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Setup used in Experiment 1, with the computer screen at 70 cm viewing distance.

Setup used in Experiment 1, with the computer screen at 70 cm viewing distance.

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Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... head support was used to minimise the participants' head movements. The experimental setup is shown in Figure 1. ...
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... refraction shift may have been a genuine change in refraction, but may also have been caused by a change in the participants' vertical viewing angle of about 5 deg while looking from the bottom of the screen upward towards the middle, causing a bias in the refraction measurement (see also Shapiro, Kelly, & Howland, 2005). Figure S1 in the Supplementary materials shows the average vertical eye movement of all participants. It can be seen that eye-movements followed a smooth pattern for the continuous ball movement and a pattern resembling saccades and fixations for the discontinuous ball movement. ...
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... studies have shown that pupil constriction is synchronised with vergence, a phenomenon that likely occurs via midbrain neurons that project to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and oculomotor nucleus (Balaban, Kiderman, Szczupak, Ashmore, & Hoffer, 2018;Feil, Moser, & Abegg, 2017;Myers & Stark, 1990). According to the dual interaction model, the pupillary near reflex is not driven by accommodation or convergence independently but is an interactive outcome of the neural pathways that drive accommodation and vergence (see Figure 15 in McDougal & Gamlin, 2015). ...
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... head support was used to minimise the participants' head movements. The experimental setup is shown in Figure 1. ...
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... note, our photorefractor was able to measure pupil diameters up to 8 mm only (Plusoptix, 2019a). However, an analysis of missing data (see Figure S1 in the Supplementary Materials) suggests that the measurement range of the photorefractor was not a factor that could explain the reduced pupillary sensitivity for increasing presentation distance. ...
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... XL2420Z, 1920 x 1080 pixels) with a refresh rate of 60 Hz, located at a 1-m distance from the eyes. For this distance, the display subtended a 29.8 deg horizontal and 16.5 deg vertical viewing angle. The luminance of the screen was 5.6 cd/m 2 , measured by pointing the sensor (Konica Minolta LS-150) through the hot mirror towards the screen (see Fig. 1 for the location of the hot mirror). There was no natural light in the room. The room was illuminated by a desk lamp located behind the participant and pointing to the back wall. The illuminance of the lighting in the room near the participant's eyes was 3.3 lx or 1.7 lx with the sensor (Konica Minolta T-10MA) oriented towards the ...
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... each second of data (i.e., 50 samples), we computed the number of samples with missing data and the mean interpolated pupil diameter. The results shown in Figure S1 indicate that pupil diameter recordings greater than 8.53 mm did not occur. The data also indicate that missing data were more likely at small pupil diameters. ...

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