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Selected Food Sources of Vitamin D

Selected Food Sources of Vitamin D

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Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition, present in approximately 30% to 50% of the general population. A growing body of data suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may adversely affect cardiovascular health. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and can predispose to hypertension and left ventr...

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... up to 95% of the body's vitamin D require- ment comes from the synthesis in the epidermis on sun exposure, with the remainder ingested from dietary sources (Table 3) Selected Food Sources of Vitamin D estimated that 1,000 to 2,000 IU is necessary to satisfy the body's needs for most people (8). Many experts in the field suggest the recommended daily intake of vitamin D be increased to at least 800 to 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily, doses that are difficult to achieve without supplementation, particularly in higher latitudes and in areas of extreme winter climate. ...

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... Vit.D plays a role in a broad range of functions other Chi-square (χ2) test was used to get the statistical variation. a, significant difference from group D; b, significant difference from group C; c, significant difference from group B than bone health, including cardiovascular health [31]. Several studies have reported a conflicting association between Vit.D deficiency, VDR polymorphism, and the risk of CVD [22,32]. ...
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Background 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (Vit.D) levels associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) may vary according to genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. However, the existing results are not conclusive in the Egyptian population, where diabetes mellitus is a common CVD risk factor. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of VDR polymorphism in Egyptian patients with CVD by studying the association of the rs2228570 ( FokI ) and rs1544410 ( BsmI ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene and serum levels of Vit.D with several CVD risk factors in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. We studied the genotypes for rs2228570 ( FokI ) and rs1544410 ( BsmI ) SNPs of the VDR gene in 382 Egyptian patients (120 CVD patients with diabetes, 124 CVD patients without diabetes, 69 diabetic patients without CVD and 69 healthy individuals). We also determined the serum levels of Vit.D, insulin, lipids, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and the body mass index (BMI). Results The distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of the rs2228570 ( FokI ) and rs1544410 ( BsmI ) SNPs of the VDR gene was significant in CVD patients (p < 0.001). The level of Vit.D was significantly lower in patients with CVD and diabetes compared to those without diabetes (p < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant association between Vit.D level and the selected SNPs with serum lipids, BMI, FBG, and insulin levels in CVD patients with or without diabetes. Conclusion The level of Vit.D and the distribution of VDR polymorphisms are associated with risk of CVD in Egyptian patients with or without diabetes. These results suggest that VDR polymorphisms may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for CVD susceptibility.
... 20 In 2008, it was estimated one billion people were diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency. 21 One recent study concluded that serum vitamin D concentrations were below satisfactory (30 ng/ mL) in every region of the world; however, severe deficiency (concentration below 10 ng/ml) was found to be most prevalent in South Asia and the 22 Middle East. 22 Lower concentrations of circulating 25(OH)D have been associated with increasing age, gender, dietary customs, latitude, exposure to sunlight, and skin pigmentation. ...
... Additionally, Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by activating the renin-angiotensin system, leading to hypertension (Ginde et al., 2009;Lee et al., 2008). Vitamin D is also linked to diabetes, insulin resistance, and high BMI, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. ...
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Background and purpose Previous studies have established that vitamin D was associated with stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D and 5‐year outcome of patients with stroke including acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) stroke. Methods Serum 25‐hydroxyvitamin D levels were prospectively analyzed in patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from 2013 to 2015. Modified Rankin scale (mRS) was used to evaluate their 5‐year functional outcome, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the effects of vitamin D on stroke outcome. Results In total, 668 patients diagnosed with stroke were recruited, and 420 completed the 5‐year follow‐up. Ninety‐five patients experienced poor outcome in the 5 years since stroke onset. Vitamin D levels in patients with poor outcome showed significant differences compared to good outcome patients (p < .001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, after adjusting the potential confounders, the 5‐year functional outcome was significantly associated with vitamin D levels. Stroke patients with vitamin D levels less than 38.4 nmol/L had a higher risk for poor outcome compared with those with vitamin D level over 71.4 nmol/L at 5‐year (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42–9.45, p = .007), which was consistent with AIS patients (OR = 6.36, 95% CI = 1.89–21.44, p = .003). Conclusion Vitamin D level less than 38.4 nmol/L at admission is a potential risk biomarker for poor functional outcome at 5‐year prognosis in AIS patients, which might provide new ideas for the prognostic assessment of stroke.
... Vitamin D levels are frequently suboptimal in T2D, probably driven by overweight/ obesity, and specifically by visceral adiposity [98], and have been associated with chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as impaired insulin release [99]. Epidemiological studies support the existence of a relationship between low vitamin D levels and the presence of T2D, metabolic syndrome [100,101], nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [102], cardiovascular risk factors [103] and insulin resistance, also tested by glucose clamp [75]. However, a clear association between vitamin D levels, insulin and glucose metabolism has not been systematically confirmed by intervention studies, and a causal association has never been established [104]. ...
