| Sensibility and adaptive capacity of farmers (A-D) and cooperatives (E,F) as assessed by key indicators in the focal study districts: Lonya Grande (Amazonas), San Ignacio (Cajamarca), and Moybamba (San Martin). Thick lines display average indicator scores for farmers grouped by elevational zone (A,B) or district (C,D), and cooperatives (E,F) grouped by focal study district. Vertical numbered scale varies from low (1) to high (3) sensitivity or adaptive capacity. Shaded zones in the radar charts indicate regions of low and high scores on the scale (low: <1.7, medium: 1.7-2.3, high: >2.3).

| Sensibility and adaptive capacity of farmers (A-D) and cooperatives (E,F) as assessed by key indicators in the focal study districts: Lonya Grande (Amazonas), San Ignacio (Cajamarca), and Moybamba (San Martin). Thick lines display average indicator scores for farmers grouped by elevational zone (A,B) or district (C,D), and cooperatives (E,F) grouped by focal study district. Vertical numbered scale varies from low (1) to high (3) sensitivity or adaptive capacity. Shaded zones in the radar charts indicate regions of low and high scores on the scale (low: <1.7, medium: 1.7-2.3, high: >2.3).

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Coffee is a major global commodity whose production is sustained by and provides livelihoods for millions of smallholder families in the tropics. However, it is highly sensitive to climate change and the climate risk family farmer's face from direct impacts on coffee production are often compounded by further impacts on the physical and social land...

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Context 1
... > 2.3). High sensitivity to pests and diseases and dependence on coffee were observed across elevational zones and districts (Figures 6A,C), although the low elevation zone scored the highest on both. Indeed, among elevational zones, low regions tended to have the highest sensitivity scores across indicators (6 of 9). ...
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... farm families showed intermediate overall adaptive capacities (Scores: 1.7-2.3), scores on half of individual adaptive capacity indicators were low or borderline low, often lowest at low elevations and markedly lowest in San Martin (Overall score: 1.6) (Figures 6B,D). The strongest limitations (Scores < 1.7) were in areas important to adaptation of coffee production (access to quality seed and climate-change information, innovation, and training) and their own household economies (income diversification). ...
Context 3
... cooperatives are less sensitive than individual farmers (affiliated or unaffiliated) to effects of climate change, with low to intermediate sensitivity scores and similar tendencies among regional districts across most indicators ( Figure 6E). Cooperatives interviewed collect coffee primarily from high and middle elevations, areas less vulnerable to climate impacts to date and despite most collecting from varieties susceptible to FIGURE 7 | Average impact of extreme climatic events on coffee production at the farm level by elevational zone (A) and focal district region (B). ...
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... the greater sensitivity of San Martin cooperatives' ability to collect coffee does correlate with higher impacts on regional farmers' production ability during the same period (high sensitivity in production capacity, climate impacts, accessibility and transportation, see Section Sensitivity), suggesting cooperatives sensitivities are not entirely uncoupled from those of farmers. Cooperatives' adaptive capacity, in contrast, is low across several indicators (4/7) and markedly lower overall in Amazonas (Figure 6F). They are strongly limited by lack of access to internal capital and external financial support from public institutions that they could invest in adaptation measures or technologies, weak and inconstant technical assistance from Peruvian state agencies or NGOs, and sporadic access to climate change information relevant to coffee. ...