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Sensor layout for the Electrical Geodesics Inc. (EGI) 128-channel hydrocel sensor net. Electrode locations averaged for measurement of the error-related negativity (ERN) are in the blue circle; the red circle identifies locations for measurement of the post-error positivity (Pe).

Sensor layout for the Electrical Geodesics Inc. (EGI) 128-channel hydrocel sensor net. Electrode locations averaged for measurement of the error-related negativity (ERN) are in the blue circle; the red circle identifies locations for measurement of the post-error positivity (Pe).

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Meditation is associated with positive health behaviors and improved cognitive control. One mechanism for the relationship between meditation and cognitive control is changes in activity of the anterior cingulate cortex-mediated neural pathways. The error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) components of the scalp-recorded event-rela...

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... 39 Although there are formal programs (eg, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy) with strong empirical support for improving well-being, 40 brief 10-to 15-minute, singlesession mindfulness interventions (eg, body scan) also have demonstrated improvements in positive affect and physiological functioning (eg, blood pressure). 41,42 Positive psychology interventions (eg, identifying and using personal strengths, performing acts of kindness) that aim to promote optimism, gratitude, and positive affect also have demonstrated efficacy in improving psychological well-being in populations with CVD or at risk for CVD. [43][44][45][46] The current findings need to be considered in the context of the study's limitations. ...
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... Several studies on non-clinical populations have reported no significant difference between meditators and controls on either ERN or Pe amplitudes Bing-Canar et al., 2016) while other studies examining both ERN and Pe have presented some significant effects. These effects were additionally inconsistent, with some only reporting differences in the ERN (and not the Pe) for mindfulness meditators when compared with controls (Andreu et al., 2017;Saunders et al., 2016;Smart & Segalowitz, 2017;Teper & Inzlicht, 2013), while Larson et al. (2013) only reported changes in the Pe (and not the ERN) ( Table 2). Additionally, different studies have at times reported differences in the meditation group that are in the opposite direction to other studies; for example, Lin et al. (2019) reported an increased Pe amplitude in their mindful group, while Larson et al. (2013) report a decreased Pe amplitude. ...
... These effects were additionally inconsistent, with some only reporting differences in the ERN (and not the Pe) for mindfulness meditators when compared with controls (Andreu et al., 2017;Saunders et al., 2016;Smart & Segalowitz, 2017;Teper & Inzlicht, 2013), while Larson et al. (2013) only reported changes in the Pe (and not the ERN) ( Table 2). Additionally, different studies have at times reported differences in the meditation group that are in the opposite direction to other studies; for example, Lin et al. (2019) reported an increased Pe amplitude in their mindful group, while Larson et al. (2013) report a decreased Pe amplitude. One possible explanation for the conflicting results is that the effect of mindfulness on error processing is conditional on other factors. ...
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... Repeated mental training activities are known to benefit the efficiency of attentional processing (van den Hurk et al., 2010;Becerra et al., 2017), attentionrelated behavioral responses (Jha et al., 2007), and to affect neurophysiological measures of executive attention, such as the event-related potential P3 (Lin et al., 2019). Further, MM seems to increase the efficiency of cognitive control and conflict monitoring (Larson et al., 2013;Jo et al., 2017), to improve self-regulation (Tang et al., 2007;Friese and Hofmann, 2016;Kaunhoven and Dorjee, 2017), emotion regulation (Teper et al., 2013;Roemer et al., 2015;Tang et al., 2016), self-control (Bowlin and Baer, 2012;Friese et al., 2012), and to reduce impulsivity Rasmussen, 2013, 2017;Yao et al., 2017;Dixon et al., 2019). ...
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... interventions aimed at tackling dysfunctional attentional processing seem to be effective in FND, particularly in functional seizures 133 . indeed, one hypothesis is that mindfulness interferes with cognitive processes such as increased attention towards the body, leading to symptom improvement 134 . ...
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... Second, mindfulness is a personal practice that needs to be learned over time. Studies looking at single mindfulness interventions usually do not find the same effects that can be expected from continuous mindfulness practice (Larson et al., 2013;Thompson et al., 2021). In particular, transferring and applying it to specific domains of life, such as consumption, might take several years . ...
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The need for reducing meat consumption in affluent countries is increasingly recognized as crucial to minimizing carbon footprint. However, confronting individuals with rational arguments can prompt emotional discomfort, which is often relieved by engaging in rationalization processes stabilizing current consumption patterns. Mindfulness research suggests that making people aware of their emotional reactions through introspection can reduce these rationalization processes. In this mixed-method pilot experimental study, we inquired whether a single guided introspection, inspired by the micro-phenomenological interview technique, can alter individuals' experience of and abilities to deal with cognitive dissonance. Furthermore, we asked if such an intervention can stimulate attitude or intention changes concerning meat consumption. After inducing cognitive dissonance by exposing participants to pictures of the slaughter of a cow, the intervention group (n = 36) participated in the guided introspection, while the control group (n = 39) played solitaire. Self-report questionnaire measures of emotional discomfort, rationalization strategies, and attitudes towards meat consumption were administered before and after the intervention. Also, open-ended responses to participants’ experience of the study were analyzed. Quantitative results show significantly lower negative attitudes toward reducing meat consumption in the intervention group compared to the control group (partial η² = 0.107). Qualitative results indicate that these participants are more aware of negative emotions while engaging less in rationalization strategies. We conclude that our study indicates some potential for guided introspection to affect dissonance resolution and provide suggestions for future research.
