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Sensory profiles of control and smoke-affected Shiraz wines; A = aroma, F = flavor, and AT = aftertaste. Data are the mean intensity ratings for one blended wine per treatment, presented to 62 panelists; ratings for all attributes were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05, two-way ANOVA).

Sensory profiles of control and smoke-affected Shiraz wines; A = aroma, F = flavor, and AT = aftertaste. Data are the mean intensity ratings for one blended wine per treatment, presented to 62 panelists; ratings for all attributes were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05, two-way ANOVA).

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It has been well established that bushfire/wildfire smoke can taint grapes (and therefore wine), depending on the timing and duration of exposure, but the risk of smoke contamination from stubble burning (a practice employed by some grain growers to prepare farmland for sowing) has not yet been established. This study exposed excised bunches of gra...

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Context 1
... sensory profiles of control and Smoke C wines were very similar, with these wines exhibiting the most intense fruit aromas and flavors, and least intense smoke-related attributes ( Figure 3, Table S4). This suggested the panelists did not detect any evidence of smoke taint in Smoke C wine, in agreement with chemical analysis, which found only a small difference in syringol content ( Figure 2, Table S1). ...
Context 2
... study investigating hydrolysis of volatile phenol glycoconjugates by enzymes present in human saliva suggested this phenomenon might contribute to the perception of the ashy aftertaste associated with smoke-tainted wines [38]. However, in the current study, Smoke A wine exhibited the characteristic ashy aftertaste ( Figure 3, Table S4), despite volatile phenol glycoconjugates only being detected at exceptionally low levels (Table S2). This suggests both volatile phenols and their glycoconjugates might contribute to the perception of the ashy aftertaste, as reported previously [5]. ...
Context 3
... sensory profiles of control and Smoke C wines were very similar, with these wines exhibiting the most intense fruit aromas and flavors, and least intense smoke-related attributes (Figure 3, Table S4). This suggested the panelists did not detect any evidence of smoke taint in Smoke C wine, in agreement with chemical analysis, which found only a small difference in syringol content (Figure 2, Table S1). ...
Context 4
... study investigating hydrolysis of volatile phenol glycoconjugates by enzymes present in human saliva suggested this phenomenon might contribute to the perception of the ashy aftertaste associated with smoke-tainted wines [38]. However, in the current study, Smoke A wine exhibited the characteristic ashy aftertaste (Figure 3, Table S4), despite volatile phenol glycoconjugates only being detected at exceptionally low levels (Table S2). This suggests both volatile phenols and their glycoconjugates might contribute to the perception of the ashy aftertaste, as reported previously [5]. ...
Context 5
... sensory data therefore showed good agreement with PM and volatile phenol data, and support the suggestion that exposure of grapes to smoke arising from pea stubble burning only resulted in a perceivable taint where grapes were located amongst the burning windrows. It is worth noting that the perceived level of taint for this wine (i.e., the Smoke A Cabernet Sauvignon wine) was likely lower than that observed for the Smoke B Shiraz wine from the preliminary trial, which displayed smoke and burnt rubber aromas and smoky flavor, and certainly for the Smoke A Shiraz wine, which not only exhibited smoke-related sensory attributes, but diminished fruit aromas and flavors ( Figure 3 and Table S4). As such, had a vineyard been located immediately downwind from the pea stubble burn, it is unlikely that there would have been any smoke contamination of unharvested grapes. ...
Context 6
... combustion of well-cured pea stubble, pre-raked into windrows, likely aided smoke dispersion as a consequence of improved burn efficiency, i.e., higher burn temperatures are more likely to produce convective heat columns that enhance vertical dispersion of smoke plumes. which displayed smoke and burnt rubber aromas and smoky flavor, and certainly for the Smoke A Shiraz wine, which not only exhibited smoke-related sensory attributes, but diminished fruit aromas and flavors ( Figure 3 and Table S4). As such, had a vineyard been located immediately downwind from the pea stubble burn, it is unlikely that there would have been any smoke contamination of unharvested grapes. ...

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... Grapegrowers and winemakers are not only being challenged by prolonged drought and heatwaves [2], but where bushfires occur in or near wine regions, by the consequences of vineyard exposure to smoke [3][4][5]. Wine made from smoke-affected grapes can exhibit unpleasant smoky, medicinal and ashy sensory characters [6][7][8][9], depending on the density of smoke [10,11], and the duration and (phenological) timing of smoke exposure [11][12][13][14]. Strategies that transform smoke-affected juice and wine into a saleable product are needed to help offset revenue losses incurred due to 'smoke taint', where vineyard smoke exposure cannot be avoided or prevented. ...
... Grapegrowers and winemakers are not only being challenged by prolonged drought and heatwaves [2], but where bushfires occur in or near wine regions, by the consequences of vineyard exposure to smoke [3][4][5]. Wine made from smoke-affected grapes can exhibit unpleasant smoky, medicinal and ashy sensory characters [6][7][8][9], depending on the density of smoke [10,11], and the duration and (phenological) timing of smoke exposure [11][12][13][14]. Strategies that transform smoke-affected juice and wine into a saleable product are needed to help offset revenue losses incurred due to 'smoke taint', where vineyard smoke exposure cannot be avoided or prevented. ...
... Volatile phenols (e.g., guaiacols, cresols and syringols) have been identified as compositional markers of smoke taint, in both free and glycosylated forms [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18], and various strategies that mitigate either their uptake by grapes [19][20][21][22][23][24][25] or their presence in wine [4,[26][27][28][29][30] have been evaluated. Currently, the most promising mitigation strategy involves enclosing grape bunches in activated carbon fabric, thereby preventing smoke contamination of grapes [24,25]. ...
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Where vineyard exposure to bushfire smoke cannot be avoided or prevented, grape and wine producers need strategies to transform smoke-affected juice and wine into saleable product. This study evaluated the potential for spinning cone column (SCC) distillation to be used for the remediation of ‘smoke taint’. Compositional analysis of ‘stripped wine’ and condensate collected during SCC treatment of two smoke-tainted red wines indicated limited, if any, removal of volatile phenols, while their non-volatile glycoconjugates were concentrated due to water and ethanol removal. Together with the removal of desirable volatile aroma compounds, this enhanced the perception of smoke-related sensory attributes; i.e., smoke taint intensified. Stripped wines also became increasingly sour and salty as ethanol (and water) were progressively removed. A preliminary juice remediation trial yielded more promising results. While clarification, heating, evaporation, deionization and fermentation processes applied to smoke-tainted white juice gave ≤3 µg/L changes in volatile phenol concentrations, SCC distillation of smoke-tainted red juice increased the volatile phenol content of condensate (in some cases by 3- to 4-fold). Deionization of the resulting condensate removed 75 µg/L of volatile phenols, but fermentation of reconstituted juice increased volatile phenol concentrations again, presumably due to yeast metabolism of glycoconjugate precursors. Research findings suggest SCC distillation alone cannot remediate smoke taint, but used in combination with adsorbents, SCC may offer a novel remediation strategy, especially for tainted juice.