Signalling for arsenite-induced EMT. Arsenite activates NFκB signalling pathways, which induce EMT via Snail as well as lead to the secretion of IL-6. Autocrine IL-6 signalling induces EMT and activates PI3K signalling via miR-21 mediated repression of PTEN [76]

Signalling for arsenite-induced EMT. Arsenite activates NFκB signalling pathways, which induce EMT via Snail as well as lead to the secretion of IL-6. Autocrine IL-6 signalling induces EMT and activates PI3K signalling via miR-21 mediated repression of PTEN [76]

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Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a disease with globally rising incidence and poor prognosis for patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a driver of metastasis in many carcinomas, and cSCC is no exception. We aimed to provide a systematic overview of the clinical and experimental evidence...

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... after 19 weeks. After 28 weeks, the arsenic-exposed cells display an advanced EMT phenotype. Additionally, pathway analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs showed inhibition of the ER stress pathway. Investigations into the molecular mechanism implicate NFκB, PI3K and IL-6 signalling as the major contributors to the EMT phenotype (Fig. 3). IL-6 induces miR-21 via STAT3 cytokine signalling [123]. In return, miR-21 activates Akt via the inhibition of PTEN [124]. Furthermore, the increased CSC-like properties are ascribed to increase p38/ NFκB signalling as well as the induction of IL-6 [107,108]. Upregulation of the EMT-TF Snail provides a direct link to canonical EMT ...