilization is favored ...

Similar publications

Article
The Kangshan Au-polymetallic deposit, in the Xiong'ershan District of China, lies on the southern margin of the North China Craton. The orebodies are hosted in (E)NE-(W)SW-trending brittle faults formed during the Mesozoic, which crosscut Neoarchean metamorphic rocks and Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks. The ore-forming process can be divided into th...

Citations

... The Western to Central Tethyan metallogenic belt extending from southeastern Europe to Iran hosts a great diversity of porphyry, epithermal, and volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits Moritz and Baker, 2019). Most of the studies were focused on Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic systems, which was a very fertile metallogenic time frame during the convergence and subsequent collision of Arabia, Africa, and Gondwana-derived microcontinents with the southern Eurasian margin (Fig. 1;e.g., Von Quadt et al., 2005;Aghazadeh et al., 2015;Delibaş et al., 2017;Menant et al., 2018;Kusçu et al., 2019;Rabayrol et al., 2019;Voudouris et al., 2019;Zürcher et al., 2019). By contrast, the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous metallogenic evolution of the Western to Central Tethyan metallogenic belt is only poorly known and documented Zürcher et al., 2019). ...
... This process is unlikely to be limited to postsubduction deposits. Indeed, the PGE-enriched Elatsite deposit is subduction related, as are the PGE-enriched Kalmakyr and British Columbia porphyry deposits (Thompson et al., 2001;Ciobanu et al., 2002;Lips et al., 2004;Augé et al., 2005;Pašava et al., 2010;Gallhofer et al., 2015;Cheng et al., 2018;Menant et al., 2018;Fig. 8F). ...
Book
Full-text available
This publication is dedicated to the memory of Jeremy Rich- ards, who studied many aspects of metal deposits worldwide, at global to local scales, from their relationship to tectonics to the role of metal resources in sustainability. Jeremy developed an early interest in geology from visiting historic mines in the Yorkshire Pennines of his native England. He studied geology at the University of Cambridge (B.Sc., 1983), then at the University of Toronto (M.Sc., 1986), followed by a Ph.D. degree at the Australian National University in 1990 and a postdoctoral position at the University of Saskatchewan (1990–1992). He taught at the University of Leicester (1992–1997) and then the University of Alberta (1997–2017) before joining Laurentian University as a Can- ada Research Chair in Metallogeny at the Harquail School of Earth Sciences and Mineral Exploration Research Centre (HES-MERC). Early in his career Jeremy developed an in-depth understanding of petrochemistry and isotope geology that was effectively brought to bear on regional-, district-, and deposit- scale aspects of metallogeny, in particular porphyry and epithermal systems. His studies began in Zambia and then Papua New Guinea, followed by the central Andes. Latterly, his efforts were focused on postsubduction deposits, particularly in the Tethyan belt, from Turkey through Iran and Pakistan to Tibet, as well as Archean porphyry-style deposits (e.g., in Namibia and Canada). Wherever he focused his attention, it was the tectono-magmatic settings and controls of ore genesis that captivated his geologic interest, as reflected in his many publications—in particular, his most highly cited "Tectono- magmatic precursors for porphyry Cu-(Mo-Au) deposit for- mation" (Economic Geology, 2003). Jeremy inspired many because he viewed porphyry and epithermal systems from a holistic perspective, encompassing- ing geodynamics, tectonics, magma chemistry, and metal endowment. This structured and systematic approach to economic geology embodied the mineral systems concept. He was influential as an economic geologist because his lucid and easy-to-understand writing style complemented his breadth of interest and ability to pinpoint topical questions to address. Jeremy was a creative researcher with original interpretations, many of which resulted in provocative papers that led to debate and new research avenues. He never shied away from controversial issues, whether on fairness and equity, publish- ing practices, or university governance. His outspoken commentary gained him some notoriety—and many followers. He collaborated with a wide range of colleagues and mentored many students and postdoctoral fellows, particularly from the countries where he worked. His efforts to help students become better scientists was well known, emphasizing a focus on fundamental questions, insightful illustration, and clarity of writing. A committed worker and humanist at heart, Jeremy also demonstrated intellectual leadership with his early critical assessment of the impact of resource extraction on sustainable development. His research in Vietnam, Nigeria, northern Canada, and elsewhere led him to argue that metals must be considered “irreplaceable,” to encourage conservation of use. In addition to his publications on the topic, he organized and edited the book Mining, Society, and