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Unhealthy behaviours, including diet and physical activity, coupled with genetic predisposition, drive type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurrence and severity; the present review aims to summarise the most recent nutritional approaches in T2D, outlining unmet needs. Guidelines consistently suggest reducing energy intake to counteract the obesity epidemic, frequently resulting in sarcopenic obesity, a condition associated with poorer metabolic control and cardiovascular disease. Various dietary approaches have been proposed with largely similar results, with a preference for the Mediterranean diet and the best practice being the diet that patients feel confident of maintaining in the long term based on individual preferences. Patient adherence is indeed the pivotal factor for weight loss and long-term maintenance, requiring intensive lifestyle intervention. The consumption of nutritional supplements continues to increase even if international societies do not support their systematic use. Inositols and vitamin D supplementation, as well as micronutrients (zinc, chromium, magnesium) and pre/probiotics, result in modest improvement in insulin sensitivity, but their use is not systematically suggested. To reach the desired goals, patients should be actively involved in the collaborative development of a personalised meal plan associated with habitual physical activity, aiming at normal body weight and metabolic control.
... 16 Moreover, vitamin D insufficiency may activate the reninangiotensin system 17 and increase insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, platelet function, and blood pressure (BP). 18 Furthermore, an experimental trial revealed that vitamin D supplementation suppressed vascular inflammation by inhibiting the Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways and decreasing the process of atherosclerosis and hence subsequent CAD. 19 Additionally, a study demonstrated an inverse association between matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vitamin D in 139 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. ...
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency is considered an emerging health problem that affects at least one billion patients worldwide. Calcitriol 1,25(OH)2D3 has several systemic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic impacts that explain its cardioprotective effects. The precise association between vitamin D and its metabolites and the value of supplements in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is still controversial. This study aims to search the association between vitamin D2, D3, and metabolites and ACS in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Materials and methods: This was a case-control study on 73 consecutive adult patients with ACS undergoing coronary angiography compared to 50 controls without coronary artery disease and matched for age and sex from June 2019 till July 2019. Echocardiography and coronary angiography were done for all cases. Plasma vitamin D and its metabolites were measured at admission for all participants along with chemistry profiles. Results: Vitamin D and its metabolites were statistically significantly lower in ACS patients than the controls. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) significantly predicted ACS occurrence; the other significant predictors were high systolic blood pressure (BP), high total cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Interestingly, vitamin D2 and D3 did not significantly predict ACS (p>0.05). We did not find a statistically significant association between the number of affected coronary vessels and vitamin D metabolites. Moreover, there was no statistically significant correlation between vitamin D and its metabolites and left ventricular ejection fraction measured by echocardiography. Conclusion: There was a strong association between vitamin D and all its metabolites with ACS. Significantly, low 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D predicted ACS, but vitamin D2 and D3 did not. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to verify the beneficial values of vitamin D supplementation in ACS patients.
... Although the main source of active vitamin D in humans is endogenous synthesis in the skin following sun exposure, it can also be obtained to a lesser extent from the diet ( Table 1). Concerning the influence of vitamin D on cardiovascular health, observational studies have suggested that low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) negatively impact on cardiovascular status [138]: in humans, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased blood pressure, myocardial cell calcification, vascular dysfunction, and inflammation through various mechanisms, which are extensively described elsewhere [139]. However, recent intervention studies, meta-analyses, and randomized clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplements and CV outcomes in different populations [140][141][142]. ...
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Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a physiological mechanism protecting cells from an excessive accumulation of cholesterol. When this process begins in vascular macrophages, it acquires antiatherogenic properties, as has been widely demonstrated in animal models. Dietary lipids, despite representing a fundamental source of energy and exerting multiple biological functions, may induce detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. In the present review we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of action of the most relevant classes of dietary lipids, such as fatty acids, sterols and liposoluble vitamins, with effects on different steps of RCT. We also provide a critical analysis of data obtained from experimental models which can serve as a valuable tool to clarify the effects of dietary lipids on cardiovascular disease.
... Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency is present in up to 50% of the general population [4]. Several studies have investigated the implications of low Vit D in several conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), where Vit D consist of a marker for bone loss [5,6]. ...
... Low Vit D levels may result in vascular inflammation, coronary arterial dysfunction and postinfarction complications [20], as well as adverse cardiovascular outcomes [4]. Apart from the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, Vit D deficiency may predict worse coronary artery disease, and even an increased number of affected coronary arteries [21]. ...
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Background and Objectives: Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency has been implicated in various conditions, including cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the incidence of patients with myocardial ischemia in relation to their serum levels of vitamin D. Materials and Methods: A 64-month search (January 2016 to April 2021) in our database of the Nuclear Medicine Laboratory revealed 113 patients who had both myocardial perfusion imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (MPI SPECT) and Vit D measurements. MPI SPECT obtained myocardial images during both stress (summed stress score, SSS) and rest (summed rest score, SRS). Abnormal MPI SPECT was when the SSS was ≥4. Vit D was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Patients with Vit D values <10 ng/mL, 10–29 ng/mL and ≥30 ng/mL were defined as having a deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency, respectively. Results: Among patients, 46/113 (40.7%) were male and 67/113 (59.3%) were female. Abnormal MPI was found in 58/113 (51.3%) patients. Vit D deficiency was noted in 20/113 (17.7%) patients, insufficiency in 86/113 (76.1%) patients, and normal Vit D was noted in only 7/113 (6.2%) patients. Sixteen of the 20 patients (80%) with Vit D deficiency, and 38/86 (44.2%) with insufficiency had an abnormal MPI SPECT. In contrast, only 1/7 (14.3%) patients with sufficient Vit D levels had an abnormal MPI SPECT. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that ischemia reduced the values of Vit D. Correlation analysis showed a negative association of Vit D levels with SSS (rho = −0.232, p = 0.014) and SRS (rho = −0.250, p = 0.008). Further evaluation with a Vit D cut off 20 ng/mL retrieved no statistical significance. Finally, Vit D and gender were independently associated with myocardial ischemia. Conclusions: Low Vit D levels may represent a risk factor for myocardial ischemia.
