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| Shape-change foundation based on hygroscopic materials-The smooth foundation pile is driven into the soil (A-left), then the biodegradable material decays (A-middle). The material decomposition exposes the hygroscopic material to the saturated soil, resulting in a three-dimensional structure and increased anchorage through friction (A-right), (B-left and right) show the disposition of the materials before and after the decomposition of the biodegradable material.

| Shape-change foundation based on hygroscopic materials-The smooth foundation pile is driven into the soil (A-left), then the biodegradable material decays (A-middle). The material decomposition exposes the hygroscopic material to the saturated soil, resulting in a three-dimensional structure and increased anchorage through friction (A-right), (B-left and right) show the disposition of the materials before and after the decomposition of the biodegradable material.

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The continuous increase in population and human migration to urban and coastal areas leads to the expansion of built environments over natural habitats. Current infrastructure suffers from environmental changes and their impact on ecosystem services. Foundations are static anchoring structures dependent on soil compaction, which reduces water infil...

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... first concept of shape-change foundations is based on the swelling properties of hygroscopic materials when they absorb water. A hygroscopic material is located behind a biodegradable layer along the surface of a pile ( Figure 7B). After placement in the soil and decomposition of the biodegradable layer, the hygroscopic material becomes exposed to water in wetland soil. ...
Context 2
... placement in the soil and decomposition of the biodegradable layer, the hygroscopic material becomes exposed to water in wetland soil. The water triggers material expansion, creating a threedimensional structure to increase the surface contact with soil ( Figure 7). ...

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... The biomimicry approach can be employed to transfer biological strategies observed in tree roots toward the design of multifunctional sustainable foundation systems [9,10,16,30,46,47,67]. Literature reviews of root anchorage, root erosion prevention and foundation design were completed and published in [67]. ...
... The biomimicry approach can be employed to transfer biological strategies observed in tree roots toward the design of multifunctional sustainable foundation systems [9,10,16,30,46,47,67]. Literature reviews of root anchorage, root erosion prevention and foundation design were completed and published in [67]. Performance requirements and environmental constraints of foundations differ from those of root systems [16]. ...
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... Fig. 4(c) provides a visual representation of the designed foundation, illustrating the integration of these elements and highlighting the outcome of their innovative approach. Stachew et al. (Stachew et al., 2021) provided the conceptual design of a hierarchical foundation with multi-phase implementation, where the smooth linear foundation pile was driven vertically into the ground, and individual semiflexible linear elements could be laterally pushed and penetrated into the soil, as illustrated in Fig. 4(d). Meanwhile, mangrove roots play a dual role in their environment. ...
... (a) Diagram of plant root system structure(Calusi et al., 2020); (b) Imagery of root-inspired, 3D-printed anchor models(Mallett et al., 2018); (c) Simplified configurations of the new foundation after the tree root system(Shrestha et al., 2022); (d) Hierarchical foundation concept(Stachew et al., 2021); (e) Schematic diagram of the bed shear stress mechanism influenced by mangrove roots(Kazemi et al., 2021); (f) Inset of the mangrove-inspired skirt pile group around a monopile(Li et al., 2022a); (g) Different models of ant nest structure(Tschinkel, 2010); (h) Diagram of the process of creating climate conditions. ...
... Numerous studies have reported the negative impacts of coastal protection infrastructures on marine and coastal habitats, including ecosystem degradation and consequent loss of biodiversity (Van Slobbe et al., 2013;Moosavi, 2017). Due to static reasons, traditional structures are generally overdimensioned with respect to the ordinary environmental conditions, causing water stagnation and anoxia, and dramatic, unintended changes in the natural nearshore littoral transport (McLachlan and Defeo, 2018;Stachew et al., 2021). ...
... Noteworthy is the study of Stachew et al. (2021) regarding a mangrove root-inspired design for coastal protection. It is an interesting showcase of the biomimetic process from the study of a biological system to the development of a conceptual technical design. ...
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... However, although both erosion and accretion occur in coastal areas, their consequences are opposites: sediment is moved away by erosion and built up by accretion. Erosion carries away materials, reducing floor substrate stability that supports coastal vegetation (Stachew et al., 2021). The accumulation of fine sediment on mudflats leads to vertical accretion (Braat et al., 2019) and lower oxygen availability in the soil underneath (Chanvalon de et al., 2015). ...
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... Root strategies of particular interest for the design of biomimetic civil infrastructure include self-penetrating tips, branched system increasing bearing area, enhanced friction through surface texture, integration of multifunctionality into individual components, self-healing processes, programmable decay, and dynamic adaptation to internal and external stimuli, especially in the wake of increasing urbanization and storm events. A comprehensive overview of root strategies of interest and analogies for civil infrastructure is presented in (Stachew, Houette, and Gruber 2021). ...
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... 4.4.1. ISO 18458 technology pull As could be expected, some studies [40,47,54] employed the internationally standardized methodology for biomimetics, ISO 18458 [20]. This method, previously presented in section 2, was adopted and mentioned explicitly in the study by Stachew et al. [54] for designign building foundations based on roots. ...
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Mangrove forests are present on most of the shorelines in tropical regions. The submerged roots of mangroves have a vital role in multiple phenomena that happens along with the hydrodynamic interaction with incoming water flow, including sediment transport, shoreline erosion, CO2 capture, and wave mitigation, among others. The complicated hydrodynamic behavior of the mangrove roots with the incoming water flow can be related to the free stream velocity, the diameter of the roots, and the space between them. This study uses two-dimensional numerical simulations to estimate the flow characteristics through and around mangrove trees at a reasonable computational cost for practical applications. We modeled the mangrove trees as a constant circular array of diameter (D) containing small circular cylinders of diameter (d), which vary their size to represent different porosities. The numerical simulation uses Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes simulations (URANS) with the k-ω shear-stress transport (SST ) turbulence model at five Reynolds numbers based on the diameter of the porous cylinder within the subcritical regime (ReD = 600, 1200, 1900, 2500, 3000), and at four different porosities of the array (φ = 0%, 47%, 70%, and 86%). The results of this simplified model show that the developed 2-D models capture the main characteristics of the flow behavior in the near and far wake of a porous cylinder, which agrees with previous experimental and more advanced numerical works. The porous bodies (φ = 47% and 70%) exhibit more elongated vortices than a solid cylinder (φ=0%) and a vortex street with delayed vortex roll-up in the near wake. Arrays with medium (φ=70%) and high (φ=86%) porosities reach smaller values of maximum velocity deficit in the wake compared with low porosity (φ=46%) and a solid cylinder (φ=0%). However, as the porosity increases, the velocity recovery in the far-wake occurs at a lower rate. The simulations developed in this study illustrate the main features of the flow and the forces of simplified mangrove models providing valuable insights to practitioners and engineers in the early design of engineered mangroves for coastal and marine life protection.