a Sustainable World (Springer, 2009) and chaired the Canadian Geoscience Council Standing Committee on Sustainable Mineral Resources Development. It is this delicate balance between mineral exploration and sustainable development that we continue to grapple with today. BHP has at its core a desire to bring people and resources together to build a better world, and Jeremy was a strong advocate of this mission through his teaching and research at Laurentian University. As the environment in which we conduct research and exploration becomes ever more complex, Jeremy’s holistic view of mineral deposits and their custodianship gains increasing relevance. BHP and HES-MERC are proud to sponsor this memorial publication to honor and promote the dynamic, creative, and socially progressive thinking for which Jeremy was renowned, and to support his vision of Open Access publications. He laid an exemplary foundation for how to move forward together in continuing to unite people and resources to improve the world. Keenan Jennings, Vice President, Metals Exploration BHP Pedro J. Jugo, Associate Professor, on behalf of HES-MERC Laurentian University
... This process is unlikely to be limited to postsubduction deposits. Indeed, the PGE-enriched Elatsite deposit is subduction related, as are the PGE-enriched Kalmakyr and British Columbia porphyry deposits (Thompson et al., 2001;Ciobanu et al., 2002;Lips et al., 2004;Augé et al., 2005;Pašava et al., 2010;Gallhofer et al., 2015;Cheng et al., 2018;Menant et al., 2018;Fig. 8F). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Porphyry Cu deposits commonly contain critical and precious metal by-products, including the chalcophile and siderophile elements, Au, Pd, Pt, Ag, Te, Se, and Bi. These elements partition into residual sulfides during the partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite during subduction, potentially depleting the source magma for subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits. The chalcophile-rich residual sulfides in subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere are thought to be the source of metals in postsubduction porphyry Cu deposits, and as such these deposits may be more enriched in chalcophile and siderophile elements than subduction-related porphyry deposits, although many postsubduction deposits have low Au grades. We test this by presenting whole-rock assay and PGE data with in situ LA-ICP-MS trace element data from sulfide minerals from three porphyry Cu deposits. The Skouries Cu-Au-(PGE) porphyry deposit, Greece, and the Muratdere Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, Turkey are both postsubduction; these are contrasted with the El Teniente Cu-Mo porphyry deposit, Chile, which is a classic subduction-related system. By comparing these results with a newly compiled global dataset of trace element concentrations in sulfides from 18 other porphyry Cu deposits we show that postsubduction porphyry Cu deposit sulfides are relatively enriched in Bi, Sb, Te, and Se compared to sulfide minerals from subduction-related deposits. However, although some critical and precious metals (Ag, Bi, and Se) mainly reside in primary sulfide ore minerals, others (Au, Te, Pd, and Pt) are predominantly hosted in minor accessory minerals. Whole-rock data from mineralized samples show that although the Skouries and Muratdere deposits are enriched in Au compared with El Teniente, globally both subduction-related and postsubduction deposits can be precious and critical metal enriched, with metal endowment independent of tectonic setting. PGE-enriched porphyry Cu deposits are also enriched in Bi, Te, and Au, and semimetal melts are suggested to play an important role in PGE transport and concentration in porphyry Cu deposits.
... Oceanic plate tearing will accelerate slab pull rate to reach the asthenosphere [24,25,26,27]. The torn ocean crust moves closer to the upper mantle and undergoes melting so that it mixes with magma originating from the asthenosphere or the OIB reservoir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Manamas volcanic rock formed due to crustal thinning in fore arc setting. This research aims to provide information and the enrichment process of rare earth elements in Manamas Formation on the Timor Island and their tectonic implication. Manamas volcanic rock exposed in Bihati River, Baun, Timor consists of two different types of basalts, namely alkaline basalt and sub alkaline basalt. Analysis using ICP-MS method shows enrichment in large ion lithophile element and high field strength element. Subalkaline basalt has N-MORB patterns and alkaline basalt have OIB patterns. The Nb element is relatively impoverished that indicates influence of subduction activities. Thorium and uranium elements also show significant enrichment, due to sedimentary rocks contamination or continental crust or directly from the asthenosphere due to magma upwelling. The two distinctive patterns interpreted due to slab tear phenomenon beneath Timor Island during Australia oceanic plate subduction and recycled oceanic crust beneath Banda Arc.