... Although no direct cause has identified itself, there are many factors such as sedentary lifestyle, stress, visceral obesity, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia), 2 obesity, 3 salts (sodium) sensitivity, 4 alcohol intake, 5 and vitamin D deficiency that increase the risk of high developing hypertension. 6 The remaining 5 to 10% of cases, the cause of hypertension can be attributed to some underlying disease like Atherosclerosis, Acute nephritis etc. and is known as secondary hypertension. During 2015-2016, the prevalence of hypertension was 29.0% and the incidence increased with age viz. ...
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The 21st century is described as the age of anxiety and stress. This day-to-day stress and strain affect organs in the body through several psychophysical mechanisms. This is leading to the incidence of various psychosomatic dis- eases, such as the cardiovascular disorder like hypertension is quite significant. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease suffered by many people today. Current conventional treatments have done little to reduce the number of patients with hypertension because they are highly expensive and are usually associated with many side effects. About 80% of the world population relies on the use of traditional medicine, which is predominantly based on plant material. The present review aims to compile data and discuss numerous medicinal plants in Ayurveda possessing antihypertensive activity with other activities too. Keywords: Hypertension, Medicinal Plants, Traditional Medicine, Antihypertensive Activity.
... In general, vitamin D has important health benefits through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms; a positive association between higher circulating 25(OH)D levels and better cardiovascular health outcomes has been suggested by epidemiological studies (Lee et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2008). Nevertheless, randomized controlled trials have failed to provide supportive evidence on the cardioprotective benefits of vitamin D supplementation, even in the population with vitamin D deficiency (Boucher, 2020;Maretzke et al., 2020;Mousa et al., 2017;Scragg et al., 2017;Witham et al., 2013). ...
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This study examined the effects of vitamin D deficiency on vascular function and tissue oxidative status in the microcirculation; and whether or not these effects can be ameliorated with calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite. Three groups (n = 10 each) of male Sprague Dawley rats were fed for 10 weeks with control diet (CR), vitamin D-deficient diet without (DR), or with oral calcitriol supplementation (0.15 μg/kg) for the last four weeks (DSR). After 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed; mesenteric arterial rings were studied using wire myograph. Oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured in the mesenteric arterial tissue. Vascular protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was determined by Western blotting. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of DR was lower than CR. eNOS expression and SOD activity were lower in mesenteric arterial tissue of DR compared to CR. Calcitriol supplementation to DSR did not ameliorate the above parameters; in fact, augmented endothelium-dependent contraction was observed. Serum calcium was higher in DSR compared to CR and DR. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency impaired microvascular vasodilation, associated with eNOS downregulation and reduced antioxidant activity. Calcitriol supplementation to vitamin D-deficient rats at the dosage used augmented endothelium-dependent contraction, possibly due to hypercalcaemia.
... Although it has been associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking, the search for newer preventable, modifiable risk factors continues in order to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [2]. Vitamin D deficiency is reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and many of its risk factors [3,4]. ...
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to measure the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in CAD and its association with severity of angiographic proven CAD. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 106 consecutive patients who were admitted for typical angina and had signs of myocardial injury (ECG findings and/ or elevated troponin I or CK-MB) and who underwent coronary angiography at the university hospital of BPKIHS from August 2020 to April 2021. Patients were categorized into angiographic proven CAD group and angiographic normal coronary artery group. Serum vitamin D level was classified as normal (≥ 30 ng/ml) and deficiency (< 30 ng/ml). Results: Out of 106 patients, 78 patients (73.6%) had vitamin D deficiency and 28 (26.4%) had normal vitamin D level (p = 0.39). Vitamin D level (mean ± SD) in patients with angiographic normal coronary artery and angiographic proven CAD were 25.94 ± 11.63 ng/ml and 26.07 ± 12.90 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.97). Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 75.0% and 64.3% in significant CAD group and normal coronary artery group respectively (p = 0.39). Similarly, frequency of vitamin D deficiency were 68.6%, 78.3% and 88.90% in single, double, and triple vessel disease respectively (p = 0.21). The vitamin D level (mean ± SD) in single, double and triple vessel disease were 27.31 ± 14.02 ng/ml, 25.69 ± 12.72 ng/ml, 23.08 ± 9.45 ng/ml respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in both angiographic normal coronary artery and angiographic proven CAD were high but comparable. There was no association of vitamin D deficiency with severity of angiographic proven CAD.