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... Similarly, as the push to conduct domestic violence screenings in pediatricians' offices continues (Alvarez et al., 2016), efforts should be made to screen for female perpetration of domestic violence as well. Regarding implications for intervention, present findings suggest that treatments for children exposed to IPV should include components to target hypervigilance to error commission, such as mindfulness-based (Larson et al., 2013) and cognitive-behavioral interventions (Banneyer et al., 2018) targeting response to mistakes, as well as parenting interventions to reduce caregivers' reactivity to children's error commission. ...
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Early exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) places children at risk for ongoing emotional difficulties, including problems with self-regulation and high levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the impact of IPV exposure on children's error monitoring remains unknown. The present study utilized electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the impact of exposure to IPV in infancy on error monitoring in middle childhood. Results indicated that parents' perpetration of IPV against their romantic partners when children were under 24 months of age predicted hypervigilant error monitoring in children at age 8 (N = 30, 16 female), as indexed by error-related neural activity (ERN and Pe difference amplitudes), above and beyond the effects of general adversity exposure and parental responsiveness. There was no association between partner perpetration of IPV and children's error monitoring. Results illustrate the harmful effects of early exposure to parent-perpetrated IPV on error monitoring and highlight the importance of targeting children's and parents' cognitive and emotional responses to error commission in psychotherapy.
... Because of their relevance for work performance, accuracy, reaction time, and variability in reaction times are among the most widely researched objective performance indicators. These are the most applied objective indicators because in the majority of the studies (Eichel & Stahl, 2017;Fountain-Zaragoza et al., 2018;Keith et al., 2017;Larson et al., 2013;Lin et al., 2018;Moore & Malinowski, 2009;Quickel et al., 2014) attention is the performance indicator most related to mindfulness. Therefore, the enumerated indicators are needed to ensure effective performance metrics, and including them in our study makes it possible to compare our findings with those obtained in previous research. ...
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The present study focused on the relationship between trait mindfulness and the outcome component of performance, evaluated with objective indicators. In particular, four objective performance indicators were studied: accuracy, reaction time, variability in reaction times, and detection of unexpected stimuli. Because attention and awareness have been described as core components of mindfulness, and previous research suggests that mindfulness is associated with improved attention skills, this study predicted that trait mindfulness would be positively related to objective indicators of high performance (accuracy, detection of unexpected stimuli) and negatively related to objective indicators of low performance (reaction time, variability in reaction time), on an attention task. Moreover, the study predicted that the relationship between trait mindfulness and objective performance would be modulated by task complexity. University students (139) completed mindfulness, intelligence, and personality questionnaires and completed an adapted Stroop task (Stroop, 1935) in E-prime 2 software. To test our hypotheses, we performed hierarchical multiple regression analyses in SPSS. Our results revealed that trait mindfulness is not related to objective indicators of performance in an attention task, except for the detection of unexpected stimuli. Going further with our analyses, we also confirmed the important role of intelligence in performance outcomes. Finally, task complexity was not playing a moderator role in the relationship between mindfulness and objective performance. Our research contributes to the literature on mindfulness and objective performance, providing empirical evidence for the relationship between trait mindfulness and the detection of unexpected stimuli. Study limitations and avenues for future research are discussed.
... To examine the impact of data processing pipelines on ERN and Pe amplitudes, we included 334 healthy participants from published ( Baldwin et al., 2015 ;Clayson et al., 2011 ;Clayson andLarson, 2011a , 2011 b;Larson and Clayson, 2011 ;Larson et al., 2012Larson et al., , 2013 and unpublished studies from our lab. The present analyses focused on the impact of data processing choices on ERN and Pe amplitudes, which was not reported in any of the mentioned studies. ...
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In studies of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), numerous decisions about data processing are required to extract ERP scores from continuous data. Unfortunately, the systematic impact of these choices on the data quality and psychometric reliability of ERP scores or even ERP scores themselves is virtually unknown, which is a barrier to the standardization of ERPs. The aim of the present study was to optimize processing pipelines for the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) by considering a multiverse of data processing choices. A multiverse analysis of a data processing pipeline examines the impact of a large set of different reasonable choices to determine the robustness of effects, such as the impact of different decisions on between-trial standard deviations (i.e., data quality) and between-condition differences (i.e., experimental effects). ERN and Pe data from 298 healthy young adults were used to determine the impact of different methodological choices on data quality and experimental effects (correct vs. error trials) at several key stages: highpass filtering, lowpass filtering, ocular artifact correction, reference, baseline adjustment, scoring sensors, and measurement procedure. This multiverse analysis yielded 3,456 ERN scores and 576 Pe scores per person. An optimized pipeline for ERN included a 15 Hz lowpass filter, ICA-based ocular artifact correction, and a region of interest (ROI) approach to scoring. For Pe, the optimized pipeline included a .10 Hz highpass filter, 30 Hz lowpass filter, regression-based ocular artifact correction, a -200 to 0 ms baseline adjustment window, and an ROI approach to scoring. The multiverse approach can be used to optimize pipelines for eventual standardization, which would support efforts toward establishing normative ERP databases. The proposed process of analyzing the data-processing multiverse of ERP scores paves the way for better refinement, identification, and selection of data processing parameters, ultimately improving the precision and utility of ERPs.