... Η επιτάχυνση της προς Νότο οπισθοχώρησης της υποβύθισης οδήγησε στον οπισθοταφρικό εφελκυσμό και στην προοδευτική εκταφή των μεταμορφικών πυρήνων της Ροδόπης (η οποία έχει ξεκινήσει από το Ηώκαινο) και των Κυκλάδων (Menant et al., 2018). ...
... Στο Μειόκαινο και ιδιαίτερα μετά τα ~ 15 Ma , η προς νότο οπισθοχώρηση της υποβύθισης επιταχύνεται περισσότερο, με την Αιγαιακή οπισθοταφρική λεκάνη να εφελκύεται έντονα, λόγω ενός σχισίματος της πλάκας (slab tear) κάτω από τη δυτική Ανατολία (Menant et al., 2018), παράλληλα με την ενεργοποίηση ρηγμάτων μετασχηματισμού Σκόδρα -Ιπέκιο (Shkoder -Peja), Ελμπασάν και Οθωνοί στα δυτικά (Handy et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis aims to understand the deformation pattern of Mount Helicon, where the geotectonic units of Parnassos, Boeotia – Western Thessaly and Subpelagonic (Upper Pelagonian) are located. The clarification of the units’ stratigraphy, in combination with the understanding of the geodynamic evolution, from the rifting stage of the Gondwana’s continental margin – Greater Adria – at the upper Permian, till nowadays, alongside with paleostress analysis of the tectonic fabric, made possible the separation of the deformation pattern into three episodes, namely preorogenetic, co-orogenetic and post-orogenetic. During the pre-orogenetic episode of Paleocene, WNW – ESE synsedimentary faults were being active, potentially due to a clockwise rotation of Parnassos. During the co-orogenetic episode of Eocene, between the units of Parnassos and Boeotia - Western Thessaly, a thrust system of ramp – flat geometry was formed, with the lower horizontal decollement to be located at the base of the volcanο-sedimentary formation. On the south area, due to the different thrusting velocity of Boeotia – Western Thessaly unit onto Parnassos unit, in relation to its thrusting velocity onto Pindos, a dextral strike-slip fault zone was formed. Within the geotectonic units, the compression regime is expressed by either reverse or strike – slip faults, while within Boeotia – Western Thessaly unit, a second horizontal decollement was formed at the base of the Boeotian flysch. The post-orogenetic episode of Pliocene – Quaternary, is divided into two periods with a border at 0.7 Ma. Initially, the tensile regime was being located in the wider region of central Greece, while then was limited to the modern gulf of Corinth and the Euboean gulf. As a result, new faults were formed, alongside the reactivation of older structures, while the orientation of the tensile axis was specified in NNE – SSW regarding the first period, and N – S about the second one. The completion of kinematic and dynamic analysis of deformation, led to modelling of both the geological structure and its evolution, with the integration of the geotectonic units in the wider geodynamic framework of Hellinides.
... The change of slab angle (i.e., slab roll-back, steepening or flattening), trench retreat or advancement, or slab rupture initiation and propagation, necessarily results in a modification of the melting loci in the mantle and thus in the spatial position of magmatic front on the surface of the overriding plate (e.g., Davies and von Blanckenburg, 1995;Wortel and Spakman, 2000). In the case of slab roll-back, steepening and rupture scenarios (i.e., break-off or tearing), postsubduction asthenospheric upwelling plays a key role as remobilization agent of the fertile (i.e., previously metasomatized and metal-bearing) subcontinental lithospheric mantle and lower crust (e.g., Richards, 2009;Menant et al., 2018;Rabayrol and Hart, 2020). The trench-parallel magmatic front in slab roll-back settings migrates toward the retreating trench (e.g., Dilek and Altunkaynak, 2009), whereas in slab break-off setting, the migration of magmatism is parallel to the trench or the collisional front following the slab rupture point propagation in the mantle (e.g., Rabayrol et al., 2019b). ...
... The construction of the Western Tethyan orogenic belt and the formation of mineralizing magmas resulted from the accretion of Gondwana-derived crustal fragments and closure of the Northern and Southern Neotethyan oceans since the Mesozoic (e.g., Şengör and Yılmaz, 1981;Richards, 2015). The Balkan-northern Aegean-western Anatolian region in the Western Tethyan orogenic belt recorded the southward migration of the magmatic front, which produced porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au deposits during the Late Cretaceous in the Balkans and gold-rich Cenozoic porphyry and epithermal deposits in the Balkan, Aegean, and western Anatolian regions (e.g., Menant et al., 2018;Baker, 2019;Rabayrol et al., 2019a). The Eocene was a favorable period for the formation of both porphyry Cu-Au-Mo and epithermal Au mineralization throughout the Western Tethyan orogenic belt, mostly in Turkey (~17 Moz Au and 1.4 Mt Cu; e.g., Halilaga, Çöpler, Kaymaz, Kestanelik, Mastra, Kırazlı, Krumovgrad, and Ardala-Salinbaş deposits;Baker, 2019). ...
... The westward migration of Eocene magmatism and associated magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization is accompanied by a change in metal association from Cu-Mo in the early Eocene Tavşanlı belt, to Cu-Au in the middle Eocene Biga district, to epithermal Au-Pb-Zn in the late Eocene Rhodope district, to Cu-Au in the late Eocene to Oligocene Serbo-Macedonian belt (Fig. 6). By comparison, Miocene mineralization in the Aegean-western Anatolian region is dominated by Au-rich porphyry and epithermal deposits (Menant et al., 2018;Baker, 2019;Rabayrol et al., 2019a). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Bursa mineral district in northwest Anatolia (Turkey) is an emerging prospective area for porphyry Cu-Mo (Au-Re) mineralization along the Western Tethyan Eocene magmatic belt that links the Balkan to Lesser Caucasus regions along the southern Black Sea coast. Field observations as well as time constraints on mineralized magmas of the Bursa district are limited. Additionally, the tectonic setting of Eocene magmatism in northwest Turkey is controversial and includes either Neotethyan slab roll-back or break-off scenario. We show that the Bursa mineral district consists of porphyry Cu-Mo, skarn Cu, and rare epithermal Au-Ag deposits, prospects, and occurrences on the footwall of the Eskis¸ehir fault, south of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. The porphyry prospects are hosted within porphyritic dioritic, granodioritic, and granitic rocks that were altered by potassic and phyllic assemblages and quartz-sulfide vein stockwork zones. Our new CA-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that porphyry mineralization of the Bursa district formed between 51 and 46 Ma and thus before the porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au mineralization of the Biga (~43–39 Ma) and Rhodope districts (~35–31 Ma) and the Serbo-Macedonian belt (~36–22 Ma). Therefore, we interpret that Eocene magmatism and associated Cu-Au-Mo mineralization migrated westward along the western part of the Western Tethyan Eocene magmatic belt. This migration, which is specific to the Eocene period, represents a second-order and diachronous response to the first-order southward magmatic front migration and roll-back initiation of the Hellenic slab beneath the Balkan-Aegean-western Anatolian region since the Late Cretaceous.
... The change of slab angle (i.e., slab roll-back, steepening or flattening), trench retreat or advancement, or slab rupture initiation and propagation, necessarily results in a modification of the melting loci in the mantle and thus in the spatial position of magmatic front on the surface of the overriding plate (e.g., Davies and von Blanckenburg, 1995;Wortel and Spakman, 2000). In the case of slab roll-back, steepening and rupture scenarios (i.e., break-off or tearing), postsubduction asthenospheric upwelling plays a key role as remobilization agent of the fertile (i.e., previously metasomatized and metal-bearing) subcontinental lithospheric mantle and lower crust (e.g., Richards, 2009;Menant et al., 2018;Rabayrol and Hart, 2020). The trench-parallel magmatic front in slab roll-back settings migrates toward the retreating trench (e.g., Dilek and Altunkaynak, 2009), whereas in slab break-off setting, the migration of magmatism is parallel to the trench or the collisional front following the slab rupture point propagation in the mantle (e.g., Rabayrol et al., 2019b). ...
... The construction of the Western Tethyan orogenic belt and the formation of mineralizing magmas resulted from the accretion of Gondwana-derived crustal fragments and closure of the Northern and Southern Neotethyan oceans since the Mesozoic (e.g., Şengör and Yılmaz, 1981;. The Balkan-northern Aegean-western Anatolian region in the Western Tethyan orogenic belt recorded the southward migration of the magmatic front, which produced porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au deposits during the Late Cretaceous in the Balkans and gold-rich Cenozoic porphyry and epithermal deposits in the Balkan, Aegean, and western Anatolian regions (e.g., Menant et al., 2018;Baker, 2019;Rabayrol et al., 2019a). The Eocene was a favorable period for the formation of both porphyry Cu-Au-Mo and epithermal Au mineralization throughout the Western Tethyan orogenic belt, mostly in Turkey (~17 Moz Au and 1.4 Mt Cu;e.g., Halilaga, Çöpler, Kaymaz, Kestanelik, Mastra, Kırazlı, Krumovgrad, and Ardala-Salinbaş deposits;Baker, 2019). ...
... The westward migration of Eocene magmatism and associated magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization is accompanied by a change in metal association from Cu-Mo in the early Eocene Tavşanlı belt, to Cu-Au in the middle Eocene Biga district, to epithermal Au-Pb-Zn in the late Eocene Rhodope district, to Cu-Au in the late Eocene to Oligocene Serbo-Macedonian belt (Fig. 6). By comparison, Miocene mineralization in the Aegean-western Anatolian region is dominated by Au-rich porphyry and epithermal deposits (Menant et al., 2018;Baker, 2019;Rabayrol et al., 2019a). ...
Book
Full-text available
This publication is dedicated to the memory of Jeremy Richards, who studied many aspects of metal deposits worldwide, at global to local scales, from their relationship to tectonics to the role of metal resources in sustainability.
... Southward propagation of this tear led to enhanced asthenospheric upwelling into the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge (e.g., Prelević et al., 2012). Slab tearing also led to an accelerated exhumation of the Menderes Massif (Menant et al., 2018), accompanied by the formation of the NE-trending Izmir-Balikesir and Uşak-Muǧla transfer zones (Fig. 1) on its western and eastern flank, respectively (Erkül et al., 2005;Karaoǧlu and Helvaci, 2014). Volcanic edifices were emplaced along these transfer zones. ...
... Synextensional volcanic rocks in western Anatolia show an ~north to south(west) evolution from lithosphere-sourced K-dominated calc-alkaline rocks in the early to mid-Miocene through mildly alkaline and ultrapotassic lamproites in the Baker et al., 2016). Tectonic features and basement blocks are modified from Karaoğlu and Helvaci (2014) and Menant et al. (2018). West Anatolian metallogenic province (WAMP) is from Rabayrol et al. (2019). ...
... Fluid inclusion data (Hanilçi et al., 2015) as well as stratigraphic reconstructions ) support a shallow emplacement depth of less than 1 km for the intrusions at Kışladaǧ. When we consider the pressure-related controls on Cu and Au partitioning between magmas and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, this might be one of the factors contributing to the paucity of Cu in the deposit (e.g., Murakami et al., 2010;Menant et al., 2018;. ...
Article
Porphyry deposits typically occur in subduction-related arcs but have more recently also been described in postsubduction, collisional to extensional back-arc settings. These different tectonic environments not only might imply different genetic processes but also seem to result in different metal endowments (e.g., Au rich versus Cu rich). It is therefore relevant, also for exploration purposes, to understand the magmatic processes involved in porphyry formation in these different tectonic environments. This study focuses on the Kişladaǧ porphyry Au (17.4 Moz) deposit in western Anatolia, which is centered on a series of porphyritic monzonite stocks of high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic affinity and formed in a continental rifting environment. With 17.4 Moz of Au, Kişladaǧ is of global metallogenic importance and hence a good example for studying the genetic processes associated with porphyry deposits in extensional back-arc settings. We herein combine a comprehensive set of new zircon textural observations, in situ zircon trace element and Hf isotope data, and previously published zircon geochronology to study the magmatic processes associated with porphyry deposit formation at Kişladaǧ. We show that mafic rejuvenation of a slowly crystallizing (between ~15.8 and 14.9 Ma) magma reservoir below Kişladaǧ immediately preceded porphyry deposit formation. Zircon trace elements and geochronology suggest a longer and deeper evolution for the early fertile magmas compared to the later infertile magmas. Magma evolution at Kişladaǧ was accompanied by crustal wall-rock assimilation. Whole-rock Nd and Sr radiogenic isotopes show that increasing asthenosphere-derived melt input under accelerated regional extension caused a loss in fertility of the system over time.
... Late Cretaceous magmatic rocks exposed in SE Europe west of the Black Sea mark the onset of a continuous southward migrating magmatic activity, which is currently located in the modern South Aegean volcanic arc (Menant et al., 2018;van Hinsbergen et al., 2005). The magmatism formed a large volcanic arc of Andean type known as the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Belt (Popov et al., 2002), Late Cretaceous Magmatic Belt (LCMB; Marchev et al., 2013; this study) or previously as the Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenic Belt (Berza et al., 1998). ...
... Magmatic products in this arc are concentrated in five main segments: Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Central Srednogorie, and Eastern Srednogorie (Fig. 1a). During the Late Cretaceous these segments, marking the strike of the subduction zone, were oriented linearly in approximately NW-SE or W-E direction (e.g., Menant et al., 2018), but post-magmatic tectonism in the Cenozoic rotated the Timok, Banat, and Apuseni segments to about 90 degrees clockwise from their original position (e.g., Gallhofer et al., 2015;Panaiotu, 1998;Schmid et al., 2020). The Bulgarian portion of the belt forms ~100-km wide, east-west oriented magmatic unit that is roughly parallel to the main tectonic zones in the area (Fig. 1a). ...
Article
A prominent subduction-related magmatic arc hosting significant mineralization formed in SE Europe during the Late Cretaceous. Previous studies on major magmatic centers and ore deposits suggested that this belt formed through southwards retreat of a subducting Neotethys oceanic slab. However, the timing and the petrologic characteristics of magmatic products from the less mineralized eastern portions of this belt remain largely unknown. The complete lack of radiometric ages and limited geochemical characterization of this magmatism adds considerable uncertainty on existing large-scale geodynamic reconstructions focused on the Late Cretaceous magmatism in SE Europe. Here, we address this question by studying little known Cretaceous lavas and sub-volcanic bodies from the Eastern Balkan, Bulgaria. Major and trace element contents of these volumetrically limited rocks show a clear subduction signature. The most primitive rocks are high-Al basalts, which further differentiated into andesites and dacites via fractional crystallization in relatively small magma chambers. The mineral chemistry and assemblages constrain magmatic conditions prior to crystallization to pressures of 3-7 kb, temperatures of 900-1020 • C, water contents of ~4-7 wt% and high oxygen fugacities. Phenocryst features like reverse zonation of clinopyroxene and amphibole and sieve and patchy textures of plagioclase suggest magma mixing processes. Initial εHf values of Cretaceous zircons (+2 to − 2) and inherited, mainly Variscan and older zircons (+3 to − 11) provide clear evidence for assimilation of crustal lithologies by mantle-derived Late Cretaceous magmas. Amphibole phenocrysts from an andesite and a dacite give 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plateau ages of 94.67 ± 0.40 Ma and 94.56 ± 0.40 Ma, respectively. These dates are the oldest recorded in the entire Late Cretaceous magmatic belt and constrain the onset of the subduction magmatism to the later parts of the Cenomanian stage. Regional correlations based on these results reveal that processes of slab retreat were active also in the eastern part of the magmatic arc. Further, these results outline a clear temporal along-arc trend of progressively younger initiation of the arc magmatism from east to west.
... Late Cretaceous magmatic rocks exposed in SE Europe west of the Black Sea mark the onset of a continuous southward migrating magmatic activity, which is currently located in the modern South Aegean volcanic arc (Menant et al., 2018;van Hinsbergen et al., 2005). The magmatism formed a large volcanic arc of Andean type known as the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Belt (Popov et al., 2002), Late Cretaceous Magmatic Belt (LCMB; Marchev et al., 2013; this study) or previously as the Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenic Belt (Berza et al., 1998). ...
... Magmatic products in this arc are concentrated in five main segments: Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Central Srednogorie, and Eastern Srednogorie (Fig. 1a). During the Late Cretaceous these segments, marking the strike of the subduction zone, were oriented linearly in approximately NW-SE or W-E direction (e.g., Menant et al., 2018), but post-magmatic tectonism in the Cenozoic rotated the Timok, Banat, and Apuseni segments to about 90 degrees clockwise from their original position (e.g., Gallhofer et al., 2015;Panaiotu, 1998;Schmid et al., 2020). The Bulgarian portion of the belt forms ~100-km wide, east-west oriented magmatic unit that is roughly parallel to the main tectonic zones in the area (Fig. 1a). ...
Article
Full-text available
A prominent subduction-related magmatic arc hosting significant mineralization formed in SE Europe during the Late Cretaceous. Previous studies on major magmatic centers and ore deposits suggested that this belt formed through southwards retreat of a subducting Neotethys oceanic slab. However, the timing and the petrologic characteristics of magmatic products from the less mineralized eastern portions of this belt remain largely unknown. The complete lack of radiometric ages and limited geochemical characterization of this magmatism adds considerable uncertainty on existing large-scale geodynamic reconstructions focused on the Late Cretaceous magmatism in SE Europe. Here, we address this question by studying little known Cretaceous lavas and sub-volcanic bodies from the Eastern Balkan, Bulgaria. Major and trace element contents of these volumetrically limited rocks show a clear subduction signature. The most primitive rocks are high-Al basalts, which further differentiated into andesites and dacites via fractional crystallization in relatively small magma chambers. The mineral chemistry and assemblages constrain magmatic conditions prior to crystallization to pressures of 3–7 kb, temperatures of 900–1020 °C, water contents of ~4–7 wt% and high oxygen fugacities. Phenocryst features like reverse zonation of clinopyroxene and amphibole and sieve and patchy textures of plagioclase suggest magma mixing processes. Initial εHf values of Cretaceous zircons (+2 to −2) and inherited, mainly Variscan and older zircons (+3 to −11) provide clear evidence for assimilation of crustal lithologies by mantle-derived Late Cretaceous magmas. Amphibole phenocrysts from an andesite and a dacite give ⁴⁰Ar/³⁹Ar plateau ages of 94.67 ± 0.40 Ma and 94.56 ± 0.40 Ma, respectively. These dates are the oldest recorded in the entire Late Cretaceous magmatic belt and constrain the onset of the subduction magmatism to the later parts of the Cenomanian stage. Regional correlations based on these results reveal that processes of slab retreat were active also in the eastern part of the magmatic arc. Further, these results outline a clear temporal along-arc trend of progressively younger initiation of the arc magmatism from east to west.
... The Neotethyan orogen is marked by a major porphyry-related mineralized zone that extends across central and southeast Europe, Turkey, and Iran through the Himalayan region to Indochina, and is one of the world's largest metallogenic belts (Richards, 2015). The Biga Peninsula is a part of the Serbo-Macedonian-Rhodope metallogenic belt in the Balkans, which is essentially the eastward continuation of this orogenic belt in the northeastern of the Aegean region, and hosts numerous world-class porphyry, epithermal, and skarn deposits (e.g., Yigit, 2012;Richards, 2015;Sánchez et al., 2016;Menant et al., 2018;Kuşcu et al., 2019). Although the western segment is highly prospective and has been extensively explored, the east of the Biga Peninsula (which includes the Yenice region) has received less attention (Fig. 1). ...
Article
We report the iron (n = 13), copper (n = 13), sulfur (n = 25) and lead (n = 31) isotope compositions of mineralized samples from porphyry, skarn and epithermal mineralization in the Yenice region that lies in the east of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey. The vast majority of isotopic data were analyzed from the world-class Arapuçandere Pb-Zn-Cu (Ag-Au) deposit that is one of the best example of intermediate sulfidation epithermal deposits within the Serbo-Macedonian-Rhodope metallogenic belt in the northeastern of the Aegean. The δ⁵⁶Fe values range from -1.06 to +0.46‰ and reflect the complex interplay between redox, Rayleigh and kinetic effects. The δ⁶⁵Cu values also define a narrow ranges of -0.07 to +0.77‰ that is typical of primary minerals in magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits worldwide. The Cu isotope values of chalcopyrite from the Arapuçandere deposit tend to progressively increase through the surface, which creates a vector from the proximal to distal portions of magmatic-hydrothermal environment, possibly with local supergene processes within deposit. The sulfides from the Yenice region have a relatively narrow range of δ³⁴S values that range between -4.0 and 3.9‰ and mostly cluster around 0‰, indicating sulfur is mainly derived from a magmatic source at the time of mineralization. All the Pb isotope data that includes results from ore minerals fall within the fields defined by Oligocene to Miocene Aegean-West Anatolian magmatic rocks. This observation supports the hypothesis that the metals and sulfur contained within all the various styles of mineralization considered here were derived entirely from these granitoids, with no significant contamination from the local basement rocks. This observation also constrains the processes controlling the Fe and Cu isotope compositions to those operating within the porphyry, skarn, and epithermal hydrothermal systems, rather than contamination by interaction with the basement rocks.